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Friedelite

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About FriedeliteHide

01895890014946302087163.jpg
Charles Friedel
Formula:
Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
Colour:
Tan, brown, red, "beef steak" red-brown, dark brown
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Greasy, Pearly
Hardness:
4 - 5
Specific Gravity:
3.04 - 3.06
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named by Emile Bertrand in 1876 in honor of the noted French chemist and mineralogist, Charles Friedel [12 March 1832 Strasbourg, France – 20 April, 1899 Montauban, France], who was professor of chemistry at the Sorbonne. Friedel developed the Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation reactions with James Crafts in 1877, and attempted to make synthetic diamonds. His son Georges Friedel (1865–1933) also became a renowned mineralogist and who is well-known for Friedel's Law, which is used in X-ray diffraction calculations.
Isostructural with:
Compare the similar bementite.

Chemically very similar to pyrosmalite-(Mn) (trigonal).

The possible As3+-equivalent is coded as 'UM1986-06-AsO:HMn'.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Friedelite.


Classification of FriedeliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1876
9.EE.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
E : Single tetrahedral nets of 6-membered rings connected by octahedral nets or octahedral bands
72.4.1b.1

72 : PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
4 : Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-, 6-, and 12-membered rings
17.3.11

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
3 : Silicates with chloride (including aluminosilicates)

Physical Properties of FriedeliteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Waxy, Greasy, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Tan, brown, red, "beef steak" red-brown, dark brown
Streak:
White
Hardness:
4 - 5 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{0001}
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.04 - 3.06 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.066 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of FriedeliteHide

Type:
Biaxial
RI values:
nα = 1.654 - 1.656 nγ = 1.620 - 1.625
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Birefringence:
0.032
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.034
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v
Optical Extinction:
Nearly uniaxial
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of FriedeliteHide

Formula:
Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
IMA Formula:
Mn2+8Si6O15(OH)10
Common Impurities:
Fe,Al,Zn,Mg,Ca

Crystallography of FriedeliteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Setting:
C1 2/m 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 23.335 Å, b = 13.396 Å, c = 7.447 Å
β = 105.08°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.742 : 1 : 0.556
Unit Cell V:
2,247.74 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Usually in masses, crystals may appear hexagonal or trigonal, but are generally hemimorphic
Twinning:
Universal, repeated about [110] and [110], composition plane {001}, giving pseudorhombohedral symmetry.
Comment:
Pseudorhombohedral.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0015711FriedeliteKato T, Watanabe I (1992) The crystal structures of schallerite and friedelite Yamaguchi University, College of Arts Bulletin 26 51-631992Aderville, France0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
11.4 Å(10)
7.17 Å(90)
3.60 Å(70)
2.88 Å(60)
2.56 Å(100)
2.408 Å(30)
2.115 Å(40)
1.974 Å(20)
1.731 Å(30)
1.676 Å(60)
1.632 Å(20)
1.625 Å(10)
1.520 Å(10)
1.449 Å(10)
1.439 Å(10)
1.402 Å(20)
1.374 Å(10)
1.359 Å(30)
1.313 Å(10)
1.204 Å(20)
1.200 Å(10)
1.167 Å(10)
1.093 Å(10)
1.090 Å(10)
1.065 Å(10)
Comments:
ICDD 35-572. Also nearly identical to that of mcgillite.

Type Occurrence of FriedeliteHide

Reference:
Bertrand, E. (1876) Sur un nouveau minéral des Pyrénees. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences: 82: 1167-1168.

Other Language Names for FriedeliteHide

German:Friedelit
Simplified Chinese:红锰铁矿
Spanish:Friedelita
Traditional Chinese:紅錳礦

Varieties of FriedeliteHide

ArsenofriedelitePossibly an arsenosilicate described later?

