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Adolph Ferdinand Gehlen
yellow-brown, ...
Vitreous, Greasy
5 - 6
Member of:
Named in 1815 by Johann Nepomuk von Fuchs in honor of Adolf Ferdinand Gehlen [5 September 1775 Bütow, Outer Pomerania, Prussia (Bytów, Poland) - 16 July 1815]. Gehlen was editor and publisher of publisher of Neues Allgemeines Journal der Chemie (1803–06), Journal für Chemie und Physik (1806-10) and the Repetitorium für die Pharmacie. He was initially a chemistry professor at the University of Halle (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg) and later chemist at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. He died early due to arsenic poisoning.
Gehlenite-Åkermanite Series.

Chemically very similar to bicchulite and kamaishilite.

Classification of Gehlenite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
B : Si2O7 groups, without non-tetrahedral anions; cations in tetrahedral [4] and greater coordination

55 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
4 : Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
9 : Aluminosilicates of Ca

Physical Properties of Gehlenite

Vitreous, Greasy
yellow-brown, colourless, greenish grey
white, grey-white
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6

Optical Data of Gehlenite

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.670 nε = 1.660
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Gehlenite

IMA Formula:
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of Gehlenite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
P4 21m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.6850(4) Å, c = 5.0636(3) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.659
Unit Cell Volume:
V 299.05 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Synthetic material.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
3.066 (43)
2.848 (100)
2.738 (32)
2.437 (38)
1.921 (64)
1.818 (75)
1.768 (36)

Type Occurrence of Gehlenite

Relationship of Gehlenite to other Species

Forms a series with Åkermanite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
16.9.18LawsoniteCaAl2Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
16.9.19ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4)O15(OH)2 · 4H2O
16.9.20WairakiteCa(Si4Al2)O12 · 2H2O
16.9.21VertumniteCa4Al4Si4O6(OH)24 · 3H2O
16.9.22ScoleciteCa(Si3Al2)O10 · 3H2O
16.9.23LaumontiteCa(Si4Al2)O12 · 4H2O
16.9.24YugawaraliteCa(Si6Al2)O16 · 4H2O
16.9.25Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
16.9.26EpistilbiteCa3(Si18Al6)O48 · 16H2O
16.9.27GoosecreekiteCa(Si6Al2)O16 · 5H2O
16.9.28CowlesiteCa(Al2Si3)O10 · 5-6H2O
16.9.30StelleriteCa4(Si28Al8)O72 · 28H2O
16.9.31SträtlingiteCa2Al(Si,Al)2O2(OH)10 · 2.25H2O
16.9.32AmstalliteCaAl(Si,Al)4O8(OH)4 · (H2O,Cl)

Other Names for Gehlenite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Gehlenite

Reference List:
Christie, O.H.J. (1961) On sub-solidus relations of silicates; IV. The system åkermanite-sodium-gehlenite and gehlenite-sodium-gehlenite. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift: 42: 31-44.

Louisnathan, S.J. (1971), Refinement of the crystal structure of a natural gehlenite, Ca2Al(Al,Si)2O7: Canadian Mineralogist: 10: 822-837.

Hemingway, B.S. and Robie, R.A. (1984) Heat capacity and thermodynamic functions for gehlenite and staurolite: with comments on the Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity of staurolite. American Mineralogist: 69: 307-318.

Bouhifd, M.A., Gruener, G., Mysen, B.O., and Richet, P. (2002) Premelting and calcium mobility in gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and parawollastonite (CaSiO3). Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 29: 655-662.

