Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Gearksutite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Formula:
CaAlF4(OH) · H2O
System:
Triclinic
Colour:
white, colourless ...
Lustre:
Dull
Hardness:
2
Name:
From the Greek γή, earth, and arksutite (chiolite), which it was thought to resemble in composition, in allusion to the earthy character of the material.
A complex aluminium salt mineral, structurally similar to artroeite.
One of the last formed secondary fluorides at the cryolite deposit of Ivigtut, Greenland.


Classification of Gearksutite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.CC.05

3 : HALIDES
C : Complex halides
C : Soro-aluminofluorides
11.6.8.1

11 : HALIDE COMPLEXES
6 : Aluminofluorides - Isolated Octahedra
8.6.12

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
6 : Halides of Al

Physical Properties of Gearksutite

Colour:
white, colourless (including in transmitted light)
Streak:
white
Hardness (Mohs):
2
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {1-10}.
Density:
2.768 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.771 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Gearksutite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.448 nβ = 1.454 nγ = 1.456
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v distinct

Chemical Properties of Gearksutite

IMA Formula:
CaAlF4(OH) · H2O
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Gearksutite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.94Å, b = 6.81Å, c = 6.978Å
α = 101.12°, β = 94.86°, γ = 110.07°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.725 : 1 : 1.025
Unit Cell Volume:
V 213.43 ų
Z:
2
Morphology:
Massive; nodular with an earthy to chalky character. Consisting of very minute needles with inclined extinction.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.54 (10)
3.33 (7d)
3.14 (8)
2.28 (8)
2.15 (6)
1.924 (8)
1.741 (6)

Type Occurrence of Gearksutite

Relationship of Gearksutite to other Species

3.CC.10AcuminiteSrAlF4(OH) · H2O
3.CC.10TikhonenkoviteSrAlF4(OH) · H2O
3.CC.15ArtroeitePbAlF3(OH)2
3.CC.20CalcjarliteNaCa3Al3F16
3.CC.20JarliteNa2(Sr,Na)14Mg2Al12F64(OH,H2O)4
3.CC.20JørgenseniteNa2Sr14Na2Al12F64(OH)4
8.6.1ZharchikhiteAl(OH)2F
8.6.2ChloraluminiteAlCl3 · 6H2O
8.6.3CadwaladeriteAlCl(OH)2 · 4H2O
8.6.4CryolithioniteNa3Al2(LiF4)3
8.6.5CryoliteNa3AlF6
8.6.6ChioliteNa5Al3F14
8.6.7ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6
8.6.8WeberiteNa2MgAlF7
8.6.9Hydrokenoralstonite2Al2F6(H2O)
8.6.10KoeneniteNa4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22
8.6.11 Chlor-manasseiteMgxAl(OH)2x+2Cl · (x-0.8)H2O x about 1.75
8.6.13ProsopiteCaAl2(F,OH)8
8.6.14YaroslaviteCa3Al2F10(OH)2 · H2O
8.6.15CarlhintzeiteCa2AlF7 · H2O
8.6.16ColquiriiteCaLiAlF6
8.6.17ThomsenoliteNaCaAlF6 · H2O
8.6.18PachnoliteNaCaAlF6 · H2O
8.6.19Zirklerite(Fe,Mg)9Al4Cl18(OH)12 · 14H2O

Other Names for Gearksutite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Gearksutit
Simplified Chinese:氟铝钙矿
Spanish:Gearksutita
Traditional Chinese:氟鋁鈣礦

Other Information

Other Information:
Readily soluble in dilute acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Gearksutite

Reference List:
Hagemann in: Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 130.

Flight (1883) Journal of the Chemical Society: 43: 140 (as Evigtokite).

Cross and Hillebrand (1885) USGS Bulletin 20: 59.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 181.

Larsen, E. and Wells (1916) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: 2: 360.

Simpson (1920) Mineralogical Magazine: 19: 23.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 78.

Henderson (1929) American Mineralogist: 14: 281.

Smolyaninov and Isakov (1946) Belyankin Jubilee volume, Academy of Sciences, USSR: 145 (as Paragearksutite).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 119-120.

Marchetti, F. & Perchiazzi, N. (2000) The crystal structure of gearksutite, CaAlF4(OH) H2O. American Mineralogist 85, 231-235.

Internet Links for Gearksutite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-1663.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Gearksutite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Heazlewood district
        • Luina
Am Min 85:231-235; Birch, W. D., & Pring, A. (1990). A calcian ralstonite-like mineral from the Cleveland Mine, Tasmania, Australia. Mineralogical Magazine, 54(377), 599-602.
  • Western Australia
    • Gingin Shire
Edward S. Simpson (1920): On Gearksutite at Gingin, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine 19, 23-39; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 120.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
U. Kolitsch (2012): Crystal structure of a new lead nitrate chloride and further surprises from the Pb- and Ba-rich ancient slag at Maria Waitschach, Carinthia, Austria. M&M7, 7th Intern. Conf. on Mineralogy & Museums, Dresden, Germany, August 27-29, 2012; Program and Abstracts Volume, 90.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
      • St Martin am Silberberg
Kolitsch, U. (2016): 1965) Gearksutit, nadeliger Magnetit und die unbenannte Cu-Si-S-O-H-Phase aus der Schlacke von St. Martin am Silberberg, Kärnten. Pp. 210-211 in Walter, F. et al. (2016): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXV. Carinthia II, 206./126., 203-250.
Bolivia
 
  • La Paz Department
    • Inquisivi Province
      • Colquiri
Walenta, K., Lehmann, B., & Zwiener, M. (1980). Colquiriit, ein neues Fluoridmineral aus der Zinnlagerstätte von Colquiri in Bolivien. Tschermaks mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, 27(4), 275-281.
China
 
  • Guizhou Province
    • Qianxi'nan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Qinglong Co.
        • Dachang Sb ore field
Niedermayr, G. (2004): Ein bemerkenswerter Neufund von Carbonat-Cyanotrichit aus China. Mineralien-Welt 15 (5), 58-60. (in German)
  • Hunan Province
    • Loudi Prefecture
      • Lengshuijiang Co.
Mingyue He, Ya'er Lou, and Pu Wang (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 384-387
Finland
 
  • Southern Finland Region
    • Kotka
Ilkka Mikkola collection
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German); Kolitsch, U. & Götzinger, M. (2000): Einige Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald: Eulytin, Namibit, Volborthit, Gearksutit, Spertiniit, Monazit-(La), Protasit, Sainfeldit, Cyanotrichit und Vauquelinit. Erzgräber 14, 33-47. (in German); KOLITSCH, U., GRÖBNER, J. BLASS, G., GRAF, H.-W. & PRING, A. (2005): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald (II): Dreyerit, Gasparit-(Ce), Klinobisvanit, Kobaltkoritnigit, Metatyuyamunit, Roscoelith, Sengierit, Vésigniéit und Wakefieldit. Lapis 30 (9), 35-39; 58; Gröbner, J., Kolitsch, U. und Bayerl, R. (2005): Interessante Uranmineralien im Stinkspat der Grube Clara. Lapis 30 (10), 34-39; 90; Gröbner, J., Bayerl, R. und Kolitsch, U. (2006): Weitere Beobachtungen zu den Uran- und Vanadium-Paragenesen der Grube Clara aus den Jahren 2002, 2004 und 2005. Erzgräber 20, 1-10
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Stolberg
        • Rottleberode
Gröbner, J., Hajek, W., Junker, R. & Nikoleizig, J. (2011): Neue Mineralschätze des Harzes. Papierflieger Verlag GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, 127 pp.
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
          • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
No reference listed
Wendel, W. (2000): Lavrion-News 2000. Lapis 25 (10), 45-47.; GRÖBNER, J. (2001): Roter Skorodit und weitere ungewöhnliche Arsenate: Die Mineralien des Abbaus 132 der Grube Christiana, Lavrion/Griechenland. Lapis, 26 (11), 13-21.
      • Lavrion District slag localities
        • Sounion area
Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt 25 (2), 82-95 (in German).
Greenland (TL)
 
  • Sermersooq
    • Arsuk Fjord
      • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 112, 120; American Mineralogist (2000), 85, 231–235.]; Petersen, O.V. and Secher, K. (1993): The minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-65 (p.36)
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
M. Russo & I. Campostrini (2011): Ammineite, matlockite and post 1944 eruption fumarolic minerals at Vesuvius. Plinius 37, 312.; Demartin F., Campostrini I., Castellano C., Russo M. 2014. Parascandolaite, KMgF3, a new perovskite-type fluoride from Vesuvius. Phys. Chem. Min., published online: 8 April 2014.
  • Sicily
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
Bernauer, F. (1941): Eine Gearksutit-Lagerstätte auf der Insel Vulcano. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 93, 65-80.
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C. M. & Russo, M. (2011): Vulcano - Tre secoli di mineralogia. Associazione Micro-mineralogia Italiana, Cremona, Italy, 344 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Scansano
        • Pereta
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Cerri, M., Pistolesi, M., Rapaccini, S. & Santucci, A. (2013). Temperino e Lanzi. Le paragenesi secondarie dello skarn. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2013, 40-55.
Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Cerri, M., Pistolesi, M., Rapaccini, S. & Santucci, A. (2013). Temperino e Lanzi. Le paragenesi secondarie dello skarn. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2013, 40-55.
    • Siena Province
      • Chiusdino
Menchetti, S., Batoni, M., Batacchi, C., Borselli, G., Brogi, A., Ceccantini, L., Fassina, B., Marchesini, M., Rossellini, A. & Ruggieri, G. (2015): Le Cetine di Cotorniano. Miniera e minerali. Associazione Micro-Mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 354 p.
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Torrebelvicino
        • Mercanti Valley
Boscardin M., Marchetti F., Orlandi P., Zordan A.(1995): La gearksutite della Valle dei Mercanti (Torrebelvicino, Vicenza). Atti Soc. Tosc. Sc. Nat., Mem., 102, 117-120. ; Pegoraro, S., Orlandi, P., Chiereghin, P., Contin, A. & Toniolo, E. (2009). I minerali del Monte Trisa (Torrebelvicino, Vicenza). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/2009, 160-179.
American Mineralogist, 85 :231–235
Kazakhstan
 
  • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    • Tarbagatai Range
      • Akzhaylyautas Mts (Akzhailyautas Mts; Akjaylautas Mts; Akzhalautas Mts)
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Balkhash Region (Balqash; Karatas; Prebalkhashie)
      • Balkhash (Balqash)
        • Kounrad Massif
Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Betpakdala Desert (Bet-Pak-Dal Desert)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Pautov et al (2005) New Data on Minerals Vol 40 pp5-10; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Osh Oblast
    • Alai Range (Alay Range)
[Lapis 1993:11 p11-24]
Mexico
 
  • Durango
    • Mun. de Rodeo
      • Rodeo
        • Abasolo
Peter Megaw
  • Guerrero
    • Mun. de Taxco
      • Taxco de Alarcón (Taxco; Tasco)
Panczner(1987):196-197 & 206.
Norway
 
  • Oppland
    • Lunner
      • Nordmarka
Raade, G & Haug, J. (1980): Rare Fluorides from a soda granite in the Oslo Region, Norway. Mineralogical Record, 11,83-91
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Buriatia (Buryatia)
        • Mama River Basin
          • Maigunda River
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
        • Dzhida Basin
          • Zakamensk
            • Dzhida W-Mo District
M.M. Povilaitis data (http://klopotow.narod.ru/mindata/locathn/R_Buryat/zakamensk/djida.html)
Arkhipchuk, R. Z. (1971): Gearksutite from the Manzhinsk deposit. Mineralogicheskii Sbornik (Lvov), 25, 181-184.
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
P.M. Karashov data
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Ripp, G. S., Bulnaev, K. B. & Zyablishchev, A. Yu. (1996): Alumofluorides of Zharchikhinskoe molybdenum deposit (western Transbaikalia). Zap. Vseross. Mineral. O-va. 125, 72-79. (in Russian) ; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Tuva Republic
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
      • Tannu-Ola Range
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
P.M. Kartashov data; USGS Open File Report 2005-1252 p175
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Voznesenskii ore District
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Ilmen Mts
          • Ilmen Natural Reserve
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
South Africa
 
  • Gauteng Province
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Minerals of South Africa; Rocks & Minerals 83:5 pp 410-421
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Brits (Brits District)
Robert O. Meyer collection; Dr. Hans Börner collection; collected by Dr. Hans Börner
Spain
 
  • Catalonia
    • Barcelona
      • Barcelonès
        • Santa Coloma de Gramenet
Calvo, M. (2006). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol III. Halogenuros. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. Vitoria. 267 págs.
    • Tarragona
      • Priorat
        • Ulldemolins
Rosell, J., Rubio, C., Varela, F. (2017): Els Minerals de Vanadi de la mina Maria Magdalena. Ulldemolins, el Priorat, Tarragona, Catalunya. Mineralogistes de Catalunya, 1/2017 (in catalan). And on: Paragénesis, /2017 (magazine in Spanish).
Ukraine
 
  • Zhytomyr Oblast' (Zhitomir Oblast')
Yurk Yu.Yu., Gurov E.P., Gurova E.P. (1973) Pecularities of fluorin mineralogy of Ukrainian crystalline shield, - Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp.184 (in Russian).; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Tombstone Hills
        • Tombstone District
Rob Bowell, lab tested
Rob Bowell, lab tested
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa District
        • Santa Teresa Mts
          • Klondyke
            • Grand Reef Mountain
              • Laurel Canyon
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 230; Jones, R.W. (1980), The Grand Reef mine, Graham Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 219-225.
  • Colorado
    • Boulder Co.
      • Jamestown District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • El Paso Co.
      • Cheyenne District (St. Peters Dome District)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 120; Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Am Min 51:299-323
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2012), Dean Allum specimen
Am Min 51:299-323
    • Fremont Co.
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 16, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
    • Mineral Co.
      • Wagon Wheel Gap
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 120, 130; Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Teller Co.
      • Cripple Creek District
        • Cripple Creek
Min Rec 36:2 pp143-185; 2009 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Lake District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Mountain Wells District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Douglas Co.
      • Wellington Hills
        • Silver Glance District (Wellington District)
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Vigo District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • San Antonio Mts
        • San Antone District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Utah
    • Piute Co.
      • Marysvale District (Marysvale Uranium area)
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Utah Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Virginia
    • Amelia Co.
      • Winterham
[Virginia Minerals, Vol 46:2]
    • Bath Co.
Henderson, E. P. (1929): Gearksutite from Virginia. American Mineralogist 14, 281-285; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 120; Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2017, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: March 25, 2017 21:43:02 Page generated: March 11, 2017 19:48:48
Go to top of page