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Friedelite

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Charles Friedel
Formula:
Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Colour:
Tan, brown, "beef steak" red-brown, dark brown
Hardness:
4 - 5
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named by Emile Bertrand in 1876 in honor of the noted French chemist and mineralogist, Charles Friedel (March 12, 1832 Strasbourg, France – April 20, 1899 Montauban, France), who was professor of chemistry at the Sorbonne. Friedel developed the Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation reactions with James Crafts in 1877, and attempted to make synthetic diamonds. His son Georges Friedel (1865–1933) also became a renowned mineralogist.
Isostructural with:
Compare the similar bementite.

Chemically very similar to pyrosmalite-(Mn) (trigonal).

The possible As3+-equivalent is coded as 'UM1986-06-AsO:HMn'.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Friedelite.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of FriedeliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.EE.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
E : Single tetrahedral nets of 6-membered rings connected by octahedral nets or octahedral bands
72.4.1b.1

72 : PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
4 : Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-, 6-, and 12-membered rings
17.3.11

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
3 : Silicates with chloride (including aluminosilicates)

Physical Properties of FriedeliteHide

Colour:
Tan, brown, "beef steak" red-brown, dark brown
Streak:
White
Hardness:
4 - 5 on Mohs scale

Optical Data of FriedeliteHide

Type:
Biaxial
RI values:
nα = 1.630 nβ = 1.660 nγ = 1.660
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.030
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v

Chemical Properties of FriedeliteHide

Formula:
Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
IMA Formula:
Mn2+8Si6O15(OH)10
Common Impurities:
Fe,Al,Zn,Mg,Ca

Crystallography of FriedeliteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Setting:
C1 2/m 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 23.33 Å, b = 13.39 Å, c = 7.44 Å
β = 105.08°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.742 : 1 : 0.556
Unit Cell V:
2,244.14 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Twinning:
Universal, repeated about [110] and [110], composition plane {001}, giving pseudorhombohedral symmetry.
Comment:
Pseudorhombohedral.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.17 (90)
3.60 (70)
2.88 (60)
2.56 (100)
2.408 (30)
2.115 (40)
1.676 (60)
Comments:
Nearly identical to that of mcgillite.

Type Occurrence of FriedeliteHide

Other Language Names for FriedeliteHide

German:Friedelit
Simplified Chinese:红锰铁矿
Spanish:Friedelita
Traditional Chinese:紅錳礦

Varieties of FriedeliteHide

Relationship of Friedelite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Nelenite(Mn,Fe)16(Si12O30)(OH)14[As3+3O6(OH)3]Mon.
Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Fe2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
Pyrosmalite-(Mn)Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig.
SchalleriteMn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17Trig. 3m : P3m1

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Willemite24 photos of Friedelite associated with Willemite on mindat.org.
Franklinite14 photos of Friedelite associated with Franklinite on mindat.org.
Rhodochrosite11 photos of Friedelite associated with Rhodochrosite on mindat.org.
Calcite8 photos of Friedelite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Chlorophoenicite5 photos of Friedelite associated with Chlorophoenicite on mindat.org.
Rhodonite4 photos of Friedelite associated with Rhodonite on mindat.org.
Tephroite3 photos of Friedelite associated with Tephroite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite3 photos of Friedelite associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Filipstadite2 photos of Friedelite associated with Filipstadite on mindat.org.
Spessartine2 photos of Friedelite associated with Spessartine on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EE.05BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8Mon.
9.EE.10BrokenhilliteMn8Si6O15(OH)10Hex. 6mm : P63mc
9.EE.10Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Fe2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
9.EE.10Pyrosmalite-(Mn)Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig.
9.EE.10Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.15Nelenite(Mn,Fe)16(Si12O30)(OH)14[As3+3O6(OH)3]Mon.
9.EE.15SchalleriteMn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17Trig. 3m : P3m1
9.EE.20Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.20TuperssuatsiaiteNa2Fe3Si8O20(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.20YofortieriteMn5Si8O20(OH)2 · 8-9H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.20WindhoekiteCa2Fe3+2.67[Si8O20](OH)4 · 10H2O Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.25Falcondoite(Ni,Mg)4Si6O15(OH)2 · 6H2OOrth.
9.EE.25LoughliniteNa2Mg3Si6O16 · 8H2OOrth.
9.EE.25SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
9.EE.25Kalifersite(K,Na)5Fe3+7Si20O50(OH)6 · 12H2OTric.
9.EE.30GyroliteNaCa16Si23AlO60(OH)8 · 14H2OTric.
9.EE.30OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2OHex.
9.EE.30TungusiteCa4Fe2Si6O15(OH)6
9.EE.35Reyerite(Na,K)2Ca14(Si,Al)24O58(OH)8 · 6H2OTrig.
9.EE.35Truscottite(Ca,Mn)14Si24O58(OH)8 · 2H2OTrig.
9.EE.40NatrosiliteNa2Si2O5Mon.
9.EE.45MakatiteNa2Si4O8(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.EE.50VarennesiteNa8Mn2Si10O25(OH,Cl)2 · 12H2OOrth.
9.EE.55RaiteNa4Mn2+3Ti0.25Si8O20(OH)2 · 10H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 2
9.EE.60IntersiliteNa6Mn2+Ti[Si10O24(OH)](OH)3 · 4H2OMon.
9.EE.65Shafranovskite(Na,K)6(Mn,Fe)3Si9O24 · 6H2OTrig.
9.EE.65ZakharoviteNa4Mn5Si10O24(OH)6 · 6H2OTrig.
9.EE.70ZeophylliteCa13Si10O28(OH)2F8 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
9.EE.75Minehillite(K,Na)2-3Ca28Zn4Al4Si40O112(OH)16Hex.
9.EE.80Fedorite(Na,K)2-3(Ca4Na3)Si16O38(OH,F)2 · 3.5H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.EE.80Martinite(Na,◻,Ca)12Ca4(Si,S,B)14B2O38(OH,Cl)2F2·4H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.EE.85Lalondeite(Na,Ca)6(Ca,Na)3Si16O38(F,OH)2·3H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

