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Fiedlerite

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About FiedleriteHide

Formula:
Pb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
Colour:
Colourless, white; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Adamantine
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
5.88
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in honor of Karl Gustav Fiedler (1791-1853), Saxon Commissioner of Mines, and Director of an exploratory expedition to the Laurium region in 1835.
Two polytypes exist, Fiedlerite-1A and Fiedlerite-2M.


Classification of FiedleriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.DC.10

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
10.3.2.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
3 : A3(O,OH)2Xq
8.8.10

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb

Physical Properties of FiedleriteHide

Adamantine
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, white; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness:
3½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {100}.
Density:
5.88 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.64 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of FiedleriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.980 nβ = 2.040 nγ = 2.100
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.120
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
strong

Chemical Properties of FiedleriteHide

Formula:
Pb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
IMA Formula:
Pb3Cl4F(OH) · H2O

Crystallography of FiedleriteHide

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Fiedlerite-1AFiedlerite-2M
Pb3Cl4F(OH) · H2O 
Triclinic Monoclinic 
1 - Pedial2/m - Prismatic
P1P21/b
 P21/a
a = 8.574(3) Å, b = 8.045(4) Å, c = 7.276(2) Å
α = 89.96(4)°, β = 102.05(4)°, γ = 103.45(4)°
a = 16.681(4) Å, b = 8.043(3) Å, c = 7.281(2) Å
β = 102.56(4)°
a:b:c = 1.066 : 1 : 0.904a:b:c = 2.074 : 1 : 0.905
V 476.76 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
V 953.48 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
  

Crystallographic forms of FiedleriteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Fiedlerite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0014504FiedleriteMerlino S, Pasero M, Perchiazzi N (1994) Fiedlerite: revised chemical formula [Pb3Cl4F(OH)*H2O], OD description and crystal structure refinement of the two MDO polytypes Mineralogical Magazine 58 69-781994Baratti, Italy0293
0014505FiedleriteMerlino S, Pasero M, Perchiazzi N (1994) Fiedlerite: revised chemical formula Pb3Cl4F(OH)*(H2O), OD description and crystal structure refinement of the two MDO polytypes Mineralogical Magazine 58 69-781994Laurion, Greece0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of FiedleriteHide

Other Language Names for FiedleriteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
6 photos of Fiedlerite associated with PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
1 photo of Fiedlerite associated with BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
1 photo of Fiedlerite associated with CalciteCaCO3
1 photo of Fiedlerite associated with ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
1 photo of Fiedlerite associated with CerussitePbCO3
1 photo of Fiedlerite associated with GalenaPbS
1 photo of Fiedlerite associated with CopperCu
1 photo of Fiedlerite associated with PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
1 photo of Fiedlerite associated with CumengeitePb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40 · 6H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DC.05LaurionitePbCl(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DC.05ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DC.15PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
3.DC.20LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
3.DC.25BismocliteBiOClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25DaubréeiteBiO(OH)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25RorisiteCaFClTet.
3.DC.25Zavaritskite(BiO)FTet.
3.DC.25ZhangpeishaniteBaFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.30NadoritePbSbClO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.DC.30PeritePbBiClO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.DC.35AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
3.DC.37CalcioaravaipaitePbCa2AlF9Tric. 1
3.DC.40ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
3.DC.45MereheaditePb47Cl25(OH)13O24(CO3)(BO3)2Mon. m
3.DC.50BlixitePb8O5(OH)2Cl4Orth.
3.DC.55PinalitePb3WO5Cl2Orth.
3.DC.60SymesitePb10(SO4)O7Cl4 · H2OTric. 1 : P1
3.DC.65EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
3.DC.70MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
3.DC.75DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
3.DC.80OnoratoiteSb8Cl2O11Tric. 1 : P1
3.DC.85CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DC.90PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4Orth.
3.DC.95BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.8.1AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6Trig.
8.8.2MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
8.8.7LaurionitePbCl(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.8.8ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.11BlixitePb8O5(OH)2Cl4Orth.
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4Orth.
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4Tet. 4mm : P4mm
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
8.8.18BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8Trig. 3 : R3
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2Orth.
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Becomes turbid when attacked by cold water. Soluble in HNO3.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for FiedleriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
vom Rath (1887) Berichte Niederrheinische Gesellschaft für Natur und Heilkunde, Bonn: 154.
vom Rath (1889) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 388.
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1899) On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine: 12(55): 102-110.
de Schulten (1905) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 140: 315.
Lacroix and de Schulten (1908) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 31: 83.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 4: 4.
Palache, C. (1934) The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine: 23(146): 573-586.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 67-69.
Merlino, S., Pasero, M., and Perchiazzi, N. (1994) Fiedlerite: revised chemical formula [Pb3Cl4F(OH).H2O], OD description and crystal structure refinement of the two MDO polytypes. Mineralogical Magazine: 58: 69-77.
American Mineralogist (1994) 79: 1014 (Abs.).
Zubkova, N.V., Chukanov, N.V., Pekov, I.V., Pushcharovsky, D.Yu., Katerinopoulos, A., Voudouris, P., Magganas, A. (2019): New data on fiedlerite-1A from ancient slags of Lavrion, Greece: crystal structure and H-bonding. Doklady Akademii Nauk: 486(1): 83-87.

Internet Links for FiedleriteHide

Localities for FiedleriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Sankt Veit an der Glan District
      • Guttaring
        • Waitschach
U. Kolitsch and H. Pristacz (2009): An orthorhombic dimorph of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, from slags at Maria Waitschach, Austria, and Lavrion, Greece. Poster, Joint MinPet 2009 and 4th MSCC, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-11; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 83.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • The Ruhr
      • Essen
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
Greece (TL)
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 69; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
          • Agios Nikolaos area
Fritz Schreiber collection (U. Kolitsch SXRD analysis)
          • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt 25 (2), 82-95 (in German).
          • Sounion area
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Fritz Schreiber collection; Uwe Kolitsch (SXRD-analysed)
Stephan Wolfsried collection
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Vrissaki area
Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Italy
 
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
      • Anzio
Marco Bonifazi Collection
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77; Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N., Bartoli, M.L., Chiappino, L. (1992): Baratti (LI): una nuova località mineralogica italiana analoga al Laurion. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 15, 1 (1-1992), 1-14 [1a parte]; Cerutti, G., Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20, 4, 13-18 and 50.
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
    • County Durham
      • Healeyfield
Norman Wilson collection
    • Northumberland
      • Allendale
Norman Wilson personal collection
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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