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Galaxite

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About GalaxiteHide

Formula:
Mn2+Al2O4
Colour:
Red, brown
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
4.03 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
The type locality (Bald Knob deposit, Alleghany Co., North Carolina, USA) is near Galax (Virginia). The mineral has been named for Galax and for the plant galax urceolata, after which the town is named.
This page provides mineralogical data about Galaxite.


Classification of GalaxiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.BB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
7.2.1.2

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
7.19.5

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
19 : Oxides of Mn and Fe

Pronounciation of GalaxiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of GalaxiteHide

Vitreous
Colour:
Red, brown
Streak:
Brownish red
Hardness:
7½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
4.03 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of GalaxiteHide

Chemical Properties of GalaxiteHide

Formula:
Mn2+Al2O4

Crystallography of GalaxiteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fd3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.271 Å
Unit Cell V:
565.81 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Massive.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000895GalaxiteEssene E J, Peacor D R (1983) Crystal chemistry and petrology of coexisting galaxite and jacobsite and other spinel solution and solvi American Mineralogist 68 449-45519830293
0006642GalaxiteLucchesi S, Russo U, Della Giusta A (1997) Crystal chemistry and cation distribution in some Mn-rich natural and synthetic spinels European Journal of Mineralogy 9 31-4219970293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of GalaxiteHide

Synonyms of GalaxiteHide

Other Language Names for GalaxiteHide

German:Galaxit
Spanish:Galaxita

Relationship of Galaxite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
CochromiteCoCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
CoulsoniteFe2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
CuprospinelCu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
DellagiustaiteV2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Deltalumite(Al0.670.33)Al2O4Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
GuiteCo2+Co3+2O4Iso.
HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4Iso.
MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
ThermaerogeniteCuAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Titanomaghemite(Ti4+0.50.5)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P43 3 2
TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
UM1994-06-O:AlCoCoAl2O4
VuorelaineniteMn2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
ZincochromiteZnCr2O4Iso.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
4 photos of Galaxite associated with JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4
4 photos of Galaxite associated with Wiserite(Mn2+,Mg)14(B2O5)4(OH)8 · (Si,Mg)(O,OH)4Cl
1 photo of Galaxite associated with KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
1 photo of Galaxite associated with Manganocummingtonite◻{Mn2+2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
1 photo of Galaxite associated with PyrochroiteMn(OH)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.BB.ChenmingiteFeCr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.BB.DellagiustaiteV2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.ThermaerogeniteCuAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05CochromiteCoCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05CoulsoniteFe2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05CuprospinelCu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
4.BB.05Filipstadite(Fe3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
4.BB.05FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4Iso.
4.BB.05MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05VuorelaineniteMn2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ZincochromiteZnCr2O4Iso.
4.BB.10HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10Jacobsite-QMn2+(Fe3+,Mn3+)2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.15Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
4.BB.15Titanomaghemite(Ti4+0.50.5)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P43 3 2
4.BB.20Tegengrenite(Mn3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mg2O4Trig.
4.BB.25XieiteFe2+Cr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

7.2.1.1SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.2.1.3HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.2.1.4GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.19.1BixbyiteMn3+2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
7.19.2JangguniteMn5-x(Mn,Fe)1+xO8(OH)6Orth.
7.19.3JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.19.4Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2OHex.
7.19.6Filipstadite(Fe3+0.5Sb5+0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
7.19.7ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.19.8ZenzénitePb3Fe3+4Mn4+3O15Hex.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Galaxite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for GalaxiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Krenner (1907), Zs. Kr.: 43: 471.
Ross and Kerr (1932), American Mineralogist (1932): 17: 1-8, 15.
Essene, E.J. and Peacor, D.R. (1983) Crystal chemistry and petrology of coexisting galaxite and jacobsite and other spinel solutions and solvi. American Mineralogist: 68: 449-455.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 689-697.
European Journal of Mineralogy: 9: 31-42.
Zhai, Shuangmeng; Yin, Yuan; Shieh, Sean R.; Chang, Yun-Yuan; Xie, Tianqi; Xue, Weihong (2017): Raman spectroscopic study of MnAl2O4 galaxite at various pressures and temperatures. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 44, 163-170.

