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Ganophyllite

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About GanophylliteHide

Formula:
(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
Hardness:
4 - 4½
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1890 by Axel Hamberg from the Greek γανωμα for "brilliance or luster" and φύλλον for "leaf," in allusion to the high luster on platy cleavage surfaces.
Ganophyllite Group. The potassium analogue of Eggletonite. Compare UM1990-61-SiO:AlCaHKMnNa.

May be visually similar to bannisterite and parsettensite.


Classification of GanophylliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.EG.30

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
G : Double nets with 6-membered and larger rings
74.1.2.1

74 : PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
1 : Modulated Layers with joined islands
16.16.9

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
16 : Aluminosilicates of Mn

Physical Properties of GanophylliteHide

Hardness:
4 - 4½ on Mohs scale

Optical Data of GanophylliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.537 nβ = 1.611 nγ = 1.613
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.076
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
weak

Chemical Properties of GanophylliteHide

Formula:
(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2O
IMA Formula:
(K,Na)xMn2+6(Si,Al)10O24(OH)4 · nH2O (x = 1-2; n = 7-11)
Common Impurities:
Fe,Zn,Pb,Ca,Ba

Crystallography of GanophylliteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.6 Å, b = 27.13 Å, c = 50.18 Å
β = 93.96°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.612 : 1 : 1.85
Unit Cell V:
22,545.01 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0002250GanophylliteNoe D C, Veblen D R (1999) Incommensurate modulation and the crystal structure of ganophyllite American Mineralogist 84 1088-109819990293
0019465GanophylliteEggleton R A, Guggenheim S (1986) A re-examination of the structure of ganophyllite Mineralogical Magazine 50 307-3151986Harstig mine, Pajsberg, Sweden0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of GanophylliteHide

Other Language Names for GanophylliteHide

Simplified Chinese:辉叶石
Spanish:Ganophyllita

Relationship of Ganophyllite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Eggletonite(Na,K,Ca)2(Mn,Fe)8(Si,Al)12O29(OH)7 · 11H2OMon.
Tamaite(Ca,K,Ba,Na)3-4Mn24(Si,Al)40(O,OH)112 · 21H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
22 photos of Ganophyllite associated with ClinohedriteCaZn(SiO4) · H2O
22 photos of Ganophyllite associated with HendricksiteKZn3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
18 photos of Ganophyllite associated with RoeblingitePb2Ca6Mn2+(Si3O9)2(SO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O
15 photos of Ganophyllite associated with XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2
11 photos of Ganophyllite associated with RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
7 photos of Ganophyllite associated with Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
7 photos of Ganophyllite associated with PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
6 photos of Ganophyllite associated with CahniteCa2[B(OH)4](AsO4)
6 photos of Ganophyllite associated with BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
5 photos of Ganophyllite associated with WillemiteZn2SiO4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EG.05CymriteBaAl2Si2(O,OH)8 · H2OMon.
9.EG.10Naujakasite(Na,K)6(Fe2+,Mn2+,Ca)(Al,Fe)4Si8O26Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EG.10ManganonaujakasiteNa6(Mn2+,Fe2+)Al4Si8O26Mon.
9.EG.15DmisteinbergiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Trig. 3 2 : P3 1 2
9.EG.20KampfiteBa12(Si11Al5)O31(CO3)8Cl5Mon. m
9.EG.25SträtlingiteCa2Al2SiO7 · 8H2OTrig.
9.EG.25VertumniteCa4Al4Si4O6(OH)24 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.EG.30Eggletonite(Na,K,Ca)2(Mn,Fe)8(Si,Al)12O29(OH)7 · 11H2OMon.
9.EG.30Tamaite(Ca,K,Ba,Na)3-4Mn24(Si,Al)40(O,OH)112 · 21H2OMon.
9.EG.35CoombsiteK(Mn,Fe,Mg)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14Trig.
9.EG.35ZussmaniteK(Fe,Mg,Mn)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14Trig. 3 : R3
9.EG.40Franklinphilite(K,Na)4(Mn2+,Mg,Zn)48(Si,Al)72(O,OH)216 · 6H2OTric.
9.EG.40LennilenapeiteK6-7(Mg,Mn,Fe,Zn)48(Si,Al)72(O,OH)216 · 16H2OTric.
9.EG.40Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EG.40Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2OTric. 1 : P1
9.EG.45Latiumite(Ca,K)4(Si,Al)5O11(SO4,CO3)Mon.
9.EG.45Tuscanite(K(Ca,Na)6(Si,Al)10O22[SO4,CO3,(OH)2] · H2OMon.
9.EG.50JagoitePb18Fe3+4[Si4(Si,Fe3+)6][Pb4Si16(Si,Fe)4]O82Cl6Hex.
9.EG.55WickenburgiteCaPb3Al2Si10O24(OH)6Trig. 3m : P3 1c
9.EG.60HyttsjöitePb18Ba2Ca5Mn2+2Fe3+2Si30O90Cl · 6H2OTrig.
9.EG.65ArmbrusteriteK5Na7Mn15[(Si9O22)4](OH)10 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EG.70Britvinite[Pb7(OH)3F(BO3)2(CO3)][Mg4.5(OH)3(Si5O14)]Tric. 1 : P1
9.EG.75Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

74.1.2.2Eggletonite(Na,K,Ca)2(Mn,Fe)8(Si,Al)12O29(OH)7 · 11H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.16.1KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
16.16.2SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
16.16.3DavreuxiteMnAl6Si4O17(OH)2Mon.
16.16.4SursassiteMn2+2Al3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.16.5CarpholiteMn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4Orth.
16.16.6KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
16.16.7PennantiteMn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Tric.
16.16.8AkatoreiteMn2+9Al2Si8O24(OH)8Tric.
16.16.10Mangano-ferri-eckermannite{Na}{Na2}{Mn2+4Fe3+}Si8O22(OH)2Mon.
16.16.11Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
16.16.13HowieiteNa(Fe,Mn)10(Fe,Al)2Si12O31(OH)13Tric.
16.16.14Eggletonite(Na,K,Ca)2(Mn,Fe)8(Si,Al)12O29(OH)7 · 11H2OMon.
16.16.15Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
16.16.16Taneyamalite(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)12Si12(O,OH)44Tric.
16.16.17ZussmaniteK(Fe,Mg,Mn)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14Trig. 3 : R3
16.16.18CoombsiteK(Mn,Fe,Mg)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14Trig.
16.16.19HenritermieriteCa3Mn3+2(SiO4)2[◻(OH)4]Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
16.16.20MacfalliteCa2Mn3+3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3Mon.
16.16.21Ottrélite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon.
16.16.22Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.16.23OkhotskiteCa2Mn2+Mn3+2[Si2O6OH][SiO4](OH)2(OH)Mon.
16.16.24Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)Ca2Mn2+Al2[Si2O6OH][SiO4](OH)2(OH)Mon.
16.16.25Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for GanophylliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.
Jefferson, D. A. (1978): The crystal structure of ganophyllite, a complex manganese aluminosilicate. I. Polytypism and structural variation. Acta Crystallogr., A34, 491-497.
Dunn, P. J., Peacor, D. R., Nelen, J. E. and Ramik, R. A. (1983): Ganophyllite from Franklin, New Jersey; Pajsberg, Sweden; and Wales: new chemical data. Mineralogical Magazine 47, 563-566.
Eggleton, R. A. and Guggenheim, S. (1986): A re-examination of the structure of ganophyllite. Mineralogical Magazine 50, 307-315.
Guggenheim, S. & Eggleton, R.A. (1986): Cation exchange in ganophyllite. Mineralogical Magazine 50, 517-520.
Noe, D. C. and Veblen, D. R. (1999): Incommensurate modulation and the crystal structure of ganophyllite. American Mineralogist 84, 1088-1098.

Internet Links for GanophylliteHide

Localities for GanophylliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
        • Broken Hill
www.crocoite.com/census/minerals/ganophyllite.xml.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • Innsbruck-Land District
      • Navis
Kolitsch, U., Schachinger, T., Auer, C. (2019): 2113) Akatoreit(?), Albit, Ardennit-(As), Ardennit-(V), „Ardennit-(Si)“, Baryt, Brandtit(?) (oder unbenanntes Ca2Mn(AsO4)2?), Coelestin, Fluorapatit, Fluorcalcioroméit, Frankdicksonit(?), Friedelit, Ganophyllit(?), Hämatit, Hausmannit, Hollandit, Jacobsit, Klinochlor, Kutnohorit, Manganberzeliit, Manganiandrosit-(La)-Manganiakasakait-(La)-Mischkristalle, Muskovit, Opal(?), Pennantit, Piemontit(?), Pyrobelonit, Pyrophanit, Quarz, Rhodochrosit, Rhodonit, Sarkinit, Schallerit, Spessartin, Svabit, Tephroit, Tilasit und Tiragalloit vom Navisbach, Navistal, Nordtirol. Pp. 251-260 in Walter, F. et al. (2019): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVIII. Carinthia II, 209./129., 237-362.
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
GRICE, J.D. (1989) Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec: Canada's Most Diverse Mineral Locality. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 100-108; 166-175.; HORVÁTH, L., GAULT, R.A. (1990) The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire. Mineralogical Record, 21, 281-359.
China
 
  • Shaanxi
    • Ankang
      • Ziyang County
Pingyi Wan (2002): China's Manganese Industry 20(3), 1-6
    • Hanzhong
      • Xixiang County
Pingyi Wan (2002): China's Manganese Industry 20(3), 1-6
      • Zhenba County
Pingyi Wan (2002): China's Manganese Industry 20(3), 1-6
  • Sichuan
    • Dazhou
      • Wanyuan Co.
Pingyi Wan (2002): China's Manganese Industry 20(3), 1-6
Pingyi Wan (2002): China's Manganese Industry 20(3), 1-6
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Ne
Redazionale (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia del Ferrania Club, 19 , 3-5.
No reference listed
Antofilli, Borgo, Palenzona, 1985. I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. Edizioni Melita, La Spezia.
        • Reppia
          • Monte Copello
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, (4), 131
    • La Spezia Province
      • Borghetto di Vara
Palenzona A., Di Giovanni F., Borgo E. (1988) - La miniera di Manganese di Cerchiara (SP) - Rivista Miner. Ital., Milano, fasc. 4, pp.209-218
      • Maissana
Castellaro, F., Passarino, G. (2011): I minerali di Monte Alpe. Sezione dell'antica Concessione Tre Monti (La Spezia e Genova). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana. 4/2011, 214-224.
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
Piccoli, G. C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., & Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo F. Eusebio - Alba, 607 pag.
      • Canosio
        • Vallone della Valletta
Cámara, F., Ciriotti, M.E., Bittarello, E., Nestola, F., Massimi, F., Radica, F., Costa, E., Benna, P., Piccoli, G.C. (2014) Arsenic-bearing new mineral species from Valletta mine, Maira Valley, Piedmont, Italy: I. Grandaite, Sr2Al(AsO4)2(OH), description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 757-774; Cámara, F., Bittarello, E., Ciriotti, M.E., Nestola, F., Radica, F., Massimi, F., Balestra, C., Bracco, R. (2017a) As-bearing new mineral species from Valletta mine, Maira Valley, Piedmont, Italy: III. Canosioite, Ba2Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH), description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 305–317.
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Cesana Torinese
Brizio, P., Ambrino, P., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010). L'affioramento a Mn, SiO, Fe, S di Roccia Rossa, Cesana, Torino. Micro (località) 1/2010, 313-328
Japan
 
  • Ehime Prefecture
    • Iyo City
M. Nakagawa, M. Santosh, S. Maruyama (2009) Distribution and mineral assemblages of bedded manganese deposits in Shikoku, Southwest Japan: Implications for accretion tectonics. Gondwana Research 16, 609–621.
  • Fukushima Prefecture
    • Iwaki City
Matsubara, S., Kato, A., Shimizu, M., Sekiuchi, K., and Suzuki, M. (1996) Romeite from the Gozaisho mine, Iwaki, Japan. Mineralogical Journal 18, 155-160.
  • Iwate Prefecture
    • Shimohei District
      • Yamada-machi
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Kochi Prefecture
    • Kami City
M. Nakagawa, M. Santosh, S. Maruyama (2009) Distribution and mineral assemblages of bedded manganese deposits in Shikoku, Southwest Japan: Implications for accretion tectonics. Gondwana Research 16, 609–621.
M. Nakagawa, M. Santosh, S. Maruyama (2009) Distribution and mineral assemblages of bedded manganese deposits in Shikoku, Southwest Japan: Implications for accretion tectonics. Gondwana Research 16, 609–621.
    • Nankoku city
Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.; Alfredo Petrov collection; Okamoto collection (curated at the Geological Survey museum, Japan)
M. Nakagawa, M. Santosh, S. Maruyama (2009) Distribution and mineral assemblages of bedded manganese deposits in Shikoku, Southwest Japan: Implications for accretion tectonics. Gondwana Research 16, 609–621.
M. Nakagawa, M. Santosh, S. Maruyama (2009) Distribution and mineral assemblages of bedded manganese deposits in Shikoku, Southwest Japan: Implications for accretion tectonics. Gondwana Research 16, 609–621.
M. Nakagawa, M. Santosh, S. Maruyama (2009) Distribution and mineral assemblages of bedded manganese deposits in Shikoku, Southwest Japan: Implications for accretion tectonics. Gondwana Research 16, 609–621.
  • Kyoto Prefecture
    • Kyoto City
      • Ukyou-ku
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
    • Nantan City
Ohe Rikosha specimens, Kyoto
  • Saitama Prefecture
    • Hidaka City
Alfredo Petrov specimen
  • Tokyo Metropolis
    • Nishitama district
      • Okutama-cho
Bull. Kanagawa pref. Mus. (Nat. Sci.), 22, 25-32 (1993)
[MinRec 32:419]; Matsubara S, Miyawaki R, Yokoyama K, Shimizu M, Imai H (2004) Tokyoite, Ba2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH), a new mineral from the Shiromaru mine, Okutama, Tokyo, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 99, 363-367; photo in: Koubutsu Doshikai (2017) Kanto-to Shuhen-no Koubutsu (279pp).
Namibia
 
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
Portugal
 
  • Guarda
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
-Idoia Garate-Olabe,Encarnacion Roda-Robles,Pedro-Pablo Gil-Crespo, Alfonso Pesquera-Pérez,Romeu Vieira, Alexandra Lima,Estudio Textural y Mineralogico del Dique de Cuarzo con Fosfatos de Folgosinho (Guarda, Portugal) Macle N°16 junio 2012 revista de la sociedad espanola de mineralogia
Sweden
 
  • Örebro County
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
Moore, P. B. (1972). III. On Igelström's Manganese Arsenates and Antimonates from the Sjö Mine, Grythyttan, Örebro County, Sweden. GFF, 94(3), 423-434.
    • Lindesberg
      • Nyberget ore field
Kjell Gatedal
  • Värmland County
    • Filipstad
K:Gatedal
      • Nordmark District
Magnusson, N.H. (1929): Nordmarks malmtrakt. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, series Ca 13, 98p.
Kjell Gatedal
      • Persberg ore district
        • Pajsberg
Hamberg, A. (1890): Mineralogische studien. 9. Ueber Ganophyllit, ein manganzeolith von Harstigen. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 12, 586-598; Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.
Dana 7:I:539.
  • Västmanland County
    • Norberg
Nysten, P. (2020) Manganrika hematitmalmer av Långbantyp från Norberg och Saladamm, Västmanland, centrala Bergslagen, Sverige. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2020: 5-19
Ounchanum, P. & Morad, S. (1987): Paragenesis of akatoreite and ganophyllite in the manganiferous rocks of the Häste Field, Norberg ore district, central Sweden. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 157, 225-244.
Nysten, P. (2020) Manganrika hematitmalmer av Långbantyp från Norberg och Saladamm, Västmanland, centrala Bergslagen, Sverige. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2020: 5-19
    • Sala
      • Saladamm Ore field
Nysten, P. (2020) Manganrika hematitmalmer av Långbantyp från Norberg och Saladamm, Västmanland, centrala Bergslagen, Sverige. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2020: 5-19
UK
 
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanfaelrhys
          • Nant-y-Gadwen
W. Campbell Smith and F. A. Bannister (1948) Ganophyllite from the Benallt Mine, Rhiw, Carnarvonshire Mineralogical Magazine 28:343-352
          • Rhiw
W. Campbell Smith and F. A. Bannister (1948) Ganophyllite from the Benallt Mine, Rhiw, Carnarvonshire. Mineralogical Magazine 28: 343-352.; Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177.;
USA
 
  • Arkansas
    • Pulaski Co.
      • Little Rock
  • California
    • Santa Clara Co.
      • Black Wonder Mining District
        • East Foothills
Rogers, Austin Flint (1919b), An interesting occurrence of manganese minerals near San Jose, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 48: 446; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 192; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 410.; USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10077482.
  • Maine
    • Aroostook Co.
      • T3 R9 WELS
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1.
      • TD R2 WELS
Pavlides, Louis and Milton, Charles, 1962, Geology and Manganese Deposits of the Maple and Hovey Mountains Area, Aroostook County, Maine, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 362, pp. 116 + plates.
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Smith, M.L. & Frondel, C: Mineralogical Magazine:36:893-913 (1968); Hurlbut, C.S., Jr. & Baum, J.L.: Am. Min.:45:1137-1143 (1960); Palache(1935):114; Dunn(1995):Pt4:494.
part of the Charlesite paragenesis
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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