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Fluorite

This page kindly sponsored by Jamison K. Brizendine
Formula:
CaF2
Colour:
Purple, lilac, golden-yellow, green, colourless, blue, pink, champagne, brown.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Dull
Hardness:
4
Specific Gravity:
3.175 - 3.56
Crystal System:
Isometric
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1797 by Carlo Antonio Galeani Napione from the Latin, fluere = "to flow" (for its use as a flux). The term fluorescence is derived from fluorite, which will often markedly exhibit this effect. The element fluorine also derives its name from fluorite, a major source of the element.
Fluorite Group.

Fluorite is found as a common gangue mineral in hydrothermal veins, especially those containing lead and zinc minerals. It is also found in some greisens, granites, pegmatites and high-temperature veins, and as a component of some marbles and other metamorphic rocks.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Fluorite.


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Classification of FluoriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.AB.25

3 : HALIDES
A : Simple halides, without H2O
B : M:X = 1:2
Dana 7th ed.:
9.2.1.1
9.2.1.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
2 : AX2
8.4.7

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
4 : Halides of the alkaline earths and Mg

Physical Properties of FluoriteHide

Vitreous, Dull
Transparency:
Transparent
Comment:
Dull when massive
Colour:
Purple, lilac, golden-yellow, green, colourless, blue, pink, champagne, brown.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Hardness Data:
Mohs hardness reference species
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {111}, very easy.
Parting:
Indistinct parting or cleavage on {011} at times.
Fracture:
Splintery, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.175 - 3.56 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.181 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Normal range 3.175-3.184, increasing density with rare earth substitution.

Optical Data of FluoriteHide

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 1.433 - 1.448
Birefringence:
None
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
None
Comments:
Frequently exhibits very weak anomalous birefringence, especially in cleaved, cut or pressed crystals. The birefringence is usually distributed in lamellae parallel to [001].

Chemical Properties of FluoriteHide

Formula:
CaF2
CAS Registry number:
7789-75-5

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society
Common Impurities:
Y,Ce,Si,Al,Fe,Mg,Eu,Sm,O,ORG,Cl,TR

Age distributionHide

Recorded ages:
Phanerozoic : 321 ± 22 Ma to 20.8 Ma - based on 5 recorded ages.

Crystallography of FluoriteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.4626 Å
Unit Cell V:
163.00 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Usually cubes, {001}; less often octahedrons, {111}; rarely dodecahedrons{011}. Also some hexoctahedrons and tetrahexahedrons. Combinations of these forms common, cube corners and edges are often modified. {001} usually smooth and lustrous, {111} rough and dull. Crystals distorted at times by unequal development of faces, as of {013}. Often markedly composite; minute cubes aggregated to form an octahedron at times or as an overgrowth of crystals upon the corners of an earlier formed crystal of differing habit. Massive; compact; earthy, columnar (rare), or in globular aggregates; botryoidal (rare).
Twinning:
On {111}, usually as interpenetrating cubes (e.g., Strzegom, Poland), but also as contact spinel twins (e.g. Naica, Mexico and Chumar Bakhoor, Pakistan).

Crystallographic forms of FluoriteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Fluorite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Fluorite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Fluorite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Fluorite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Fluorite no.45 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Fluorite no.66 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Epitaxi Comments:
Siderite upon fluorite with siderite [0001] parallel to fluorite [111].

Pyrite upon fluorite with parallel axes.

Quartz upon fluorite.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.16(90)
1.932(100)
1.647(30)
1.366(10)
1.253(10)
1.115(20)
1.051(10)
0.684(10)

Type Occurrence of FluoriteHide

Synonyms of FluoriteHide

Other Language Names for FluoriteHide

Varieties of FluoriteHide

Blue JohnA banded white/purple variety of fluorite applied by locals in England.
Originally described from Castleton, Derbyshire, England, UK.
CerfluoriteA Ce-bearing fluorite. Known as a synthetic phase.
ChlorophaneA variety of Fluorite that exhibits green thermoluminescence.
Originally described from Siberia, Russia.
False AmethystAn old name for cut purple Fluorite. [Chester, 1896, 92 - "Dict.Names Min."]
RatovkiteFine-disperse variety of fluorite of sedimentary origin and with deep-violet radiation colour. First described from the Moscow area at the beginning of the 20th century.
Stink-FlussA variety of fluorite, especially from Wölsendorf, Germany, that emits an odor of HF and ozone upon grinding due to the internal presence of free fluorine and calcium and the interaction of components with water upon grinding.
Strontian FluoriteFluorite containing 2-18 mass.% of Sr.
Tiffany stoneA fine-grained purple to pale violet fluorite, usually with swirl patterns sometimes with small impurities of intergrown bertrandite, chalcedony, opal, and/or quartz.
YttroceriteY-rich fluorite (see also yttrofluorite). Note: A great many occurrences of yttrocerite reported in the nineteenth century were false. The so-called "yttrocerite" has repeatedly been shown to be ordinary purple fluorite without enrichment of rare earth el...
YttrofluoriteYttrofluorite is a variety of fluorite containing an appreciable amount of trivalent yttrium (Y) taking the place of divalent calcium (Ca) cations in the fluorite structure. Many early identifications of yttrofluorite are likely to be purple fluorite with...

