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Dr. Franklin F. Foit, Jr.
Dark indigo with purple ...
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Named in 1993 by D. J. MacDonald, Frank C. Hawthorne, and Joel D.Grice in honor of Franklin F. Foit, Jr. (b. 1942), mineralogist and specialist in the tourmaline group, at Washington State University in Pullman, Washington, USA.
A vacancy-dominant member of the Tourmaline Group. The Fe2Al-OH-analogue of oxy-foitite.

Correct identification is only possible by suitable analytical methods.

Relatively common among low-temperature (authigenic) tourmalines (Henry & Dutrow, 2012).

Visit for gemological information about Foitite.

Classification of Foitite


9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
K : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 7th ed.:

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
3 : Six-Membered Rings with borate groups

Physical Properties of Foitite

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Dark indigo with purple tints to bluish-black.
Hardness (Mohs):
None Observed
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
3.17 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.14 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Foitite

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.664 nε = 1.642
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Optical Extinction:

Chemical Properties of Foitite

IMA Formula:
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of Foitite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.967 Å, c = 7.126 Å
a:c = 1 : 0.446
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,573.34 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Rod-like crystals with the common prisms and pyramids of the tourmaline group.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
6.34 (80)
4.21 (50)
3.99 (40)
3.45 (90)
2.94 (70)
2.57 (100)
2.04 (30)
1.27 (30)

Occurrences of Foitite

Type Occurrence of Foitite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Granite pegmatite gem pockets.

Relationship of Foitite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
LucchesiiteCaFe32+ Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
UM2000-64-SiO:BFeHKMgK, Mg, Fe, Si, B, O, H
Unnamed (Pb-dominant Tourmaline)(Pb,Na)(Li,Al)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F,OH)
Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
9.CK.15ScawtiteCa7(Si3O9)2CO3 · 2H2O
9.CK.20Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Mn22+(Fe3+,Mn3+)2Ce6(Zr,Th)(Si6O18)2(PO4)6(HPO4)(OH)2 · 2H2O
9.CK.20Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O□,Na)(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH) SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)

Other Names for Foitite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Foitite

Reference List:
MacDonald, D.J., Hawthorne, F.C., and Grice, J.D. (1993) Foitite Fe2 2+(Al,Fe 3+)]Al6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4, a new alkali-deficient tourmaline: Description and crystal structure. American Mineralogist: 78: 1299-1303.

New Minerals (1997), New Minerals 1990-1994.

Aurisicchio, C., Ottolini, L., and Pezzotta, F. (1999) Electron- and on-microprobe analyses, and genetic interferences of tourmalines of the foitite-schorl solid solution, Elba Island (Italy). Eurpean Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 217-225.

Francis, C.A., Dyar, M.D., Williams, M.L., and Hughes, J.M. (1999) The occurrence and crystal structure of foitite from a tungsten-bearing vein at Copper Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico. Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1431-1438.

Kahlenberg, V. and Velickov, B. (2000) Structural investigations on a synthetic alkali-free hydrogen-deficient Fe-tourmaline (foitite). European Journal of Mineralogy: 12: 947-953.

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Medaris, L.G., Jr., Fournelle, J.H., and Henry, D.J. (2003) Tourmaline-bearing quatz veins in the Baraboo quartzite, Wisconsin: occurrence and significance of foitite and "oxy-foitite". Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 749-758.

Henry, D.J. & Dutrow, B.L. (2012): Tourmaline at diagenetic to low-grade metamorphic conditions: Its petrologic applicability. Lithos 154, 16-32.

Internet Links for Foitite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.
The following Foitite specimens are currently listed for sale on

Localities for Foitite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Nuristan Province (Nurestan Province; Nooristan Province; Nuristan)
    • Kamdesh District
Rob Lavinsky photo; Natkaniec-Nowak, L., Dumańska-Słowik, M. & Ertl, A. (2009): “Watermelon” tourmaline from the Paprok mine (Nuristan, Afghanistan). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 186, 185-193.
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Princess Elizabeth Land
      • Ingrid Christensen Coast
        • Prydz Bay
Wadokski, E. R. Grew, E.S. & Yates, M.G. (2011): Compositional evolution of tourmaline-supergroup minerals from granitic pegmatites in the Larsemann Hills, East Antartica. Canadian Mineralogist. 49: 382-405
  • Catamarca
    • Belén Department
      • Papachacra
Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:234-235
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Waratah district
        • Waratah
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
      • Senftenberg
Ertl, A., Schuster, R., Hughes, J.M., Ludwig, T., Meyer, H.-P., Finger, F., Dyar, M.D., Ruschel, K., Rossman, G.R., Klötzli, U., Brandstätter, F., Lengauer, C.L., Tillmanns, E. (2012): Li-bearing tourmalines in Variscan granitic pegmatites from the Moldanubian nappes, Lower Austria. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24, 695-715.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Pena
      • Penha do Norte
Sergio Varvello photo
    • São José da Safira
Canadian Mineralogist 38: 1399-1408 (2000); Dutrow, B. and Henry, D. J. (2000) Complexly zoned fibrous tourmaline: A record of evolving magmatic and hydrothermal fluids. Canadian Mineralogist, 38, 131-143.
  • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
    • Samokov Obshtina
      • Samokov Town
Vasil Arnaudov, Svetoslav Petrusenko, and Chavdar Karov (2003): Sherl, foytit i dravit v pegmatiti ot metamorfnata mantiya na Planskiya pluton, Yugozapadna B'lgariya [Schorl, foitite and dravite from pegmatites in the metamorphic zone of Plana Pluton, SW Bulgaria]. Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya, 40, 97-107 (in Bulgarian with English abtract). []
  • British Columbia
    • Revelstoke Mining Division
      • Revelstoke
Dixon, A. (2014, October). Mount Begbie Pegmatite Group, British Columbia, Canada–evolution from Barren to Complex Rare-element Pegmatites. In 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia.
  • Manitoba
    • Lac-du-Bonnet area
      • Bernic Lake
Can Min.38:877-891; Selway, J. B.; Cerny, P.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Novak, M. (2000): The Tanco pegmatite at Bernic lake, Manitoba. XIV. Internal tourmaline. Canadian Mineralogist 38, 877-891.
    • Red Cross Lake
Cerny et al. 2012; Černý, O., Teertstra, D.K., Chapman, R., Selway, J.B., Hawthorne, F.C., Ferreira, K., Chackowsky, L.E., Wang, X.J. & and Meintzer, R.E. (2012)
  • Northwest Territories
Geological Association of Canada (2014) Abstracts Fredericton Vol 37
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Pakeagama Lake Area
Andrew G. Tindle, Fred W. Breaks and Julie B. Selway (2002) Tourmaline in petalite-subtype granitic pegmatites; evidence of fractionation and contamination from the Paleagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of northwestern Ontario, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist 40:753-78
      • Root Lake pegmatite group
        • Root Lake Area
Tindle, A. G., Selway, J. B. & Breaks, F. W. (2005): Liddicoatite and associated species from the McCombe spodumene-subtype rare-element granitic pegmatite, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 43, 769-793.
Tindle, A.G., Breaks, F.W., and Selway, J.B. (2002) Tourmaline in petalite-subtype gramitic pegmatites: evidence of fractionation and contamination from Pakeagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of northwestern Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 753-788.
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
          • Koktokay pegmatite field (Keketuohai pegmatite field)
            • Altay Mine
Zhang AC, Wang Ru, Hu H, Chen XM (2004) Occurrences of foitite and rossmanite from the Koktokay No. 3 pegmatite dyke, Altai, Northwestern China: A record of hydrothermal fluids. Canadian Mineralogist, 42, 873-883.
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • South Bohemia Region
      • Písek
Petr Černý, Milan Novák, Ron Chapman, Karen J. Ferreira (2007) Subsolidus behavior of niobian rutile from the Písek region, Czech Republic: a model for exsolution in W- and Fe2+>>Fe3+-rich phases. Journal of Geosciences, 52:143–159
Historic mineral collection National museum of Czech Republic
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Velké Meziříčí