72.4.1b.2Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
72.4.1b.3Nelenite(Mn,Fe)16(Si12O30)(OH)14[As3+3O6(OH)3]Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.3.1RustumiteCa10(Si2O7)2(SiO4)(OH)2Cl2Mon.
17.3.2ZunyiteAl13Si5O20(OH,F)18ClIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
17.3.3SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
17.3.4MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24ClTet. 4/m : I4/m
17.3.5TugtupiteNa4BeAlSi4O12ClTet. 4 : I4
17.3.6EudialyteNa15Ca6(Fe2+,Mn2+)3Zr3[Si25O73](O,OH,H2O)3(OH,Cl)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.3.7AlluaiviteNa19(Ca,Mn)6(Ti,Nb)3Si26O74Cl · 2H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.3.8NasonitePb6Ca4(Si2O7)3Cl2Hex.
17.3.9AsisitePb7SiO9Cl2 Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
17.3.10JagoitePb18Fe3+4[Si4(Si,Fe3+)6][Pb4Si16(Si,Fe)4]O82Cl6Hex.
17.3.12Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Fe2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
17.3.13Pyrosmalite
17.3.14Pyrosmalite-(Mn)Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig.
17.3.16Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
17.3.17TraskiteBa21Ca(Fe2+,Mn,Ti)4(Ti,Fe,Mg)12(Si12O36)(Si2O7)6(O,OH)30Cl6·14H2O Hex.
17.3.18MuiriteBa10Ca2Mn2+Ti[(OH,Cl,F)|HSi2O7]5Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
17.3.19VerplanckiteBa2(Mn,Fe,Ti)Si2O6(O,OH,Cl,F)2 · 3H2O or nearHex.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
None.

References for FriedeliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Flink, G. (1891): Mineralogische Notizen III, 8. Friedelit von Harstigen, Meddelanden fran Stockholms Högskola, Vol. 115, pp. 2-23
Frondel, C. and L.H. Bauer (1953): Manganpyrosmalite and its polymorphic relation to friedelite and schallerite. Am. Mineral., 38, 755-760.
Dunn, P.J., D.R. Peacor, J.A. Nelen, and J.A. Norberg (1981): Crystal-chemical data for schallerite, caryopilite and friedelite from Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey. Am. Mineral., 66, 1054-1062.
Ozawa, T., Y. Takéuchi, T. Takahata, G. Donnay, and J.D.H. Donnay (1983): The pyrosmalite group of minerals. II. The layer structure of mcgillite and friedelite. Canadian Mineralogist, 21, 7-17.

