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Galena

This page kindly sponsored by Bill Cordua
Formula:
PbS
System:
Isometric
Colour:
Lead-grey
Lustre:
Metallic, Dull
Hardness:
Member of:
Name:
Named by Pliny the Elder in 77-79 from the Greek "galene" meaning lead ore.
Galena Group.

Galena is the primary ore mineral of lead. Worked for its lead content as early as 3000 BC, it is found in ore veins with sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tennantite-tetrahedrite, etc. and in skarns, as well as in sedimentary rocks where it may replace carbonate beds or be deposited in pore spaces. The crystals are bright when fresh but often tarnish after exposure to air.


Classification of Galena

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.CD.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
D : With Sn, Pb, Hg, etc.
2.8.1.1

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
3.6.5

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
6 : Sulphides etc. of Sb and Pb

Physical Properties of Galena

Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Lead-grey
Streak:
Lead-grey
Hardness (Mohs):
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN100=79 - 104 kg/mm2
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{001}
Parting:
{111}
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
7.58 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.57 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Galena

Type:
Isotropic
Colour in reflected light:
White
Comments:
Often will form triangular pits in poorly polished sections.

Chemical Properties of Galena

Formula:
PbS
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ag,Cu,Fe,Bi

Crystallography of Galena

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.936 Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 209.16 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Cubes, octahedrons, cube-octahedron combinations and rarely dodecahedrons
Twinning:
Spinel {111}, Lamellar {114}

Crystallographic forms of Galena

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Galena no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.37 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.45 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Galena no.68 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Relationship of Galena to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Clausthalite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AlabanditeMnS
AltaitePbTe
ClausthalitePbSe
Niningerite(Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+)S
Oldhamite(Ca,Mg)S
2.CD.05HerzenbergiteSnS
2.CD.05TeallitePbSnS2
2.CD.10AlabanditeMnS
2.CD.10AltaitePbTe
2.CD.10ClausthalitePbSe
2.CD.10NiningeriteMgS
2.CD.10OldhamiteCaS
2.CD.10KeiliteFeS
2.CD.15aCinnabarHgS
2.CD.15bHypercinnabarHgS
3.6.1HerzenbergiteSnS
3.6.2OttemanniteSn2S3
3.6.3BerndtiteSnS2
3.6.4StistaiteSnSb
3.6.6ClausthalitePbSe
3.6.7AltaitePbTe
3.6.8Furutobeite(Cu,Ag)6PbS4
3.6.9AschamalmitePb6-3xBi2+xS9
3.6.10Betekhtinite(Cu,Fe)21Pb2S15
3.6.11Shadlunite(Fe,Cu)8(Pb,Cd)S8

Other Names for Galena

Name in Other Languages:
Basque:Galena
Bosnian (Latin Script):Galenit
Catalan:Galena
Czech:Galenit
Dutch:Galeniet
Esperanto:Galeno
Estonian:Galeniit
Finnish:Lyijyhohde
Galician:Galena
Hebrew:גלנה
Hungarian:Galenit
Italian:Galena
Japanese:方鉛鉱
Lithuanian:Galenitas
Low Saxon:Galenit
Norwegian (Bokmål):Blyglans
Polish:Galena
Portuguese:Galena
Romanian:Galenă
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Галенит
Simplified Chinese:方铅矿
Slovak:Galenit
Slovenian:Galenit
Swedish:Blyglans
Ukrainian:Галеніт

Other Information

Electrical:
Semiconductor - Used as a point contact diode in early radio wireless sets.
Health Risks:
Contains lead - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when breaking. Do not lick.
Industrial Uses:
Principal ore of lead. Often contains silver and is a frequent ore of that metal as well.

Pronounciation of Galena

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byFrom
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

References for Galena

Reference List:
Brown, J.S. (1936) Supergene sphalerite, galena, and willemite at Balmat, NY. Economic Geology: 31: 331-354.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 200-204.

Bedarida F. (1965) Osservazioni su fenomeni di sfaldatura in cristalli di galena. Periodico di Mineralogia: 337-354.

Blackburn, W.H., Schwendeman, J.F. (1977) Trace-element substitution in galena. The Canadian Mineralogist: 15: 365-373.

Steger, H.F., Desjardins, L.E. (1980) Oxidation of sulfide minerals; V, Galena, sphalerite and chalcocite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 18: 365-372.

Augustithis, S.S., Vgenopoulos, A. (1982) On the hawleyite-sphalerite-wurtzite-galena paragenesis from Ragada, Komotini, (Rhodope) North Greece. Special Publication of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits: 2: 413-417.

Franzini M., Troysi M., Cecchini A.(1984) La microdurezza della galena e le sue variazioni in funzione della temperatura. Rend. Soc. It. Min. Petr.: 39: 717-723.

Tossel, J.A., Vaughan, D.J. (1987) Electronic structure and the chemical reactivity of the surface of galena. The Canadian Mineralogist: 25: 381-392.

Deore, S., Navrotsky, A. (2006) Oxide melt solution calorimetry of sulfides: Enthalpy of formation of sphalerite, galena, greenockite, and hawleyite. American Mineralogist: 91: 400-403.