Internet Links for Gehlenite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.
The following Gehlenite specimens are currently listed for sale on

Localities for Gehlenite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land)
      • Queen Fabiola Mts (Yamato Mts)
Yurimoto, H., Rubin, A. E., Itoh, S. & Wasson, J. T. (2001) Non-Stoichiometric Al-rich Spinel in an Ultra-Refractory Inclusion from CO Chondrite (abstract): Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXII, abstract #1557. (Mar 2001).
    • Victoria Land
      • Allan Hills
Jeffrey N. Grossman, Alan E. Rubin & Glenn J. MacPherson (1988). Allan Hills 85085: an Out-of-the-Ordinary, Enstatite-rich Carbonaceous Chondrite. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, vol. 19, p. 433.
  • San Luis
    • Sierra de Comechingones
Frank K. Mazdab collection
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Leigh Creek
Baker, G. (1953): Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 76, 1-20.
  • Burgenland
    • Oberpullendorf
      • Kobersdorf
        • Pauliberg
U. Kolitsch, W. Postl, H.-P. Bojar and W. Trattner (2009): Die Mineralvorkommen im Basalt des Pauliberges. In: Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 83-99.
  • Styria
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
OWENS, B.E. & KREMSER, P.T. (2010) Åkermanite breakdown to cuspidine-bearing sympectite in a calc-silicate xenolith, Kiglapait intrusion, Labrador, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 48, 809-819.
  • Québec
    • Montréal
      • Mont Royal
Dolan (1923)
  • Anhui Province
    • Huaibei Prefecture
      • Suixi Co.
        • Sanpu ore field
Yiming Zhao, Yinan Zhang, Chengsi Bi, Kaijian Tang, and Qingan Sun (1999): Mineral Deposits 18(1), 1-10
Yiming Zhao, Yinan Zhang, and Chengsi Bi (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 14, 227-249; Yiming Zhao, Yinan Zhang, Chengsi Bi, Kaijian Tang, and Qingan Sun (1999): Mineral Deposits 18(1), 1-10
Yiming Zhao and Daxin Li (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(4), 345-359
  • Shaanxi Province
    • Hanzhong Prefecture
      • Ningqiang Co.
Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Kutná Hora (Kuttenberg)
        • Poličany
          • Vrchlice river valley
Pauliš P. Mineralogické lokality okolí Kutné Hory. Kuttna, Kutná Hora 1999. ISBN 80-902719-0-1.
    • Ústí Region
      • Duchcov (Dux)
Žáček V., Skála R., Chlupáčová M., Dvořák Z. 2005: Ca-Fe3+-rich, Si-undersaturated buchite from Želénky, North-Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, Czech Republic. Eur. J. Mineral., 17, 623-633
  • New Valley Governorate
Methot, R. L. et al., (1975) Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of the Isna (C3) meteorite. Meteoritics 10 (2): 121-131. (Jun 1975)
  • Ile-de-France
    • Paris
Marrocchi, Y., Gounelle, M., Blanchard, I., Caste, F. & Kearsley, A.T. (2014) The Paris CM chondrite: secondary minerals and asteroidal processing. Meteoritics & Planetary Science: 49 (7): 12321249. (July 2014).; Hewins, Roger H. & 16 others (2014) The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 124: 190-222. (1 January 2014)
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
Jean-Luc Portes collection
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Bad Harzburg
        • Radau valley
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Bender, D.; Krimmelbein, M. & W; Altena (1994): Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. in Mineralien-Welt, 4, p.10
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Daun
        • Üdersdorf
Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
      • Laach lake volcanic complex
        • Wassenach
Hentschel, G., (1987): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München (second edition)
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Hentschel, G. (1987): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 2. Auflage
in the collection of Christof Schäfer