Novák, M., Staněk, J.: Lepidolitový pegmatit od Dobré Vody u Velkého Meziříčí, západní Morava. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae geologicae, 1999, roč. 84, s. 3 - 44.
      • Žďár nad Sázavou
        • Dolní Bory
Staněk, J.: Asociace minerálů významnějších pegmatitových žil v Hatích u Dolních Borů na západní Moravě. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae naturales, 1997, roč. 82, 3-19.
Novák, M., Johan, Z., Škoda, R., Černý, P., Šrein, V., & Veselovský, F. (2008). Primary oxide minerals in the system WO3–Nb2O5–TiO2–Fe2O3–FeO and their breakdown products from the pegmatite No. 3 at Dolní Bory-Hatě, Czech Republic. European Journal of Mineralogy, 20(4), 487-499.
Novák, M., Houzar, S., Pfeiferová, A.: Přehled mineralogie, petrografie a historie klasické lokality lepidolitového pegmatitu v Rožné u Bystřice nad Pernštejnem, západní Morava. Acta Musei Moraviae, Sci. geol., 83:3-48.
P. Pauliš (2001): Nejzajímavější naleziště Moravy a Slezska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora.
P. Pauliš (2001): Nejzajímavější naleziště Moravy a Slezska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora.
  • Saxony
    • Chemnitz
      • Penig
Gunnar Farber
    • Oberlausitz
      • Löbau
        • Czorneboh
          • Wuischke
Witzke, T., Giesler, T. (2008): Neufunde und Neubestimmungen aus der Lausitz, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 59, 245-252
  • Pest Co.
    • Börzsöny Mts
WDS: Béla Fehér
  • Co. Dublin
    • Barnacullia
David Jordan
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Campo nell'Elba
          • San Piero in Campo
F. Pezzotta, F.C. Hawthorne, M.A. Cooper, D.K. Teerstra (1996) - Fibrous foitite from S. Piero in Campo, Elba, Italy. - Canadian Mineralogist, 34: 741-744.
Barsotti, G., & Nannoni, R. (2006). Rocce, minerali e miniere delle isole dell'Arcipelago Toscano. Pacini editore, 152 pp.
Pezzotta, F., Hawthorne, F.C., Cooper, M.A., Teertstra, D.K. (1996): Fibrous foitite from San Piero in Campo, Elba, Italy. Can. Mineral., 34, 741-744.
          • Sant'Ilario in Campo
            • Catri
              • Fosso Marcianella Pegmatite
Field Trip Excursion Programm IMA, May 29, 2005 (M.E. Ciriotti).
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Fukushima Prefecture
        • Koriyama
Kato et al (1994) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 177.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Miyazaki prefecture
      • Hinokage-cho
Alfredo Petrov specimen
      • Kijoh-cho
Minakawa & Adachi (1995) Chigaku Kenkyu, 44, 99-103.
  • Shikoku Island
    • Kochi Prefecture
Minakawa& Adachi (1995) Chigaku Kenkyu, 44, 99-103.
  • Mandalay Region (Mandalay Division)
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
various added photos
  • Erongo Region
Jahn, St. & Bode, R. (2003): Mineralogische Neuigkeiten vom Erongo in Namibia (III). Mineralien-Welt 14 (6), 58-64 (in German). [reported but not based on reliable analyses]; Ferdinando Giovine collection (analysed by Prof. Al Falster)
    • Karibib District
Foitite has been identified by Prof. Al Falster (unpublished results) as fibrous structures in schorl crystals
      • Usakos
Jahn, S. (2010): Blue Beauties - Jeremejewit-Neufund auf der Farm Ameib, Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 21 (4), 31-33.
    • Swakopmund District
      • Cape Cross area
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern, 585 pp. (in English)
  • Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas)
    • Baltistan
      • Skardu District
Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences 43 (2010) 1-1
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Karkonosze Mts (Karkonosze Massif)
      • Karpacz - Wilcza Poręba (Wolfshau)
Szełęg, E., Galuskina, I., Prusik, K. 2010: A Sc-Nb oxide from corundum pegmatites of the Krucze Skały in Karpacz (Karkonosze massif, Lower Silesia, Poland) – a potentially new mineral of the ScNbO4 – FeWO4 series. 20th General Meeting of the IMA (IMA2010), Budapest, Hungary, August 21-27, CD of Abstracts, p. 501
    • Sudetes Mts
      • Sowie Mts
        • Michałkowa (Michelsdorf)
Pieczka, A., Hawthorne, F.C., Gołębiowska, B., Włodek, A., Grochowina, A. (2016): Maneckiite, ideally NaCa2Fe2+2(Fe3+Mg)Mn2(PO4)6(H2O)2, a new phosphate mineral of the wicksite supergroup from the Michałkowa pegmatite, Góry Sowie block, southwestern Poland. Mineralogical Magazine: 80: (in press
    • Świeradów Zdrój area
      • Garby Izerskie Mts
Długoszewska A. 2005: Minerals from pegmatoids of the northern part of the Karkonosze Massif cover. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 26, 153-156
  • Wielkopolskie
    • Jarocin District
      • Jarocin area
Pieczka, A.; Buniak, A.; Majka, J.; Harryson, H. (2011): Si-deficient foitite with [4]Al and [4]B from the ‘Ługi-1’ borehole, southwestern Poland. Journal of GEOsciences 56, 389-398.
  • Castelo Branco District
    • Covilhã
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Detva Co.
      • Vígľašská Huta - Kalinka
Juraj ŽItňan, Peter Koděra & Pavel Uher (2011) Characteristics of advanced argillic alteration at Biely Vrch and Kalinka localities, Javorie stratovolcano, Slovakia.SGA Student Conference Mineral resources for the society Prague, April15 19,2011
  • Košice Region
    • Košice Co.
Pauliš P., Ďuďa R., 2002: Nejzajimavejší mineralogická nalezište Slovenska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 134p.
    • Spišská Nová Ves Co.
      • Hnilec (Hniletz; Nyilas; Nagyhnilec)
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
  • Madrid
Tanago, J. G., Lozano, P. L., Larios, A. , La Iglesia, A. (2012) Stokesite crystals from La Cabrera, Madrid, Spain. Mineralogical Record 43:499-508
  • Södermanland
    • Haninge
      • Utö
Selway, J. B.; Smeds, S.-A.; Černý, P.; Hawthorne, F. C. (2002): Compositional evolution of tourmaline in the petalite-subtype Nyköpingsgruvan pegmatites, Utö, Stockholm Archipelago, Sweden. GFF 124, 93-102
  • Black Sea Region
    • Giresun Province
      • Şebinkarahisar
Canadian Mineralogist 37: 155-161.; Mineral. Petrol. 94 (2008) 195-208.
Am.Min. (1993): 78: 1299.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Cahuilla District
        • Cahuilla
          • Little Cahuilla Mountain
Caltech, Phys Chem Minerals 14, p. 163.
    • San Diego Co.
      • Pala District
        • Pala
          • Chief Mountain
            • Pala Chief Mine (Chief mine; MS 6452; Salmons mine)
Hapeman, Jeffrey R. (2011)
          • Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill)
Rocks & Minerals: May, 1999
Osborn, P. 2007. Description of the Naylor Rock location and Foitite discovery on Hiriart Mountain by Phil Osborn of Hemet, Riverside Co., California. Personal communication with S. L. Ritchie; 7/27.
Fisher, J., 2002, Mineralogical Record 33(5), 363-407
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • East Hampton (Chatham)
Fred E Davis Collection
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Jarnot, Bruce M. (2011): Letters: Connecticut Update. Rocks & Minerals: 86(4): 299.
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Poland
Pedro-Pablo Gil-Crespo, Uxue Ostaikoetxea, Encarnación Roda-Robles, William Simmons, James Nizamoff (2012): Caracterización por XRD y Espectroscopía NIR de Turmalinas de la Serie Chorlo-Elbaita-Rossmanita de la Pegmatita de Berry-Havey (Maine, USA). Macla 16, p. 222-223.
    • Oxford Co.
      • Albany
King, V., 2009, Maine Feldspar, Families, and Feuds
King, V. (ed.), 2009, Maine feldspar, Families, and Feuds
      • Buckfield
Van King
      • Greenwood
        • Uncle Tom Mountain
Falster, A.U., Simmons, W.B., Sprague, R. (2006) 33rd Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, abstracts, 14-15.
      • Newry
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1; King, V. (ed.), 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, V. 2, with updates by Van King
King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
Van King, unpublished property evaluation
      • Paris
    • Sagadahoc Co.
      • Topsham
King and Foord, 2000, Addenda to Volume 1, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 2.
  • New Mexico
    • Taos Co.
      • Picuris District
        • Copper Mountain
Francis, C.A., Dyar, M.D., Williams, M.L., and Hughes, J.M. (1999), Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1431-1438.
  • Wisconsin
Medaris, J. & J. Fournelle (2003) Tourmaline-bearing quartz veins in the Baraboo Quartzite, Wisconsin: Occurrence and significance of foitite and "oxy-foitite": Canadian Mineralogist: 71: 749-758.
Medaris, L., Fournelle, J. & Henry, D.( 2003) Tourmaline-bearing quartz veins in the Baraboo Quartzite, Wisconsin: occurrence and significance of foitite and oxy-foitite: The Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 749-758.
      • Sampler
Medaris, L.G. , Fournelle, J. and Henry D., (2001) "Tourmaline-bearing quartz veins in the Baraboo Quartzite, Wisconsin: Occurrence and significance of foitite and oxy-foitite, The Canadian Mineralogist, vol. 41, p. 749-758
Medaris, L.G. , Fournelle, J. and Henry D., (2001) "Tourmaline-bearing quartz veins in the Baraboo Quartzite, Wisconsin: Occurrence and significance of foitite and oxy-foitite, The Canadian Mineralogist, vol. 41, p. 749-758
  • Eastern Province
ONDRUŠ P, VRÁNA S, MAŠLÁŇ M (2002) Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia. Bulletin of the Czech Geological Survey, Vol. 77, No. 1, 23–28
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