Relationship of Friedelite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Nelenite(Mn,Fe)16(Si12O30)(OH)14[As3+3O6(OH)3]Mon.
Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Fe2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
Pyrosmalite-(Mn)Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig.
SchalleriteMn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17Trig. 3m : P3m1

Common AssociatesHide

BaryteBaSO4
CalciteCaCO3
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4
Pyrosmalite-(Mn)Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10
RhodochrositeMnCO3
SchalleriteMn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17
SchalleriteMn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17
WillemiteZn2SiO4
ZinciteZnO
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
24 photos of Friedelite associated with WillemiteZn2SiO4
14 photos of Friedelite associated with FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4
11 photos of Friedelite associated with RhodochrositeMnCO3
8 photos of Friedelite associated with CalciteCaCO3
5 photos of Friedelite associated with Chlorophoenicite(Mn,Mg)3Zn2(AsO4)(OH,O)6
4 photos of Friedelite associated with RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
3 photos of Friedelite associated with TephroiteMn2+2SiO4
3 photos of Friedelite associated with SphaleriteZnS
2 photos of Friedelite associated with Filipstadite(Fe3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mn2O4
2 photos of Friedelite associated with SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EE.CairncrossiteSr2Ca7–xNa2x(Si4O10)4(OH)2(H2O)15–x (with 0 <= x <= 1)Tric. 1 : P1
9.EE.05BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8Mon.
9.EE.10BrokenhilliteMn8Si6O15(OH)10Hex. 6mm : P63mc
9.EE.10Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Fe2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
9.EE.10Pyrosmalite-(Mn)Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig.
9.EE.10Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.15Nelenite(Mn,Fe)16(Si12O30)(OH)14[As3+3O6(OH)3]Mon.
9.EE.15SchalleriteMn2+16As3Si12O36(OH)17Trig. 3m : P3m1
9.EE.20Palygorskite(Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH) · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.20TuperssuatsiaiteNa2(Fe3+,Mn2+)3Si8O20(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.20YofortieriteMn5Si8O20(OH)2 · 8-9H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.20WindhoekiteCa2Fe3+2.67[Si8O20](OH)4 · 10H2O Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EE.25Falcondoite(Ni,Mg)4Si6O15(OH)2 · 6H2OOrth.
9.EE.25LoughliniteNa2Mg3Si6O16 · 8H2OOrth.
9.EE.25SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
9.EE.25Kalifersite(K,Na)5Fe3+7Si20O50(OH)6 · 12H2OTric.
9.EE.30GyroliteNaCa16Si23AlO60(OH)8 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.EE.30OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2OHex.
9.EE.30TungusiteCa4Fe2Si6O15(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
9.EE.35Reyerite(Na,K)2Ca14(Si,Al)24O58(OH)8 · 6H2OTrig.
9.EE.35Truscottite(Ca,Mn)14Si24O58(OH)8 · 2H2OTrig.
9.EE.40NatrosiliteNa2Si2O5Mon.
9.EE.45MakatiteNa2Si4O8(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.EE.50VarennesiteNa8Mn2Si10O25(OH,Cl)2 · 12H2OOrth.
9.EE.55RaiteNa4Mn2+3Ti0.25Si8O20(OH)2 · 10H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 2
9.EE.60IntersiliteNa6Mn2+Ti[Si10O24(OH)](OH)3 · 4H2OMon.
9.EE.65ShafranovskiteNa3K2(Mn,Fe,Na)4[Si9(O,OH)27](OH)2 · nH2OTrig.
9.EE.65ZakharoviteNa4Mn5Si10O24(OH)6 · 6H2OTrig.
9.EE.70ZeophylliteCa13Si10O28(OH)2F8 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
9.EE.75Minehillite(K,Na)2-3Ca28Zn4Al4Si40O112(OH)16Hex.
9.EE.80Fedorite(Na,K)2-3(Ca4Na3)Si16O38(OH,F)2 · 3.5H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.EE.80Martinite(Na,◻,Ca)12Ca4(Si,S,B)14B2O38(OH,Cl)2F2·4H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.EE.85Lalondeite(Na,Ca)6(Ca,Na)3Si16O38(F,OH)2·3H2OTric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