Galuskin, E.V., Krüger, B., Krüger, H., Blass, G., Widmer, R., Galuskina, I.O. (2016): Wernerkrauseite, CaFe3+2Mn4+O6 - the first non-stoichiometric post-spinel mineral, from Bellerberg volcano, Eifel, Germany. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 485-493
Sharygin, V. V. (2012). Mineralogy of metacarbonate xenolith from alkali basalt, E. Eifel, Germany. In Ore Potential of Alkaline, Kimberlite and Carbonatite Magmatism. Book of Abstracts, XXIX International Conference. Training Program: Alkaline Magmatism of the Earth, Sudak-Moscow, ONTI GEOCHI RAS (pp. 156-158).
            • Southern lava flow
Hentschel, G. (1961): Seltene Mineralneubildungen in einem Kalksteineinschluß der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges, Fortschritte Mineralogie, Vol. 39, 345
              • Mayener Feld
Fischer, R.X. Tillmanns, E. (1983): Die Kristallstrukturen von natürlichem Na2Ca2Si3O9 vom Mt. Shaheru (Zaire) und aus dem Mayener Feld (Eifel), N. Jb. Mineral. Mh. 49-59
      • Mendig
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Polch
        • Ochtendung
Blass, G., Graf , HW., Die Wannenköpfe bei Ochtendung in der Vulkaneifel und ihre Mineralien, MW 6/1999
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1991): Neue Funde aus den antiken Schlacken von Lavrion, Griechenland. Lapis, 16 (6), 21-23; 58.
  • Pest Co.
    • Pilis Mts
      • Pomáz
Fehér, B. (2000): Gehlenitic xenoliths from the Klanác Hill, Pomáz, Visegrád Mountains, Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica (Szeged), XLI, Suppl., 39.
  • Madhya Pradesh
Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998). Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
  • East Azarbaijan Province (East Azerbaijan Province)
    • Ahar County
      • Ahar
Mollai, H., Sharma, R., and Pe-Piper, G. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 401-414.
  • Negev
Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. & Vapnik, Ye. (2008): Minerals of the pseudobinary perovskite-brownmillerite series from combustion metamorphic larnite rocks of the Hatrurim Formation (Israel). Russian Geology and Geophysics 49, 709-726.
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
Sokol, E.V., Seryotkin, Y.V., Kokh, S.N., Vapnik, Ye., Nigmatulina, E.N., Goryainov, S.V., Belogub, E.V., Sharygin, V.V. (2015): Flamite, (Ca,Na,K)2(Si,P)O4, a new mineral from ultrahigh-temperature combustion metamorphic rocks, Hatrurim Basin, Negev Desert, Israel. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 583-596.
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
Tony Nickischer; Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Gfeller, F., Krüger, B., Kusz, J., Vapnik, Y., Dulski, M., Dzierżanowski, P. (2016): Silicocarnotite, Ca5[(SiO4)(PO4)](PO4), a new ‘old’ mineral from the Negev Desert, Israel, and the ternesite-silicocarnotite solid solution: indicators of high-temperature alteration of pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, Southern Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28: 105-12.
Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Gfeller, F., Krüger, B., Kusz, J., Vapnik, Y., Dulski, M., Dzierżanowski, P. (2016): Silicocarnotite, Ca5[(SiO4)(PO4)](PO4), a new ‘old’ mineral from the Negev Desert, Israel, and the ternesite-silicocarnotite solid solution: indicators of high-temperature alteration of pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, Southern Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28: 105-12.
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
[Lapis 1994:5 p.13-23,58]
          • Pollena - Trocchia area
Russo, M. & Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio. AMI, Ed., Cremona, Italy, 320 pp.
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Ferrara Province
      • Cento
        • Renazzo
M. K. Weisberg & Marty Prinz (1990). Refractory-rich Inclusions in CR2 (Renazzo-type) Chondrites. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 21, p. 1315.
      • Vigarano Mainarda
        • Vigarano Pieve
Brian Mason (1971) The Carbonaceous Chondrites — A Selective Review. Meteoritics 6, #2, 59-70.
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Bracciano Lake