Internet Links for GalaxiteHide

Localities for GalaxiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • Lienz District
      • Prägraten am Großvenediger
        • Timmelbach valley
Kolitsch, U., Schachinger, T., Auer, C. (2017): 2026) Albit, Amphibol, Bementit(?), Braunit, ein Mn-Chlorit, As-haltiger Fluorapatit, Galaxit, Hämatit, Hübnerit, Iwakiit(?), Jakobsit, Kalifeldspat, Kutnahorit, Långbanit, Manganoxide, Nickelskutterudit, Pyrophanit, Quarz, Rhodochrosit, Rhodonit, Safflorit, Sarkinit, Sonolith, Spessartin, Tephroit, Uraninit und Zirkon aus Manganvererzungen von der Wunwand (Wunspitze) bei Prägraten, Osttirol. Pp. 241-246 in Walter, F. et al. (2017): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVI. Carinthia II, 207./127., 217-284.
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Franconia
      • Haßberge District
        • Maroldsweisach
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Ghana
 
  • Western Region
    • Tarkwa
Mineralium Deposita Volume 34 Issue 3 (1999) pp 297-311
Japan
 
  • Aichi Prefecture
    • Kitashitara County
      • Shitara
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.; Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.; Hirowatari, F., & Fukuoka, M. (1988). Welinite in the bedded manganese ore deposits of Japan. Mining Geology, 38(211), 449-456.
  • Fukui Prefecture
    • Mikatakaminaka District
      • Wakasa-cho
Kato, A. (2010) Mumeikai Group meeting, No. 30.; 加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
  • Gifu Prefecture
Donald E. Lee (1955)
  • Gunma Prefecture
    • Kiryu City
加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
    • Midori City
      • Seta
Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.; 加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
  • Hokkaidō Prefecture
    • Oshima Subprefecture
      • Futami District
        • Yakumo
          • Kumaishi
Kobayashi H (1977) Kanoite, (Mn2+,Mg)2[Si2O6], a new clinopyroxene in the metamorphic rock from Tatehira, Oshima Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 83, 537-542; Tomohiro Morishita, Hiroharu Mastueda (2011) Mineral assemblage and genesis of the Tatehira manganese ore deposit, Southeast Hokkaido, Japan. Abstracts for Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences 2011 Session ID: R1-P22
  • Iwate Prefecture
    • Kuji City
      • Yamagata
Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
    • Kunohe-gun
      • Noda-mura
Katsu Kaneko (1956) Symposium del Manganeso, XX Congreso Geologico Internacional, Mexico D.F.; Watanabe, T., Kato, A., & Ito, J. (1960). The Minerals of the Noda-Tamagawa Mine, Iwaté Prefecture, Japan: II. Pyrochroite Ore (Kimiman-kô) and Its Origin. Mineralogical Journal, 3(1), 30-41.
    • Shimohei District
      • Yamada-machi
Dr. Matsuo Nambu ore collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Kyoto Prefecture
    • Soraku District
      • Wazuka-cho
Ohe Rikosha specimens (with sonolite)
  • Miyazaki Prefecture
    • Nishiusuki District
      • Hinokage
Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
      • Takachiho
Fuzimoto, M. (2006): Manganese minerals from manganese mines, Takachiho district, Miyazaki Prefecture​. Part 2. Morowaku Mine. Chigaku Kenkyu 55(1), 3-10 (in Japanese).
  • Shiga Prefecture
    • Ritto City
Katsu Kaneko (1956) Symposium del Manganeso, XX Congreso Geologico Internacional, Mexico D.F.; Yoshinaga, Mayumi. "Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral." Mem Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Ser D Geol 14 (1963): 1-21.; Hirowatari, F., & Fukuoka, M. (1988). Welinite in the bedded manganese ore deposits of Japan. Mining Geology, 38(211), 449-456.
  • Tochigi Prefecture
加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
    • Kanuma City
Akira Kato (undated manuscript): Country rock and Minerals of the Kaso mine, Kanuma City, Tochigi Prefecture. (in japanese); Yoshinaga, Mayumi. "Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral." Mem Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Ser D Geol 14 (1963): 1-21.; 加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
H. Yoshimura (1952)
  • Yamaguchi Prefecture
    • Iwakuni City
Lee, D. E. (1955)
    • Kudamatsu City
Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.; Fumitoshi HIROWATARI (1961) Minerals and Their Paragenetic Relations of the Manganese Deposits of Fukumaki Mine, Yamaguchi Prefecture. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Japan Vol.12:565-572; Hirowatari, F., & Fukuoka, M. (1988). Welinite in the bedded manganese ore deposits of Japan. Mining Geology, 38(211), 449-456.
    • Kuga District
H. Momoi (1964) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 61.
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
Namibia
 
