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Clifford Frondel
Dark brown, ocher-yellow, red-brown, greenish black, greenish brown, black; rarely orange
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy, Dull
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1949 by Marie Louise Lindberg (later Smith) in honor of Clifford Frondel (January 8, 1907 Brooklyn, New York, New York, USA - November 12, 2002 Winchester, Massachusetts, USA), American mineralogist, Professor of Mineralogy, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
The mineral cliffordite is also named in his honor.
Isostructural with:
Rockbridgeite Group. Frondelite-Rockbridgeite Series.
The Mn2+-analogue of rockbridgeite and plimerite.

A secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of primary phosphates in complex granitic pegmatites.

Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of FrondeliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
C : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 1:1 and < 2:1

9 : (AB)5(XO4)3Zq

19 : Phosphates
12 : Phosphates of Mn

Physical Properties of FrondeliteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy, Dull
Dark brown, ocher-yellow, red-brown, greenish black, greenish brown, black; rarely orange
Colour zoning lengthwise common, manifests as concentric banding in radial aggregates.
Green (unoxidized), brown (oxidized)
4½ on Mohs scale
Very Good
On {100}, excellent; on {010}, good; on {001}, fair.
Irregular/Uneven, Splintery, Fibrous
3.453 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.35 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of FrondeliteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.860 nβ = 1.880 nγ = 1.893
Measured: 45°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.033
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
r > v strong
Optical Extinction:
X = Light yellow-brown
Y = Orange-brown
Z = Orange-brown
Much so-called frondelite is Fe2+>Mn2+ and therefore is rockbridgeite.

Chemical Properties of FrondeliteHide


Crystallography of FrondeliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2 2 2 - Disphenoidal
Space Group:
C2 2 21
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.810 Å, b = 16.968 Å, c = 5.182 Å
a:b:c = 0.814 : 1 : 0.305
Unit Cell V:
1,214.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Euhedral crystals rare. Crystals exhibit {100}, {010}, {110}, and {101}. Typically fibrous, elongated along [001]; radiating, in crusts, botyroidal and drusy masses.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
6.91 (17)
3.615 (40)
3.445 (25)
3.381 (85)
3.191 (100)
3.046 (20)
1.5953 (19)
ICDD 35-625

Type Occurrence of FrondeliteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA - #100808.

National Museum of Natural Histriy, Washington, D.C., USA - #105946.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Granitic pegmatite
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for FrondeliteHide