Schingaro E., Scordari F., Capitanio F., Parodi G., Smith D.C., Mottana A. (2001): Crystal chemistry of kimzeyite from Anguillara, Mts. Sabatini, Italy, European Journal of Mineralogy, 13, 749-759.
      • Rome
Gresta, S., Duronio, F., Mancinella D. (2002): Geositi e Sistema delle Aree Protette del Lazio: idee per la geoconservazione. Il Cercapietre. Not. del Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, 1-2: 48-55
        • Valleranello
      • Sacrofano Caldera
        • Magliano Romano
Stoppani, F.S. & Curti, E. (1982): I minerali del Lazio. Editoriale Olimpia, Firenze, 291 pp.
        • Sacrofano
    • Viterbo Province
      • Montalto di Castro
        • Pietra Massa Locality
Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
Lapis 28(12), 19-28 (2003)
  • Piedmont
    • Torino Province
      • Canavese District
        • Chiusella Valley
          • Traversella
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Sardinia
    • Medio Campidano Province
      • Arbus and Guspini municipalities
Preite, D., & Zuanel, A. (2007). Montevecchio: storia, miniere e minerali. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (4), 230-246.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Fassa Valley
J. N. Fuchs (1815) J. Phys. Chem. (Schweigger), 15, 377
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
      • Fiemme Valley
        • Predazzo
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Pitigliano
Liotti L., 1991. I minerali dei vulcani laziali a Pitigliano (Grosseto). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 15: 121-139.
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Spoleto
Stoppa F., Sharygin V.V., 2009. Melilitolite intrusion and pelite digestion by high temperature kamafugitic magma at Colle Fabbri, Spoleto, Italy. Lithos, 112, 306-320.
  • Veneto
    • Padova Province
      • Galzignano Terme
        • Euganei Hills
Zorzi F. and Boscardin M. (2014): Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Cierre Ed.. Sommacampagna (VR), p. 332.; Cámara, F., Nestola, F., Bindi, L., Guastoni, A., Zorzi, F., Peruzzo, L., & Pedron, D. (2012). Tazzoliite: a new mineral with a pyrochlore-related structure from the Euganei Hills, Padova, Italy. Mineralogical Magazine, 76(4), 827-838.
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Gifu Prefecture
        • Ena City
Forrest Cureton and Excalibur Mineral Co. specimens
    • Chugoku Region
      • Hiroshima prefecture
        • Hiba-gun
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
      • Okayama Prefecture
        • Takahashi City
          • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
            • Fuka
Mineralogical Record: 27: 304.; Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences Vol. 99 (2004) , No. 2 April 67-71; I. Kusachi, Y. Takechi, C. Henmi and S. Kobayashi (1998) Parasibirskite, a New Mineral from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine 62:521-525.; Henmi, C., Kusachi, I., Kawahara, A., & Henmi, K. (1978). 7T wollastonite from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture. Mineralogical Journal, 9(3), 169-181.; Henmi, C., & Kusachi, I. (1992). Clinotobermorite, Ca5Si6 (O, OH) 18· 5H2O, a new mineral from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine, 56(3), 353-358.; Ando, T., Kanayama, A., Kobayashi, S., Miyawaki, R., Kishi, S., Tanabe, M., & Kusachi, I. (2015). Roweite from the Fuka mine, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 110(1), 29-34.
    • Tohoku Region
      • Fukushima Prefecture
Matsuyama, F. (2001)
      • Iwate Prefecture
        • Kamaishi City
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Ohshuu City
          • Esashi ward
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan); Bunno, M., Shimazaki, H., & Sato, K. (1982). Occurrence and genesis of bicchulite and tilleyite skarns at the Sakae adit, the Akagane mine, Iwate Prefecture. Mining Geology, 32, 141-150
  • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
Ivanova, M. A., Krot, A. N., Nagashima, K. & MacPherson, G. J. (2012). Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 (12): 2107-2127. (Dec 2012)