Internet Links for Galena

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-1641.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Galena specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Significant localities for Galena

Showing 31 significant localities out of 24,571 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
      • Bleiberg District
        • Bad Bleiberg
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
        • Kreuth
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Malta valley
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
Belgium
 
  • Liège Province
    • Verviers
      • Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district
        • Kelmis (La Calamine)
[var: Strickblende] C.H.M.-Schäfer, Paul de Bondt and other collections
  • Namur Province
    • Andenne
      • Seilles
Harjo Neutkens collection
Canada
 
  • Yukon
    • Mayo Mining District
      • Galena Hill
        • Elsa
CATHRO, R.. Great Mining Camps of Canada 1. The History and Geology of the Keno Hill Silver Camp, Yukon Territory. Geoscience Canada, North America, 33, sep. 2006.; Oscar Jose Tessari (1979) Model Ages and Applied Whole Rock Geochemistry of Ag-Pb-Zn veins, Keno Hill - Galena Hill Mining Camp, Yukon Territory. MSc Thesis, University of British Columbia.
France
 
  • Grand Est
    • Bas-Rhin
      • Bruche valley (Breuch valley)
        • Schirmeck
Alain Steinmetz and Thierry Brunsperger Collection
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Cernay
        • Steinbach
          • Silberthal
[var: Argentiferous Galena] J.-L. Hohl: "Minéraux et Mines du Massif Vosgien", Editions du Rhin (Mulhouse), 1994 Mines, mineurs et minéralogie du Silberthal, tomes 1 et 2
Mines, mineurs et minéralogie du Silberthal, tomes 1 et 2
  • Occitanie
    • Gard
      • Saint-Laurent-le-Minier
        • Les Malines District
[var: Strickblende] Gol, D, Martaud, A., Meisser, N. & Chollet, P. (2010): Minéralogie des Malines, Gard. Le Règne Minéral, HS XVI, 49-88.
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Tanneron
Mari G. (2002), La mine de Fontsante (Var), Le Règne Minéral, n°43, pp: 38-60
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Wiesloch
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Eifel
      • Düren
        • Untermaubach
Schachner, D., (1961): Blei-Zink-Lagerstätten im Buntsandstein der Triasmulde Maubach-Mechernich-Kall, Der Aufschluss, 10. Sonderheft
Ireland
 
  • Co. Longford
    • Ballymahon
      • Keel
Barry Flannery (Personal Collection); Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C., (2009), Sediment-hosted zinc-lead deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1252
  • Co. Tipperary
    • Silvermines District
Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 105; Moreton, S. (1999) Mineralogical Record, 30, 99-106.
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Lucca Province
      • Apuan Alps
        • Stazzema
European Journal of Mineralogy, 12 (2)
Morocco
 
  • Béni Mellal-Khénifra Region
    • Khénifra Province
      • M'Rirt
Bull. Minéral. , 1984, 107, pp. 255-272.
Peru
 
  • Ancash Department
    • Bolognesi Province
      • Huallanca District
        • Huallanca
Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9; Econ Geol (1985) 80:416-478
Mineralogical Record 28, no. 4 (1997)
    • Recuay Province
      • Ticapampa District
Mi.Rec. 28, no.4 (1997)
  • Lima Department
    • Huarochiri Province
      • Casapalca
Mineralogical Record (1997): 28(4).
Poland
 
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Bytom District (Beuthen)
No reference listed; Coppola, V., Boni, M., Gilg, A., and Strzelska-Smakowska, B. (2009): Mineralium Deposita 44, 559-580.
Portugal
 
  • Castelo Branco District
    • Covilhã
      • São Francisco de Assis
Romania
 
  • Maramureș Co.
    • Baia Mare (Nagybánya)
      • Chiuzbaia (Kisbánya)
Palache et al (1944), Dana's System of Mineralogy, Seventh ed., Vol. 1: 450.; Cook, N. J. & Damian, G. S. (1997): New data on "plumosite" and other sulfosalt minerals from the Herja hydrothermal vein deposit, Baia Mare district, Rumania. Geologica Carpathica 48, 387-399.
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
        • Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)
[MinRec 32:9]; Rogulina, L.I., and Sveshnikova, O.L. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(1), 60-74.; Dobovol'skaya, M. G., Baskina, V. A., Balashova, S. P., Kenisarin, A. M., Arakelyants, M. M., Klimachev, L. A., & Muravitskaya, G. N. (1990). Order of Formation of the Ores and Mafic Dikes of the Nikolayevsk Deposit (Southern Primor'ye). International Geology Review, 32(4), 391-403.
South Africa
 
  • Gauteng Province
    • Witwatersrand field
      • West Rand District (West Rand)
        • Far West Rand (West Wits Line)
          • Western Sector
            • Carletonville
[MinRec 32:177]
UK
 
  • England
    • Co. Durham
      • North Pennines
        • Weardale
          • Ireshopeburn
Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9
    • Cumbria
      • Alston Moor District
        • Nenthead
Dunham Sir K C, Geology of the Northern Pennine Orefield, Vol 1, Tyne to Stainmore. HMSO
USA
 
  • Connecticut
    • Litchfield Co.
      • Thomaston
        • Thomaston Dam
Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Segeler, Curt and Molon, Joseph. (1985), The Thomaston Dam Site, Thomaston, Connecticut; Rocks & Minerals: 60(3): 119-124.; Vogt, Wolfgang. (1991), Rediscovering Thomaston Dam. Lapidary Journal: April.; Zodac, Peter. (1959), Minerals at Thomaston Dam, Connecticut; Rocks & Minerals: 34: 3.
  • Missouri
    • Reynolds Co.
      • Viburnum Trend District
        • Ellington
Rocks & Min.: 64:22&26.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Econ.Geol.: 83; 355-376; Econ Geol (1993) 88:957-960; Econ Geol. (1995) 90:1875-1910
  • New York
    • Ulster Co.
      • Wawarsing
        • Ellenville
Dana 7:I:592.; Econ Geol (1990) 85:182-196
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