72.4.1b.2Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
72.4.1b.3Nelenite(Mn,Fe)16(Si12O30)(OH)14[As3+3O6(OH)3]Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.3.1RustumiteCa10(Si2O7)2(SiO4)(OH)2Cl2Mon.
17.3.2ZunyiteAl13Si5O20(OH,F)18ClIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
17.3.3SodaliteNa4(Si3Al3)O12ClIso. 4 3m : P4 3n
17.3.4MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24ClTet. 4/m : I4/m
17.3.5TugtupiteNa4BeAlSi4O12ClTet. 4 : I4
17.3.6Eudialyte(Na3Na3Na3Na3Na3)Ca6(IVFe2+3)Zr3[Si3O9]2[Si9O27SiO][Si9O27SiO]Cl(H2O)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.3.7AlluaiviteNa19(Ca,Mn)6(Ti,Nb)3Si26O74Cl · 2H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.3.8NasonitePb6Ca4(Si2O7)3Cl2Hex.
17.3.9AsisitePb7SiO9Cl2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
17.3.10JagoitePb18Fe3+4[Si4(Si,Fe3+)6][Pb4Si16(Si,Fe)4]O82Cl6Hex.
17.3.12Pyrosmalite-(Fe)Fe2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
17.3.13Pyrosmalite
17.3.14Pyrosmalite-(Mn)Mn2+8Si6O15(OH,Cl)10Trig.
17.3.16Mcgillite(Mn,Fe)8Si6O15(OH)8Cl2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
17.3.17TraskiteBa21Ca(Fe2+,Mn,Ti)4(Ti,Fe,Mg)12(Si12O36)(Si2O7)6(O,OH)30Cl6·14H2O Hex.
17.3.18MuiriteBa10Ca2Mn2+Ti[HSi2O7]5(OH,Cl,F)5Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
17.3.19VerplanckiteBa2(Mn,Fe,Ti)Si2O6(O,OH,Cl,F)2 · 3H2O or nearHex.

Fluorescence of FriedeliteHide

Not fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
None.

References for FriedeliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Bertrand, E. (1876) Sur un nouveau minéral des Pyrénees. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences: 82: 1167-1168.
Bertrand, E. (1884) Sur la Friedelite. Bulletin de Minéralogie: 7(1): 3-4.
Flink, G. (1891) Mineralogische Notizen III, 8. Friedelit von Harstigen. Meddelanden fran Stockholms Högskola: 115: 2-23.
Bauer, L.H., Berman, H. (1928) Friedelite, schallerite, and related minerals. American Mineralogist: 13(7): 341-348.
Frondel, C., Bauer, L.H. (1953) Manganpyrosmalite and its polymorphic relation to friedelite and schallerite. American Mineralogist: 38: 755-760.
Hey, M.H. (1956) The empirical unit-cell contents of the friedelite family. American Mineralogist: 41: 134-138.
Kaiupova, M. (1960) Friedelite from ferro-manganese beds, Djumart and Kamys, in central Kazakhstan. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 135(2): 416-418.
Dunn, P.J., Peacor, D.R., Nelen, J.A., Norberg, J.A. (1981) Crystal-chemical data for schallerite, caryopilite and friedelite from Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey. American Mineralogist: 66: 1054-1062.
Pienaar, H.S. (1982) Gem-quality friedelite from the Kalahari manganese field near Kuruman, South Africa. Gems and Gemology: 82: 221-224.
Ozawa, T., Takéuchi, Y., Takahata, T., Donnay, G., Donnay, J.D.H. (1983) The pyrosmalite group of minerals. II. The layer structure of mcgillite and friedelite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 21: 7-17.
Reddy, S.L., Reddy, K.M., Ramesh, K., Reddy, B.J. (1988) Spectral studies of Mn2+ in friedelite. Solid State Communications: 66(11): 1169-1171.
Kato, T., Watanabe, I. (1992) The crystal structures of schallerite and friedelite. Yamaguchi University, College of Arts Bulletin 26: 51-63.