Simplified Chinese:锰绿铁矿

Relationship of Frondelite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
PlimeriteZnFe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Phosphosiderite13 photos of Frondelite associated with Phosphosiderite on
Lindbergite10 photos of Frondelite associated with Lindbergite on
Strengite4 photos of Frondelite associated with Strengite on
Mitridatite4 photos of Frondelite associated with Mitridatite on
Rockbridgeite3 photos of Frondelite associated with Rockbridgeite on
Beraunite3 photos of Frondelite associated with Beraunite on
Variscite3 photos of Frondelite associated with Variscite on
Hureaulite2 photos of Frondelite associated with Hureaulite on
Jahnsite-(CaMnFe)2 photos of Frondelite associated with Jahnsite-(CaMnFe) on
Cyrilovite2 photos of Frondelite associated with Cyrilovite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.BC.05AngelelliteFe3+4(AsO4)2O3Tric. 1 : P1
8.BC.10RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.BC.10PlimeriteZnFe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.BC.15AerugiteNi8.5(AsO4)2As5+O8Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.12.1MetaswitzeriteMn2+3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.2BermaniteMn2+Mn3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.3NatrophiliteNaMn2+PO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.5Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2OOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
19.12.6RobertsiteCa2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. m : Bb
19.12.7PararobertsiteCa2Mn3+3(PO4)3O2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.8SinkankasiteMn2+Al(PO3OH)2(OH) · 6H2OTric.
19.12.9MangangordoniteMn2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric.
19.12.10Heterosite(Fe3+,Mn3+)PO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.11Purpurite(Mn3+,Fe3+)PO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.12Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.13Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.16RockbridgeiteFe2+Fe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
19.12.18LandesiteMn2+3-xFe3+x(PO4)2(OH)x · (3-x)H2OOrth.
19.12.19Phosphoferrite(Fe2+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.20Reddingite(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(PO4)2 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
19.12.21EarlshannoniteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
19.12.22Hureaulite(Mn,Fe)5(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.23Switzerite(Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 7H2OMon.
19.12.24LaueiteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.25PseudolaueiteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.26StrunziteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 6H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.27StewartiteMn2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.30Fillowite{Mn2+}{Na8}{Ca4Na4}{(Mn2+,Fe2+)43}(PO4)36Trig. 3 : R3
19.12.32WicksiteNaCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)4MgFe3+(PO4)6 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
19.12.33Dickinsonite-(KMnNa){KNa}{Mn2+◻}{Ca}{Na3}{Mn2+13}{Al}(PO4)12(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.34Sarcopside(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)3(PO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.35Ludlamite(Fe,Mn,Mg)3(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.36GraftoniteFe2+Fe2+2(PO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.37WilhelmvierlingiteCaMnFe3+(PO4)2(OH) · 2H2OOrth.
19.12.38FairfielditeCa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.39BeusiteMn2+Mn2+2 (PO4)2Mon.
19.12.40MesseliteCa2(Fe2+,Mn2+)(PO4)2 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.12.41Jahnsite-(CaMnFe){Ca}{Mn2+}{Fe2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.42Jahnsite-(CaMnMn){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mn2+2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.43Jahnsite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{(Mg,Fe2+)2}{Fe3+2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.44KeckiteCaMn2+Fe3+2Fe3+2(PO4)4(OH)3(H2O)7Mon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.47ZodaciteCa4Mn2+Fe3+4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 12H2OMon.
19.12.48HagendorfiteNaCaMn2+Fe2+2(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.50VaruliteNaCaMn2+Mn2+2(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.51GriphiteNa4Li2Ca6(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)19Al8(PO4)24(F,OH)8Iso. m3 (2/m 3)
19.12.52Attakolite(Ca,Sr)Mn(Al,Fe)4(HPO4,PO4)3(SiO4,PO4)(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
19.12.54Lun'okite(Mn,Ca)(Mg,Fe,Mn)Al(PO4)2OH · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
19.12.55EosphoriteMn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmca
19.12.56Ernstite(Mn2+,Fe3+)Al(PO4)(OH,O)2 · H2OMon.
19.12.57ChildreniteFe2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mm2 : Ccc2
19.12.58BobfergusoniteNa2Mn5FeAl(PO4)6Mon. 2/m : P2/b
19.12.59QingheiiteNaMn3+Mg(Al,Fe3+)(PO4)3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.60Whiteite-(CaFeMg){Ca}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.61Whiteite-(CaMnMg){Ca}{Mn2+}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
19.12.62Whiteite-(MnFeMg){(Mn2+,Ca)}{(Fe2+,Mn2+)}{Mg2}{Al2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.12.63Rittmannite{(Mn2+,Ca)}{Mn2+}{(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)2}{(Al,Fe3+)2}(PO4)4(OH)2 · 8H2OMon.
19.12.64ZanazziiteCa2Mg5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.12.65Samuelsonite(Ca,Ba)Ca8Fe2+2Mn2+2Al2(PO4)10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Fluorescence of FrondeliteHide

Not Fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

Soluble in HCl but not in HNO3 or H2SO4.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for FrondeliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Lindberg (1949) Frondelite and the frondelite-rockbridgeite series. American Mineralogist: 34: 541-549.
Lindberg, M.L. (1960) Crystal habit of frondelite, Sapucaia pegmatite mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 400B: 429–430.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 867-869.

Internet Links for FrondeliteHide

Localities for FrondeliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Pena
Scholz R, Chukanov N V, Menezes L A D, Atencio D, Lagoeiro L, Belotti F M, Chaves M L S C, Romano A W, Brandão P R, Belakovskiy D I, Pekov I (2014) Césarferreiraite, Fe2+Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)28·H2O, from Eduardo mine, Conselheiro Pena, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Second arsenate in the laueite mineral group. American Mineralogist 99, 607-611
Baijot, M., Hatert, F., Dal Rio, F. & Philipo, S. (2014) Mineralogy and petrography of phosphate mineral association from the Jocão pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist 52, 373-397.
    • Divino das Laranjeiras
      • Linópolis
Cassedanne, J.P. (1983): Famous mineral localities: The Córrego Frio mine and vicinity, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 14 (4): 227-237
[MinRec 14:235]
Cassedanne, J.P. (1983): Famous minera localities: The Córrego Frio Mine and vicinity, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record 14: 227-237
European Journal of Mineralogy 22,459(2010)
Cassedanne, J.P. (1983): Famous mineral localities: The Córrego Frio mine and vicinity, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mineralogical Record, 14 (4): 227-237 [ p.233-4]
    • Galiléia
      • Sapucaia do Norte
AmMin 89:1087
Lindberg, M. L. (1949): Frondelite and the frondelite-rockbridgeite series. American Mineralogist. 34, 541-549; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 868; Mineralogical Record: 30: 347.
    • Itinga
      • Taquaral
        • Laranjeira
Cassedanne, J.P. & J.O. (1980): A find of crystallized Rose Quartz in Minas Gerais. Mineralogical Record 11: 377-379
    • Mendes Pimentel
Atencio, D., Coutinho, J.M.V., Mascarenhas, Y.P., Ellena, J. (2006): Matioliite, the Mg-analog of burangaite, from Gentil mine, Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and other occurrences. American Mineralogist, 91, 1932-1936.
  • Paraíba
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Frei Martinho
[MinRec 22:183]
      • Pedra Lavrada
Sergio Varvello collection
      • Picuí
Sergio Varvello collection
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Horní Slavkov (Schlaggenwald)
        • Krásno (Schönfeld)
Petr Pauliš (2000): Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Čech, Kuttna, Kutná Hora; Sejkora, J., Škoda, R., Ondruš, P., Beran, P. & Susser, C. (2006): Mineralogy of phosphate accumulations in the Huber stock, Krásno ore district, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 103-147.
          • Vysoký Kámen
Jirásek J. et al. (2016): Fosfáty a doprovodné minerály z živcového lomu Vysoký kámen u Krásna, Česká republika. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 80-94.
    • Plzeň Region
      • Poběžovice (Ronsperg; Ronsberg; Ronsperk)
        • Otov
Čech F., Staněk J., Dávidová Š. (1981): Minerály pegmatitů. - in: Bernard J.H. [ed.]: Mineralogie Československa. Academia, Praha.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Žďár nad Sázavou District
        • Křižanov
Škoda, R., Staněk, J., Čopjaková, R.: Minerální asociace fosfátových nodulí z granitického pegmatitu od Cyrilova u Velkého Meziříčí, Moldanubikum; část 1 – primární a exsoluční fáze. Acta Mus. Moraviae, Sci. geol., 2007, 92, 59-74.; Novak, M., Sejkora, J., & Cooper, M. A. (2000). Cyrilovite from Cyrilov, western Moravia, Czech Republic; new data on the type material. Journal of GEOsciences, 45(1-2), 101-106.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Sud-Kivu
    • Mwenga
Mills, S. J., Birch, W. D., Kampf, A. R. & van Wambeke, L. (2010) Kobokoboite, Al6(PO4)4(OH)6•11H2O, a new mineral from the Kobokobo pegmatite, Democratic Republic of the Congo. European Journal of Mineralogy, 22(2)
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Orivesi
      • Eräjärvi area
Lahti Seppo I., 1981. On the granitic pegmatites of the Eräjärvi area in Orivesi, Southern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 314, 82 s.
Sandström, F. & Lahti, S.I. (2009): Viitaniemipegmatiten i Eräjärvi, Orivesi, Finland. Litiofilen 26 (1): 11-38
  • Occitanie
