Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Aluminite

This page kindly sponsored by Sussex Mineral & Lapidary Society
Formula:
Al2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2O
Colour:
White to yellow, grey; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
1 - 2
Specific Gravity:
1.7
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1807 for its composition, containing principally aluminium.
Aluminite Group.

Found as earthy reniform or nodular masses composed of tiny fibrous crystals.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of AluminiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.DC.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th ed.:
31.7.4.1
31.7.4.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
7 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
25.6.5

25 : Sulphates
6 : Sulphates of Al and Tl

Physical Properties of AluminiteHide

Dull, Earthy
Transparency:
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
White to yellow, grey; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
1 - 2 on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Fragile
Cleavage:
None Observed
None
Parting:
None
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
1.7 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.794 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AluminiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.459 nβ = 1.464 nγ = 1.470
2V:
Measured: 90° , Calculated: 86°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.011
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of AluminiteHide

Formula:
Al2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2O
IMA Formula:
Al2SO4(OH)4 · 7H2O

Crystallography of AluminiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.44 Å, b = 15.583 Å, c = 11.7 Å
β = 110.18°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.477 : 1 : 0.751
Unit Cell V:
1,273.20 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
As needles and fibers, to 0.1 mm, commonly in reniform, nodular, or spherulitic masses, and as veinlets.
Twinning:
None noted.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
8.98(100)
7.79(90)
6.37(40)
5.49(30)
5.01(40)
4.70(50)
3.74(40)
3.71(30)

Type Occurrence of AluminiteHide

Synonyms of AluminiteHide

Other Language Names for AluminiteHide

Relationship of Aluminite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
MangazeiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 3H2OTric.

Common AssociatesHide

CelestineSrSO4
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
FelsőbányaiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 4H2O
GibbsiteAl(OH)3
Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Selenite1 photo of Aluminite associated with Selenite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DC.05Meta-aluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 5H2O
7.DC.10ButleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.DC.10ParabutleriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.DC.15FibroferriteFe3+(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
7.DC.20XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2OMon.
7.DC.25BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
7.DC.25Zincobotryogen(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)Fe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
7.DC.30ChaidamuiteZnFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DC.30GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.6.1RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.6.2JurbaniteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2OMon.
25.6.3KhademiteAl(SO4)F · 5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.6.4Meta-aluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 5H2O
25.6.6Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
25.6.7AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2OTric. 1
25.6.8FelsőbányaiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 4H2OMon. 2 : P21
25.6.9BasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 4H2OHex.
25.6.10HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2OMon.
25.6.11ZaheriteAl12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2OTric.
25.6.12TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
25.6.13MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m
25.6.14Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
25.6.15NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.6.16KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O Not confirmedMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.6.17Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3)
25.6.18AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.6.19Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.6.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AluminiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Werner, A.G. (1780) Cronstedt’s Versuch einer Mineralogie, Übersetzt und Vermehrt. Vol. 1, part 1, Leipzig: 176. [as Reine Thonerde]
Kirwan, R. (1784) Elements of Mineralogy. First edition, London: 1: 175. [as Native Argill]
Haberle, C.C. (1805) IV. Flóz- Trapp- Gebirgsarten. in Beitráge zu einer allgemeinen Einleitung in das Studium der Mineralogie, Berlage des Landes - Industrie - Comptoirs (Weimar) 262, 335.
Haberle, C.C. (1807) Das Mineralreich, etc. [as Aluminit]
Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. second edition: 48. [as Aluminit]
Delamétherie, J.C. (1812) Leçons de minéralogie. 8vo, volume 2, Paris. [as Hallite]
Stromeyer, F. (1821) Untersuchung des Aluminits. in Untersuchungen über die Mischung der Mineralkörper und anderer damit verwandten Substanzen. Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, Göttingen: 99-118.
Brongniart in: Haüy (1822) 2: 125. [as Websterite]
Lassaigne, J.L. (1823) Analyse de l'aluminite trouvée aux environs d'Epernay, département de la Marne. Annales de Chimie et de Physique: 24: 97-98.
Beudant, F.S. (1824) Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, 8vo, Paris: 449. [as Websterite]
Fisscher (1880) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 4: 375.
Oldham (1897) Records of the Geological Survey of India: 30: 110.
Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 4: 243.
Zahálka (1911) Böhm. Ges., Sitzber., no. 23.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 38.
Doelter, C. (1927) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4[2]: 387.
Pilipenko (1927) Wiss. Schr. Univ. Saratow: 6: 167.
Pilipenko (1928) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 298.
Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4432.
Carobbi (1932) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 3: 204.
Kashkai (1939) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 24: 931.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 600-601.
Sabelli, C., Ferroni, R.T. (1978) The crystal structure of aluminite. Acta Crystallographica: 1334: 2407-2412.
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, H.C.W., Foord, E.E, Mason, B., Rosenzweig A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 649.