Internet Links for FriedeliteHide

Localities for FriedeliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
Worner, H. K. and Mitchell, R. W., eds. Birch, W. D. (et al) (1982) Minerals of Broken Hill, published by Australian Mining & Smelting Limited ISBN 0-909221-18-9
Demetrius Pohl collection, Rock Currier photo
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Zell am See District
      • Kaprun
Kolitsch, U., Schachinger, T., Auer, C. (2019): 2118) Baryt, Calcit, Cobaltit, Friedelit, Kutnohorit, Rhodochrosit, Rhodonit, Siegenit, Sonolith, Spessartin und Tephroit vom Krapfkühkarl, Kapruner Tal, Salzburg. Pp. 270-273 in Walter, F. et al. (2019): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVIII. Carinthia II, 209./129., 237-362.
  • Styria
    • Bruck-Mürzzuschlag District
      • Sankt Barbara im Mürztal
        • Veitsch
          • Kleinveitsch
            • Kaiblinggraben
Francis, C.A. (2004)
Franz Bernhard collection
  • Tyrol
    • Innsbruck-Land District
      • Navis
Meixner, H. (1979): 460. Rhodonit, Friedelit und Manganokalzit von Navis, Tirol. In: Meixner, H. (1979): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich XXIX. Carinthia II, 169./89., 15-36.
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); Kolitsch, U., Schachinger, T., Auer, C. (2019): 2113) Akatoreit(?), Albit, Ardennit-(As), Ardennit-(V), „Ardennit-(Si)“, Baryt, Brandtit(?) (oder unbenanntes Ca2Mn(AsO4)2?), Coelestin, Fluorapatit, Fluorcalcioroméit, Frankdicksonit(?), Friedelit, Ganophyllit(?), Hämatit, Hausmannit, Hollandit, Jacobsit, Klinochlor, Kutnohorit, Manganberzeliit, Manganiandrosit-(La)-Manganiakasakait-(La)-Mischkristalle, Muskovit, Opal(?), Pennantit, Piemontit(?), Pyrobelonit, Pyrophanit, Quarz, Rhodochrosit, Rhodonit, Sarkinit, Schallerit, Spessartin, Svabit, Tephroit, Tilasit und Tiragalloit vom Navisbach, Navistal, Nordtirol. Pp. 251-260 in Walter, F. et al. (2019): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVIII. Carinthia II, 209./129., 237-362.
      • Wattens
        • Wattener Lizum (Wattentaler Lizum)
          • Geier
            • Staffelsee
tirol.orf.at/news/stories/2612087/; Krüger, H., Tropper, P., Haefeker, U., Kaindl, R., Tribus, M., Kahlenberg, V., Wikete, C., Fuchs, M.R., and Olieric, V. (2014) Innsbruckite, Mn33(Si2O5)14(OH)38 – a new mineral from the Tyrol, Austria. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 1613-1627.
    • Lienz District
      • Kals am Großglockner
        • Kals valley
Abrecht, J. (1990): An As-rich manganiferous mineral assemblage from the Ködnitz Valley (Eastern Alps, Austria): Geology, mineralogy, genetic considerations, and implications for metamorphic Mn deposits. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1990, 363-375.
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
Perseil, E. A. (1967): Manganese mineralization of the Upper Devonian in Las Cabesses (Ariege). Comptes Rendus du Congres National des Societes Savantes, Section des Sciences 91 (Part 2), 313-321.
    • Haute-Garonne
      • Saint-Gaudens
        • Argut-Dessous
Inventaire minéralogique de la France numero 8 Haute Garonne pages 20 et 21
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
Le Règne Minéral 47: 5-21
        • Nabias
Brugger, J., Bonin, M., Schenk, K. J., Meisser, N., Berlepsch, P., & Ragu, A. (1999). Description and crystal structure of nabiasite, BaMn 9 [(V, As) O 4] 6 (OH) 2, a new mineral from the Central Pyrenees (France). European journal of mineralogy, 11(5), 879-890.
      • Bagnères-de-Bigorre
        • Vielle-Aure
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 174; Ragu, A. (1994): Helvite from the French Pyrénées as evidence for granite-related hydrothermal activity. Canadian Mineralogist 32, 111-120.; DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., TIXADOR Y., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) La mine de Coustou, Vielle-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées. Le Règne Minéral, 47, 23-31. (in french)
Lienau, H. (1899): Manganese silico-carbonates from Hautes-Pyrenees. Chemiker-Zeitung 23, 418-419 (in German).
      • Louron Valley
        • Aderville
C.R.Acad.Sci.Paris,(1876) 82, 1167; Lacroix, A. (1900) Manganese minerals from Hautes-Pyrenees. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie 23, 251-255 (in French).
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Céret
        • Prats-de-Mollo-la-Preste
Dubru. M, (1986) Pétrologie et géochimie du marbre à brucite et des borates associés au gisement de tungstène de Costabonne, (Pyrénées orientales, France) 930p
        • Reynès
Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 46-49.
Germany
 