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
BERBAIN,C., RILEY, T., FAVREAU, G., (2012)Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères (Pyrénées-Orientales), 117, 121-172, le Cahier des Micromonteurs, Association Française de Micromineralogie
        • Collioure (Cotlliure)
BERBAIN. C, RILEY. T, FAVREAU. G, (2012) Phosphates des pegmatites du massif des Albères. Ed Association Française de Microminéralogie
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Bavaria
      • Zwiesel
        • Rabenstein
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Auerbach
Simone Citon collection
        • Nitzlbuch (Nitzelbuch)
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Neustadt an der Waldnaab
        • Reinhardsrieth
Harald G. Dill and Radek Skoda (2015) The new Nb–P aplite at Reinhardsrieth: A keystone in the lateral and depth zonations of the Hagendorf–Pleystein Pegmatite Field, SE Germany. Ore Geology Reviews 70:208–227.
      • Pleystein
Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
  • Marrakech-Safi Region
    • Rehamna Province
      • Jebilet Mtn (Djebilet Mtn)
        • Sidi Bou Othmane
Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib
      • Okongava Ost Farm 72
      • Usakos
Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 409 (in English).
Keller, P. (1974): Phosphatmineralien aus Pegmatiten Sudwestafrikas, Der Aufschluss 25,577-591(1974)
  • Guarda District
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
    • Guarda
      • Vela
Pedro Alves collection. Characterized by p-XRD and EDS
    • Sabugal
      • Bendada
Schnorrer-Köhler (1991), Mineral Occurrences.
Pedro Alves collection
  • Viana do Castelo District
    • Ponte da Barca
      • São Lourenço de Touvedo
Self-find by Nuno Afonso; optical and XRD analysed.
  • Viseu District
    • Mangualde
      • Mesquitela
Pedro Alves collection and analytical data.
    • Sátão
      • Ferreira de Aves
        • Aldeia Nova
Pedro Alves (2012) Morinita de la mina “Senhora da Assunção”, Ferreira de Aves (Viseu, Portugal). ACOPIOS-Revista Ibérica de Mineralogía, Vol 4 (2013): 73-84.
  • Southern Province
    • Gitarama
Knut Edvard Larsen collection # 1176
  • Western Province
    • Gatumba District
Bertossa, A. (1968) Inventaire des minéraux du Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de Rwanda: 4: 25-45.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
  • Lappland
    • Kiruna district
      • Svappavaara
Thorin, L. (1989). Mineralnotiser. Stuffen (Medlemsblad för Södertörn Amatörgeologiska Sällskap). Nr 38, 11.
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Austell District
        • Treverbyn
          • Stenalees
Elton, N. J. (1998): Barbosalite, frondelite and other phosphates from Gunheath China Clay Pit, St Austell, Cornwall, England. Journal of the Russell Society 7, 15-18.
  • California
    • San Diego Co.
      • Jacumba Mts
        • Jacumba District
          • Jacumba
            • Tule Mountain (Mount Tule; Tulley Mountain)
Mineralogical Record 33(5):363-407
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 868; Korbel & Novak (1999) Min. Encylopaedia, p.163.; Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
Paul Moore, Am. Min. 50 (1965), 713-717; Kampf, A. R., Falster, A. U., Simmons, W. B., & Whitmore, R. W. (2013). Nizamoffite, Mn2+ Zn2 (PO4) 2 (H2O) 4, the Mn analogue of hopeite from the Palermo No. 1 pegmatite, North Groton, New Hampshire. American Mineralogist, 98(10), 1893-1898.
Whitmore & Lawrence, 2004. The Pegmatite Mines Known As Palermo, p. 96.
  • North Carolina
    • Cleveland Co.
      • Kings Mountain District
Rocks and Minerals, (1985) 60:76-82; Carolina Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook 1981, 39-48
    • Gaston Co.
      • Bessemer City
No reference listed
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer District
        • Fourmile
Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 156-169.
Mineralogical Record: 17: 237-254; Rocks & Minerals: 60: 117.
    • Pennington Co.
      • Hill City District
Rocks & Minerals: 75(3): 156-169.
      • Keystone District
        • Keystone
Rocks & Minerals: 67(6): 380-388.
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