Internet Links for AluminiteHide

Localities for AluminiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Rockhampton Region
      • Mount Morgan
qld Dept of mines- mines records
  • Western Australia
    • Roebourne Shire
      • Karratha
Formation of Platiniferous Sulfide Horizons by Crystal Fractionation and Magma Mixing in the Munni Munni Layered Intrusion, West Pilbara Block, Western Australia; D Hoatson and R Keays, Ecomonic Geology Vol 84 #7 pp1775-1804 Nov 1989
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Leoben
FREYN, R. (1906): Über einige neue Mineralfunde und Fundorte in Steiermark. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark 42, 283-317.
FREYN, R. (1906): Über einige neue Mineralfunde und Fundorte in Steiermark. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark 42, 283-317.
Azerbaijan
 
  • Tartar District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 601.
Canada
 
  • Yukon
    • Dawson Mining District
MinRec 23:4-47
Robinson, G.W., Van Velthuizen, J., Ansell, H.G. & Sturman, B.D. (1992): Mineralogy of the Rapid Creek and Big Fish River area, Yukon Territory. Mineralogical Record 23, 1-47.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
China
 
  • Fujian Province
    • Fuzhou Prefecture
      • Minhou Co.
Lincong Fu (1998): Geology of Fujian 17(4).
  • Yunnan Province
    • Baoshan Prefecture
      • Tengchong Co.
        • Rehai geothermal field
Pin'an Wang (2001): Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Japan 52(8).
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
Pauliš, P., Malec, J.: Nové nálezy aluminitu, Al2(SO4)(OH)4.7H2O, v ČSR. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1989, roč. 34, č. 4, s. 435. ; Dobešová, B. (2012). Halda Kaňk: hydrogeochemie pórových vod. Masters Thesis MASARYKOVA UNIVERZITA
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Trutnov (Trautenau)
        • Radvanice
Jirásek, J.: Thermal Changes of the Rocks in the Dump Pile of the Kateřina Colliery in Radvanice (Eastern Bohemia). Ostrava: VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Geological Engineering - 541, 2001. 69 p.
    • Pardubice Region
Prachař, I.: Současný stav výskytu nerostů ve Chvaleticích. Acta musei Reginaehradecensis, série A: vědy přírodní, 1981, roč. XVI., s. 99-102.
    • South Bohemia Region
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Olomouc Region
Petr Paulis (2001): Die interessanten mineralogische Fundstellen in Mahren und Schlesien; Kuttna, Kutná Hora p69-73
Pauliš, P.: Die interessanten mineralogische Fundstellen in Mähren und Schlesien. Kutná Hora: Kuttna, 2001.
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
Lacroix, A. (1910): Minéralogie de la France et de ses colonies, Librairie Polytechnique, Ch. Béranger Editeur, Tome IV, 245.
A. Lacroix : "Minéralogie de la France et de ses colonies", 1913.
  • Grand Est
    • Marne
      • Epernay
A. Lacroix : "Minéralogie de la France et de ses colonies", 1913; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 601.
  • Ile-de-France
    • Hauts-de-Seine
Strübel, Zimmer: "Lexikon der Minerale", 2nd Ed., 1991; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 601.
A. Lacroix : "Minéralogie de la France et de ses colonies", 1913.
Germany
 