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
Romania
 
  • Suceava
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
        • Tolovanu
Udubașa, G., Ďud'a, R., Szakáll, S., Kvasnytsya, V., Koszowska, E., Novák, M. (2002): Minerals of the Carpathians (Szakáll, S., ed.). Granit, Prague, Czech Rep., 482 pp. Hîrtopanu, P. (1997): Tolovanu manganese mine. In: Nedelcu, L., Moga, C., Podasca, I., Hirtopanu, P. (Eds.), Crystalline zone of the East Carpathians (Northern Bistrița Mts.): Structure, lithostratigraphy, metamorphism and metallogeny. Valea Putnei-Valea Bistriței. Romanian Journal of Mineralogy: 78 (Suppl. 2): 25-34
Russia
 
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Yekaterinburg
Brusnitsyn, A.I. (2000) Rhodonite deposits of Middle Ural. St. Petersburg University press, p. 200 (in Russ.).
      • Sedel'nikovo
Brusnitsyn A.I. (2000) Rhodonite deposits of Middle Ural, - S.-Peterburg Univercity press, p. 200 (in Rus.).
World of Stones #10.
Sweden
 
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
      • Långban Ore District
Kjell Gatedal
      • Nordmark District
        • Jakobsberg ore field
Kjell Gatedal
      • Nordmark Odal Field (Nordmarksberg)
Mineralogical Magazine(1978) 42, 133-136
Knut Edvard Larsen collection (Ex Harald Folvik collection)
Switzerland
 
  • Grisons
    • Maloja Region
      • Samedan
        • Piz Corvatsch
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 175-176.
    • Viamala Region
      • Rheinwald
        • Splügen
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 176.
  • Valais
    • Leuk
      • Turtmann-Unterems
        • Turtmann Valley
          • Pipjitälli
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 44, pp. 000 (2006) page 205; Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    • Visp
      • Täsch
        • Täsch Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 30-31
Thailand
 
  • Kanchanaburi Province
    • Bo Phloi District
      • Bo Phloi
RRUFF Specimen ID: R120116
United Arab Emirates
 
  • Emirate of Fujairah
    • Semail Ophiolite
Gnos, E. and Peters, T. (1995) Tephroite-hausmannite-galaxite from a granulite-facies manganese rock of the United Arab Emirates. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 120: 372-377.
USA
 
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
  • North Carolina
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Sparta
        • Bald Knob
Rocks & Min.: 60:130-135.
    • Clay Co.
Forsyth Gem and Mineral Club
  • Virginia
    • Carroll Co.
      • Southern Section-Blue Ridge Province
        • Gossan Lead Mining District
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Pittsylvania Co.
      • James River-Roanoke River Mn-Fe-Ba Mining District
Beard, J.S. and Tracy, R.J. (2002): Spinels and other oxides in Mn-rich rocks from the Hutter Mine, Pittsylvania County, Virginia, U.S.A.: Implications for miscibility and solvus relations among jacobsite, galaxite, and magnetite. American Mineralogist, 87, 690-698.; AmMin 87:690-698 (2002)
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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