Relationship of Fluorite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
FluorocronitePbF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
StrontiofluoriteSrF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m

Common AssociatesHide

BaryteBaSO4
CalciteCaCO3
CelestineSrSO4
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
PyriteFeS2
QuartzSiO2
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz6,595 photos of Fluorite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Calcite3,868 photos of Fluorite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Baryte2,310 photos of Fluorite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Sphalerite1,685 photos of Fluorite associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Pyrite1,289 photos of Fluorite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Galena1,287 photos of Fluorite associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Dolomite881 photos of Fluorite associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.
Muscovite817 photos of Fluorite associated with Muscovite on mindat.org.
Chalcopyrite577 photos of Fluorite associated with Chalcopyrite on mindat.org.
Rhodochrosite492 photos of Fluorite associated with Rhodochrosite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.AB.FluorocronitePbF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.AB.05TolbachiteCuCl2Mon.
3.AB.10CocciniteHgI2Tet.
3.AB.15SellaiteMgF2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
3.AB.20ChloromagnesiteMgCl2Hex.
3.AB.20Lawrencite(Fe2+,Ni)Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.AB.20ScacchiteMnCl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.AB.25FrankdicksoniteBaF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.AB.25StrontiofluoriteSrF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.AB.30Tveitite-(Y)(Y, Na)6Ca6Ca6F42Trig. 3 : R3
3.AB.35Gagarinite-(Y)NaCaYF6Hex. 6/m : P63/m
3.AB.35Gagarinite-(Ce)Na(REExCa1-x)(REEyCa1-y)F6Trig.
3.AB.35Polezhaevaite-(Ce)NaSrCeF6Hex. 6/m : P63/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

9.2.1.3Tveitite-(Y)(Y, Na)6Ca6Ca6F42Trig. 3 : R3
9.2.1.4StrontiofluoriteSrF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.4.1SellaiteMgF2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
8.4.2NeighboriteNaMgF3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.4.3BischofiteMgCl2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.4.4KorshunovskiteMg2Cl(OH)3 · 4H2OTric.
8.4.5CarnalliteKMgCl3 · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
8.4.6TachyhydriteCaMg2Cl6 · 12H2OTrig.
8.4.8SinjariteCaCl2 · 2H2OTet.
8.4.9AntarcticiteCaCl2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
8.4.10ChlorocalciteKCaCl3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
8.4.11RorisiteCaFClTet.
8.4.12JarliteNa(Sr,Na)7MgAl6F32(OH,H2O)2Mon. 2/m
8.4.13CalcjarliteNa(Ca,Sr)3Al3(OH)2F14Mon.
8.4.14TikhonenkoviteSr[AlF4(OH)(H2O)]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.4.15AcuminiteSr[AlF4(OH)(H2O)]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
8.4.16FrankdicksoniteBaF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
8.4.17UsoviteBa2CaMgAl2F14Mon.
8.4.18BøgvaditeNa2SrBa2Al4F20Mon. 2/m

Fluorescence of FluoriteHide

Blue under LW-UV, due to erbium; other colors caused by different activators (white & cream - organic matter). Red (Mapimi, Mexico), pink (Doña Ana claims, AZ), white (Sterling Hill, NJ)
May also be phosphorescent.

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Melting point 1360°C.
Notes:
May be thermoluminescent or triboluminescent.

Decomposed by H2SO4; slightly soluble in hot HCl. Slightly soluble in water (0.016 grams per liter at 18°C).
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Some specimens are light sensitive and become paler on exposure to light.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Flux in steel making; source of fluorine

Fluorite in petrologyHide

References for FluoriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Exner (1873) Härte an Krystallflächen, Wien, 31, 34.
Pockels (1889) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 37: 144, 372.
Martens (1901) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 6: 616.
Paschen (1901) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 4: 302.
Hintze (1912) 1(2B): 2384.
Bragg (1914) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London: 89: 468.
Goldschmidt (1918): 4: 8.
Steinmetz (1925) Zs. Kr. 61: 380.
Doelter (1930) 4(3): 228.
Goebel (1930) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna: 139: 373.
Holzgang (1930) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 10: 374.
Obernauer (1932) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 66: 89.
Iimori (1933) Science Papers Institute of Physics and Chemistry Res. Tokyo: 20: 189.
Matossi, Brix (1934) Zeitschrift für Physik, Brunswick, Berlin: 92: 303.
Haberlandt, Schiener (1935) Zs. Kr.: 90: 193.
Tousey (1936) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 50: 1057.
Hoffmann (1937) Che, Erde: 11: 368.
Schaake (1937) Zs. Kr.: 98: 281.
Przibram (1938) Nature: 141: 970.
Bradistilov, Stranski (1940) Zs. Kr.: 103: 1.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 29-37.
Isetti, G. (1959) Ricerche sulla colorazione delle fluoriti; Nota I. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 19-29.
Rigault G., Ferraris G. (1961-1962) Ricerche sulla fluorite rosea del Monte Bianco. Atti Acc. Sci. Torino Classe Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat. 96, 517. [on pink colour].
Ferraris, G. (1963) Ricerche sul colore della fluorite di Castelsilano (Catanzaro). Rendiconti della Società Mineralogica Italiana: 19: 99-108 [http://rruff.info/rdsmi/V19/V19.html] [on green colour]
Barabanov, V.F., Goncharov, G.N. (1967) Dependence of luminescence spectra of fluorite on its genesis. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 173: 132-135.
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, C.W.H., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A.(1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: eighth edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1819 pp.: 380.
Weise, C., publisher (1993) Fluorit - extraLapis Nr.10. Christian Weise Verlag, München.
Weise, C., publisher (2006) Fluorite - extraLapis English Nr.9. Christian Weise Verlag, München.
Ottens, B. (2010) Kugelfluorit aus indischen Basalten. Lapis: 35(10): 13-19; 90 (in German). [on spherical fluorite].
Van der Meersche, E. (2014) Kristallformen von Fluorit - Crystal forms. Author’s publishing, 296 pp. (bilingual German-English).

Internet Links for FluoriteHide

Localities for FluoriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow