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Franklinite

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Formula:
Zn2+Fe3+2O4
Colour:
Black
Lustre:
Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Specific Gravity:
5.07 - 5.22
Crystal System:
Isometric
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1819 by Pierre Berthier for the type locality of Franklin Furnace (now Franklin Borough), New Jersey. Silliman (1920) translated Berthier's article: "As the chemical nomenclature cannot in every instance furnish a name, I propose to give it that of The Franklinite, in order to remind us that it was found, for the first time, in a place to which the Americans have given the name of a great man, whose name is equally venerated in Europe as in the new world by all the friends of science an humanity."

Benjamin Franklin [January 17, 1706 Massachusetts Bay Colony - April 17, 1790 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA], American statesman, was also the first important USA scientist who investigated electricity and was an inventor of bifocal lenses for eye glasses, the fuel efficient Franklin Stove, lightening rods, the carriage odometer, and the glass harmonica (musical instrument). He was was co-founder of the University of Pennsylvania and the American Philosophical Society as well as serving as Governor of Pennsylvania. He established the model for volunteer fire fighting services. He was the first postmaster of the USA and devised an efficient postal delivery system. He was an important early abolitionist. As a genuine polymath, he was an author and philosopher, newspaper editor, but he is primarily celebrated as a politician and ambassador and credited as a Founding Father of the United States of America.
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Classification of FrankliniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.BB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
7.2.2.4

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
7.5.10

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
5 : Oxides of Zn, Cd and Hg

Physical Properties of FrankliniteHide

Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Black
Streak:
Reddish brown to black
Hardness:
5½ - 6 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=852 - 882 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Very brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
Fair parting on {111}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
5.07 - 5.22 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.163 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of FrankliniteHide

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 2.36(2)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Isotropic
Colour in reflected light:
White to gray
Internal Reflections:
Red

Chemical Properties of FrankliniteHide

Formula:
Zn2+Fe3+2O4
IMA Formula:
ZnFe3+2O4
Common Impurities:
Mn,Ti,Al,M,Ca

Crystallography of FrankliniteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fd3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.45(2) Å
Unit Cell V:
603.35 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Otahedral crystals common; dodecahedral less common; cubic rare.
Twinning:
Twinning on {111}

Type Occurrence of FrankliniteHide

Synonyms of FrankliniteHide

Other Language Names for FrankliniteHide

Relationship of Franklinite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4
CoulsoniteFe2+V3+2O4
CuprospinelCu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
Filipstadite(Sb0.5Fe0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4Iso.
MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4
Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
UlvöspinelFe2TiO4Iso.
VuorelaineniteMn2+V3+2O4
XieiteFe2+Cr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
ZincochromiteZnCr2O4Iso.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Willemite725 photos of Franklinite associated with Willemite on mindat.org.
Calcite580 photos of Franklinite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Zincite210 photos of Franklinite associated with Zincite on mindat.org.
Hardystonite106 photos of Franklinite associated with Hardystonite on mindat.org.
Rhodonite68 photos of Franklinite associated with Rhodonite on mindat.org.
Andradite61 photos of Franklinite associated with Andradite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite52 photos of Franklinite associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Esperite48 photos of Franklinite associated with Esperite on mindat.org.
Clinohedrite46 photos of Franklinite associated with Clinohedrite on mindat.org.
Tephroite31 photos of Franklinite associated with Tephroite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.BB.05ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4
4.BB.05CoulsoniteFe2+V3+2O4
4.BB.05CuprospinelCu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
4.BB.05Filipstadite(Sb0.5Fe0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
4.BB.05GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4
4.BB.05MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4Iso.
4.BB.05MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
4.BB.05SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05UlvöspinelFe2TiO4Iso.
4.BB.05VuorelaineniteMn2+V3+2O4
4.BB.05ZincochromiteZnCr2O4Iso.
4.BB.10HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10IwakiiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.15MaghemiteFe3+2O3Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
4.BB.15TitanomaghemiteFe3+(Fe3+,Ti4+,Fe2+,◻)2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P43 3 2
4.BB.20Tegengrenite(Mg,Mn2+)2Sb5+0.5(Mn3+,Si,Ti)0.5O4Trig.
4.BB.25XieiteFe2+Cr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

7.2.2.1MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.2.2.2JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.2.2.3MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.2.2.5TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.2.2.6CuprospinelCu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.5.1ZinciteZnOHex. 6mm : P63mc
7.5.2SweetiteZn(OH)2Tet.
7.5.3AshoveriteZn(OH)2Tet.
7.5.4WülfingiteZn(OH)2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.5.5GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.5.6HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.5.7HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.5.8Chalcophanite(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.5.9WoodruffiteZn2+x/2(Mn4+1-xMn3+x)O2·yH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.5.11MonteponiteCdOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.5.12MontroyditeHgOOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn

Fluorescence of FrankliniteHide

Other InformationHide

Magnetism:
Diamagnetic
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for FrankliniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Berthier, P. (1819) Analyse de deux mineraux zinciferes des Etats-Unis d'Amerique. Annales des Mines: 483-494. (in French)
Silliman, B. (1820) Analysis of two Zinc Ores from the United States of America. American Journal of Science: v.2(first series): 319-326.
Van Horn, F.R. (1928) Large magnetite and franklinite crystals from Franklin Furnace, New Jersey. American Mineralogist: 13: 171-173.
Palache, C. (1935) The Minerals of Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey, USGS Professional Paper 180: 45.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 698-707.
Verwey, E.J.W, Heilmann, E.L. (1947) Physical properties and cation arrangement of oxides with spinel structures. Journal of Chemical Physics: 15: 174-180.
O'Neill, H.St.C. (1992) Temperature dependence of the cation distribution in zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) from powder XRD structural refinements. European Journal of Mineralogy: 4: 571-580.
Lucchesi, S., Russo, U., Della Giusta, A. (1999) Cation distribution in natural Zn-spinels: franklinite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 501-511.
Moran, E., Blesa, M.C., Medina, M.E., Tornero, J.D., Menendez, N., Amado, U. (2002) Nonstoichiometric spinel ferrites obtained from α-NaFeO2 via molten media reactions. Inorganic Chemistry: 41: 5961-5967.
Reichmann, H.J., Jacobsen, S.D., Ballaran, T.B. (2013) Elasticity of franklinite and trends for transition-metal oxide spinels. American Mineralogist: 98: 601-608.

Internet Links for FrankliniteHide

Localities for FrankliniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
www.crocoite.com (Steve Sorrell) and refs therein
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • Zeehan mineral field
Awid-Pascual, R., Kamenetsky, V. S., Goemann, K., Allen, N., Noble, T. L., Lottermoser, B. G., & Rodemann, T. (2015). The evolution of authigenic Zn–Pb–Fe-bearing phases in the Grieves Siding peat, western Tasmania. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 170(2), 1-16.
  • Western Australia
    • Mukinbudin Shire
Ferguson, K.M. (1999) Lead, Zinc and Silver Deposits of Western Australia. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Mineral Resources Bulletin 15.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Bad Gleichenberg
      • Wilhelmsdorf
Postl, W. & Bernhard, F. (2011
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Vazante
Slezak, P. R., 2012, Geology, mneralogy, and geochenmistry of the Vazante Noorthern Extension zinc silicate deposit, Minas Gerais, Brazil: M.S. thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (pdf available at https://qspace.library.queensu.ca/handle/1974/7027?mode=full).
Slezak, P. R., 2012, Geology, mneralogy, and geochenmistry of the Vazante Noorthern Extension zinc silicate deposit, Minas Gerais, Brazil: M.S. thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario (pdf available at https://qspace.library.queensu.ca/handle/1974/7027?mode=full).
China
 
  • Guangdong Province
    • Meizhou Prefecture
      • Mei Co.
Jinyan Yao (1994): Geology and Prospecting 30(4), 5-11
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Yichun Prefecture
      • Shanggao Co.
Junliang Li (2009): Contributions to Geology and Mineral Resources Research 24(2), 142-145
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1986) Neue Minerale von der Schlackenhalde der ehemaligen Zinkhütte Genna in Letmathe/Sauerland. Aufschluss 37 (2), 55-67.; Bender/Marl, D. & Krimmelbein/Altena, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
Ireland
 
  • Co. Kerry
    • Killarney
      • Lough Leane
Ixer, R.A. 2004. Catalogue of Petrographic Descriptions for Rock and Ore Samples, Ross Island Mine. In: O'Brien, W. ed. Ross Island - Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland. Bronze Age Studies 6, Department of Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway, 768pp.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Atasu
Kayupova, M. M. (1963): Mineralogy of the Dzhumart iron-manganese deposit. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Kazakhskoi SSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya, 1963 (6), 57-80.
    • Zhayrem (Zhairem)
Frank Dzubeck; Kayupova, M.M. (1965) Doklady of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., Earth Science sections, 163, 97-100.
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
      • Santa Eulalia District
        • East Camp
Panczner (1987): 77-395.
  • Zacatecas
    • Mun. de Ojo Caliente
      • La Blanca
Parker, R. (2010). Geology And Mineral Resources Of The Bilbao Silver-Lead-Zinc Deposit, State Of Zacatecas, Mexico. Private Company Report for Xtierra Inc.
Poland
 