Internet Links for FriedeliteHide

Localities for FriedeliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
Worner, H. K. and Mitchell, R. W., eds. Birch, W. D. (et al) (1982) Minerals of Broken Hill, published by Australian Mining & Smelting Limited ISBN 0-909221-18-9
Demetrius Pohl collection, Rock Currier photo
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Mitterdorf
      • Veitsch
        • Kleinveitsch
          • Kaiblinggraben
Francis, C.A. (2004)
Franz Bernhard collection
  • Tyrol
    • East Tyrol
      • Kals valley
Abrecht, J. (1990): An As-rich manganiferous mineral assemblage from the Ködnitz Valley (Eastern Alps, Austria): Geology, mineralogy, genetic considerations, and implications for metamorphic Mn deposits. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1990, 363-375.
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Wattens
          • Watten valley
            • Wattener Lizum (Wattentaler Lizum)
              • Geier
                • Staffelsee
tirol.orf.at/news/stories/2612087/; Krüger, H., Tropper, P., Haefeker, U., Kaindl, R., Tribus, M., Kahlenberg, V., ... & Olieric, V. (2014). Innsbruckite, Mn33 (Si2O5) 14 (OH) 38–a new mineral from the Tyrol, Austria. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(7), 1613-1627.
      • Sill valley (Wipp valley)
        • Navis valley
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
Perseil, E. A. (1967): Manganese mineralization of the Upper Devonian in Las Cabesses (Ariege). Comptes Rendus du Congres National des Societes Savantes, Section des Sciences 91 (Part 2), 313-321.
    • Haute-Garonne
      • Argut-Dessus
Inventaire minéralogique de la France numero 8 Haute Garonne pages 20 et 21
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
Le Règne Minéral 47: 5-21
        • Nabias
        • Vielle-Aure
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 174; Ragu, A. (1994): Helvite from the French Pyrénées as evidence for granite-related hydrothermal activity. Canadian Mineralogist 32, 111-120.; DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., TIXADOR Y., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) La mine de Coustou, Vielle-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées. Le Règne Minéral, 47, 23-31. (in french)
Lienau, H. (1899): Manganese silico-carbonates from Hautes-Pyrenees. Chemiker-Zeitung 23, 418-419 (in German).
      • Louron Valley
        • Aderville
C.R.Acad.Sci.Paris,(1876) 82, 1167
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Prats-de-Mollo-la Preste (Prats de Molló-la Presta)
Dubru. M, (1986) Pétrologie et géochimie du marbre à brucite et des borates associés au gisement de tungstène de Costabonne, (Pyrénées orientales, France) 930p
      • Reynes
Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 46-49.
Germany
 
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Elbingerode
        • Schävenholz (Schebenholz; Schäbenholz)
Witzke, T. (2013): Die Minerale der Manganlagerstätte Schävenholz bei Elbingerode, Harz.- Aufschluss 64, 69-80
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Scerscen Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Zhayrem (Zhairem)
Frank Dzubeck; Kayupova, M.M. (1965) Doklady of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., Earth Science sections, 163, 97-100.; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Frank Dzubeck
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
    • Bykle
      • Hovden
Nordrum, F.S. (2008): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2007-2008. STEIN 35 (2), 8-20
Peru
 
  • Lima Department
    • Oyon Province
Economic Geology November 1990 v. 85 no. 7 p. 1348-1383
Romania
 
  • Suceava Co.
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
[Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Minerals of South Africa
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Priorat
        • El Molar
Mineralogistes de Catalunya, vol. III num. 5
Sweden
 
  • Södermanland
    • Haninge
      • Utö
Langhof, J., Holtstam, D. & Gustafsson, L., 2000: Chiavennite and zoned genthelvite-helvite as late-stage minerals of the Proterozoic LCT pegmatites at Utö, Stockholm, Sweden. GFF, Vol. 122 (Pt. 2, June), pp. 207-212. Stockholm. ISSN 1103-5897
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183. ; K:Gatedal
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Flink, G. (1917): Bidrag till Sveriges Mineralogi. Arkiv för Kemi, mineralogi och Geologi. Vol 6. no. 21, p. 49-52 ; Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
  • Västmanland
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
Flink, G. (1917): Bidrag till Sveriges Mineralogi. Arkiv för Kemi, mineralogi och Geologi. Vol 6. no. 21, p. 52; Holtstam, D. (2001): W and V mineralization in Långban-type Fe-Mn deposits: Epigenetic or Syngenetic? Geologiske Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 123: 29-33
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Engadin
      • Piz Corvatsch
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 171.
    • Schanfig Valley
      • Langwies
        • Fondei Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 171.; Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 31
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Turtmann Valley
      • Pipjitälli
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • San Juan Co.
      • Eureka District
        • Gladstone
          • Bonita Peak
Rocks & Min.: 63: 366-384.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Palache(1935):89-90; Dunn(1995):Pt4:478.
Palache(1935):89.
FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
Palache(1935):89.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Palache(1935):89-90; Dunn(1995):Pt4:478.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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