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Oberharz am Brocken
        • Elbingerode
          • Schävenholz (Schebenholz; Schäbenholz)
Witzke, T. (2013): Die Minerale der Manganlagerstätte Schävenholz bei Elbingerode, Harz.- Aufschluss 64, 69-80
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Lanzada
        • Scerscen Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.; Oberti R, Boiocchi M, Hawthorne F C, Ciriotti M E, Revheim O, Bracco R (2018) Clino-suenoite, a newly approved magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole from Valmalenco, Sondrio, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine 82, 189-198
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karaganda Region
    • Karazhal
      • Ushkatyn deposits (Ushkatan)
Frank Dzubeck; Kayupova, M. M. (1964) Pyrosmalite from the Dzhumart and Ushkatyn Deposits, Central Kazakhstan. Translated from: Pirosmalit iz mestorozhdeniy Dzhumart i Ushkatyn v Tsentral'nom Kazakhstane. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1964, Vol. 159, No.3, pp.560-663.
      • Zhayrem (Zhairem)
Frank Dzubeck; Kayupova, M.M. (1965) Doklady of the Academy of Sciences U.S.S.R., Earth Science sections, 163, 97-100.; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Vereshchagin, O.S., Britvin, S.N., Perova, E.N., Brusnitsyn, A.I., Polekhovsky, Y.S., Shilovskikh, V.V., Bocharov, V.N., van der Burgt, A., Cuchet, S., Meisser, N. (2019): Gasparite-(La), La(AsO4), a new mineral from Mn ores of the Ushkatyn-III deposit, Central Kazakhstan, and metamorphic rocks of the Wanni glacier, Switzerland. American Mineralogist 104, 1469-1480.
    • Zhanaarka
      • Atasu Mine
Kayupova, M. M. (1964) Pyrosmalite from the Dzhumart and Ushkatyn Deposits, Central Kazakhstan. Translated from: Pirosmalit iz mestorozhdeniy Dzhumart i Ushkatyn v Tsentral'nom Kazakhstane. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 1964, Vol. 159, No.3, pp.560-663.
Norway
 
  • Agder
    • Bykle
      • Hovden
Nordrum, F.S. (2008): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2007-2008. STEIN 35 (2), 8-20
Peru
 
  • Lima
    • Oyon Province
Bussell, M.A., Alpers, C.N., Petersen, U., Shepherd, T.J., Bermudez, C., Baxter, A.N. (1990) The Ag-Mn-Pb-Zn vein, replacement, and skarn deposits of Uchucchacua, Peru; studies of structure, mineralogy, metal zoning, Sr isotopes, and fluid inclusions. Economic Geology: 85(7): 1348–1383.
Romania
 
  • Suceava
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Tyumen Oblast
Brusnitsyn, A. I., Kuleshov, V. N., Perova, E. N., & Zaitsev, A. N. (2017). Ferromanganese carbonate metasediments of the Sob area, Polar Urals: Bedding conditions, composition, and genesis. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 52(3), 192-213.
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Minerals of South Africa
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Priorat
        • El Molar
Mineralogistes de Catalunya, vol. III num. 5
Sweden
 
  • Örebro County
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
Flink, G. (1917): Bidrag till Sveriges Mineralogi. Arkiv för Kemi, mineralogi och Geologi. Vol 6. no. 21, p. 52; Holtstam, D. (2001): W and V mineralization in Långban-type Fe-Mn deposits: Epigenetic or Syngenetic? Geologiske Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 123: 29-33
  • Stockholm County
    • Haninge
      • Utö
Langhof, J., Holtstam, D. & Gustafsson, L., 2000: Chiavennite and zoned genthelvite-helvite as late-stage minerals of the Proterozoic LCT pegmatites at Utö, Stockholm, Sweden. GFF, Vol. 122 (Pt. 2, June), pp. 207-212. Stockholm. ISSN 1103-5897
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Långban Ore District
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183. ; K:Gatedal
      • Persberg ore district
        • Pajsberg
Flink, G. (1917): Bidrag till Sveriges Mineralogi. Arkiv för Kemi, mineralogi och Geologi. Vol 6. no. 21, p. 49-52 ; Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
Switzerland
 
  • Grisons
    • Maloja Region
      • Samedan
        • Piz Corvatsch
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 171.
    • Plessur Region
      • Arosa
        • Langwies
          • Fondei Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 171.; Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 31
  • Valais
    • Leuk
      • Turtmann-Unterems
        • Turtmann Valley
          • Pipjitälli
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • San Juan Co.
      • Eureka Mining District
        • Gladstone
          • Bonita Peak
Rocks & Min.: 63: 366-384.; Burbank, W. S. (1933): The manganese minerals of the Sunnyside veins, Eureka Gulch, Colorado. American Mineralogist 18, 513-527.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Palache(1935):89-90; Dunn(1995):Pt4:478.
Palache(1935):89.
FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
Palache(1935):89.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Palache(1935):89-90; Dunn(1995):Pt4:478.
 
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