  • Małopolskie
    • Chrzanów District
      • Trzebinia
        • Trzebinia smelting plant
Włodyka, R., Gawęda, A., Warchulski, R. (2015): Metallurgical slags from the “Trzebinia” smelting plant, Poland. Mineralogia Special Papers: 44: 108-109
Republic of Macedonia
 
  • Kratovo-Zletovo ore District
RMZ - Materials and Geoenvironment Vol 52 No. 3 pp 535-548 (2006)
  • Veles
Schweiz. mineral. petrogr. Mitt. (1994) 74, 321-328; Jancev, S. (2001): Peculiar antimony-bearing minerals of the spinel group in metamorphic rocks from near Nezilovo village, Macedonia. Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya 38, 73-78.
      • Jakupica Mts
        • Babuna Valley
Bermanec et al, 1996
Chukanov, Nikita V., Jančev, Simeon., Pekov, Igor V. (2015): The association of Oxygen-bearing minerals of the chalcophile elements in the orogenetic zone related to the “mixed series” complex near Nežilovo, Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 115–124
Romania
 
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
  • Maramureș Co.
Udubasa, G., Hartopanu, P., Ilinca, G. (1996). The Regionally metamorphosed Fe-Mn Ore Deposit at Razoare, Preluca Mts., Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineralogy, 77, 3-20.
  • Suceava Co.
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
          • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
        • Vitim Plateau
          • Biraya and Bya Rivers confluence area (Chara Basin)
            • Biraya Fe-REE ore occurrence
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Khibiny Massif
        • Rasvumchorr Mt
          • Rasvumchorr Mine
P.M. Kartashov data
Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Konopleva, N.G., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Mikhailova, Y.A. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 599-606.
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
South Africa
 
  • Gauteng Province
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Glass, J. (2006). The environmental impact of the abandoned Edendale lead mine near Tshwane, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg).
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Ehlanzeni District
Minerals of South Africa
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna
    • Hedemora
      • Garpenberg
Canadian Mineralogist (2001) 39 (6), 1675-1683; Nysten, P. (2003): Yeatmanite and magnussonite from the Garpenberg Norra mine, Bergslagen ore province, Sweden. Can. Mineral., 41, 201-206; American Mineralogist, Volume 88, pages 251–255, 2003
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
  • Västmanland
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
Kjell Gatedal
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
Zaitsev, A. N. (2010). Nyerereite from calcite carbonatite at the Kerimasi volcano, northern Tanzania. Geology of Ore Deposits, 52(7), 630-640.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Austell District
        • Lanivet
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Aleutians East Borough
      • Alaska Peninsula District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Chemehuevi Mts
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • San Bernardino Mts
        • Bear Valley District
          • Fawnskin (Grout)
Leavens & Patton: Axis 4 (1)13p (2008)
  • Colorado
    • Gilpin Co.
      • Central City District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Fairview District
        • Fairview Silver mine
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Bergen Co.
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 76.
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
Van King
Palache(1935):47; Dunn(1995):Pt5:668.
USGS Prof Paper 180(Palache, C.)(1930).
Van King; Chester S. Lemanski, Jr.
Van King
Palache(1935):47; Dunn(1995):Pt4:498.
David bernstein
Palache(1935):47.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Palache(1935):47.
Common knowledge of occurrence.; Leavens, P. B., Zullo, J., & Verbeek, E. (2009). A complex, genthelvite-bearing skarn from the Passaic pit, Sterling Hill mine, Ogdensburg, New Jersey. Axis, 5, 26.
Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
Franklin Mineral Museum specimens
  • New Mexico
    • Hidalgo Co.
      • Steins Pass District
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. ed, 1996
Zambia
 
  • Lusaka Province
    • Lusaka
Maria Boni, Rosario Terracciano, Giuseppina Balassone, Sarah A. Gleeson und Alexander Matthews (2011): The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia). Mineralium Deposita 46, 707-729.
Maria Boni, Rosario Terracciano, Giuseppina Balassone, Sarah A. Gleeson und Alexander Matthews (2011): The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia). Mineralium Deposita 46, 707-729.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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