  • Brandenburg
    • Bad Freienwalde
Baumgärtl,U. (2006). Mineralien aus Bad Freienwalde. Aufschluss, Jg.57, Nr.6, S.359-72.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
Werner, A.G. (1780) Cronstedt’s Versuch einer Mineralogie, Übersetzt und Vermehrt. Vol. 1, part 1, Leipzig: 176 (as Reine Thonerde); Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 601.
      • Petersberg
http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/Deutschland/Sachsen-Anhalt/Saalekreis/Petersberg/Morl (Andreas Gerstenberg collection)
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Rudabányai Mts
      • Rudabánya
Szakáll: Minerals of Rudabánya, 2001
  • Fejér Co.
    • Bakony Mts
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
    • Bicske-Zsámbéki Basin
      • Bicske-Csordakút
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Vértes Mts
      • Gánt
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
  • Komárom-Esztergom Co.
    • Gerecse Mts
      • Bajna
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
  • Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Co.
    • Tarpa
No reference listed
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Bakony Mts
      • Fenyőfő
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
      • Nyirád
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
      • Sümeg
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 601.; Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Valsugana
        • Levico Terme
Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Siena Province
      • Chiusdino
Menchetti, S., Batoni, M., Batacchi, C., Borselli, G., Brogi, A., Ceccantini, L., Fassina, B., Marchesini, M., Rossellini, A. & Ruggieri, G. (2015): Le Cetine di Cotorniano. Miniera e minerali. Associazione Micro-Mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 354 p.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kinki Region
      • Hyogo Prefecture
        • Asago City
          • Ikuno-cho-ono
The Mineral Species of Japan (5th ed) Matsubara; Dr. Yohachiro Okamoto collection (conserved by the Geological Survey of Japan)
Kazakhstan
 
  • Zhambyl Province (Jambyl Oblysy; Dzhambulskaya Oblast')
    • Talas Alatau Range (Talas Ala-Too Range)
Ankinovich, E.A, Bekenova, G.K., Shabanova, T.A., Zazubina, I.S., and Sandomirskaya, S.M. (1997): Mitryaevaite, Al10((PO4)8.7(SO3OH)1.3)10AlF3.3OH2O, a new mineral species from a Cambrian carbonaceous chert formation, Karatau Range and Zhabagly Mountains, Southern Kazakhstan. Canadian Mineralogist 35(6), 1415-1419.
New Zealand
 
  • Kermadec Islands
Muiruru F.G. (1985) Hot spring and rock samples from Curtis Island Volcano, Kermadec Group. Unpub. paper Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland
Pakistan
 
  • Punjab
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 601.
Romania
 
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Cerna valley
Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
Russia
 
  • Central Region
    • Moscow Oblast' (Moskovskaya Oblast')
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
      • Kuril Islands (Kurile Islands)
        • Iturup Island
http://maurice.strahlen.org/kurilles/kurilles.htm
  • Povolzhsky Region
    • Samaraskaya Oblast' (Samara Oblast')
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Saratov Oblast'
      • Saratov
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 601.
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Krupina Co.
      • Hontianske Nemce
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
South Africa
 
  • Eastern Cape Province
    • Alfred Nzo District
Minerals of South Africa
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Nelspruit
Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997)
UK
 
  • England
    • Devon
      • Okehampton area (Northern Dartmoor)
http://www.mineralman.f9.co.uk/quarries/meldon.htm
    • Dorset
      • Lulworth Cove
Paul Render
    • East Sussex
F. Rutley: "Elements of Mineralogy", 12th Ed. (1900)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 601.
    • Essex
      • Burnham on Crouch
Paul Render
    • Greater London
F. Rutley: "Elements of Mineralogy", 12th Ed. (1900)
    • North Yorkshire
      • Boulby
Paul Render
      • Filey
Paul Render
Paul Render
      • Whitby
Paul Render
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
    • Drohobych
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Zakarpats'ka Oblast' (Transcarpathian Oblasť; Zakarpattia)
    • Berehivskyi Raion
      • Berehove
Handbook of Mineralogy
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • Jefferson Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • San Juan Co.
      • Red Mountain District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Missouri
    • Jasper Co.
Rocks & Min., March 1998.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 601; Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min. Encylopaedia, p.148
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
Journ. of Cave & Karst Stud., April 1998
  • Tennessee
    • Sevier Co.
      • Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Coskren, T. D. & Lauf, R. J. (2000): The Minerals of Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. Mineralogical Record, 31, 168.
  • Utah
    • Grand Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 601; UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah.
    • Kane Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Wyoming
    • Carbon Co.
      • Rawlins
Handbook of Mineralogy
Venezuela
 
  • Miranda
Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2017, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: September 26, 2017 08:34:22 Page generated: September 14, 2017 12:29:39
Go to top of page