  • Coahuila
    • Mun. de Sierra Mojada
      • Sierra Mojada
Mineralogical Magazine 1964 33 : 841-852
  • Durango
    • Mun. de Cuencamé
      • Velardeña District
        • Velardeña
Wright F E (1908) On three contact minerals from Valardeña, Durango, Mexico. (Gehlenite, spurrite and hillebrandite). American Journal of Science 176, 545-554
Panczner (1987): 206.
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Er Rachidia Province (Errachidia Province)
      • Erfoud (Erfud)
        • Rissani
Caltech, photomicrograph by Chi Ma.
  • ZZZ_localities_to_be_precised_in_Morocco
Fintor, K., Walter, H. & Nagy, Sz. (2013) Petrographic and Micro-Raman Analysis of Chondrules and (Ca, Al)-Rich Inclusions of NWA 2086 CV3 Type Carbonaceous Chondrite: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XLIV. LPI Contribution No. 1719, p.1152. (March 2013)
New Zealand
  • North Island
    • Northland
      • Kaipara
Mason, B. (1957): Larnite, scawtite, and hydrogrossular from Tokatoka, New Zealand. American Mineralogist 42, 379-392.
Outer Space
Gornitz, V. (2007) Hot & cold origins: the mineralogy of a comet. Mineral News, 23, #1, 1-4.
  • West Bank
    • Hatrurim Formation
Galuskina, I.O., Vapnik Ye., Lazic B., Armbruster T., Murashko M. and Galuskin E. Harmunite CaFe2O4: A new mineral from the Jabel Harmun, West Bank, Palestinian Autonomy, Israel. American Mineralogist, 99, 965–975.
Seryotkin Y.V., Sokol E.V. & Kokh S.N. 2012: Natural pseudowollastonite: Crystal structure, associated minerals, and geological context. Lithos, vol. 134-135, pp. 75-90; Seryotkin, Yu.V., Sokol, E.V., Kokh, S.N. (2012): Natural pseudowollastonite: Crystal structure, associated minerals, and geological context. Lithos, 134–135, 75-90.
Réunion Island
  • Piton des Neiges
    • Cirque de Cilaos
      • Bras de Cilaos
Boisson, J.-M. & Leconte, J. (2014): Analyses 2012-2013 MNHN-MICROMONTEURS. La revue de Micromonteurs, 21.
  • Brașov Co.
    • Racoş Commune
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Oraviţa-Ciclova Cu-Mo-(W) ore field
Ştefan Marincea, Delia-Georgeta Dumitraş, Cristina Ghineţ, André-Mathieu Fransolet, Frédéric Hatert, and Mélanie Rondeaux (2011) GEHLENITE FROM THREE OCCURRENCES OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE SKARNS, ROMANIA: NEW MINERALOGICAL DATA. Canadian Mineralogist, 49:1001-1014.
Marincea, S., Dumitraş. D-G., Ghinet, C, Fransolet, A.-M., Hatert, F. & Rondeaux, M. (2011): Gehlenite from three occurrences of high-temperature skarns, Romania: new mineralogical data. Canadian Mineralogist. 49, 1001-1014
  • Harghita Co.
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S., Almási, E., Köllı, A., Sajó, I., Vezzalini, G. (2006): New data about the minerals of the copper ore deposit at Balan (East Carpathians) and of limestone xenolithes from basalt at Racosu de Jos (Persani Mts.), Romania. Acta Mineral.-Petrogr., Abstr. Ser. 5, p. 112. []; Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Hunedoara
Canadian Mineralogist: 39: 1435-1453.; Marincea, Ş., Dumitraş, D. G., Călin, N., Anason, A. M., Fransolet, A. M., & Hatert, F. (2013). Spurrite, tilleyite and associated minerals in the exoskarn zone from Cornet Hill (Metaliferi Massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania). The Canadian Mineralogist, 51(3), 359-375.
Marincea, S., Dumitraş. D-G., Ghinet, C, Fransolet, A.-M., Hatert, F. & Rondeaux, M. (2011): Gehlenite from three occurrences of high-temperature skarns, Romania: new mineralogical data. Canadian Mineralogist. 49, 1001-1014
Martins da Pedra collection
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Narin-Kunta
P.M. Kartashov data; Armbruster, T., Lazic, B., Gfeller, F., Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Savelyeva, V.B., Zadov, A.E., Pertsev, N.N., Dzierżanowski, P. (2011): Chlorine content and crystal chemistry of dellaite from the Birkhin gabbro massif, Eastern Siberia, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 379-394.
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
Gałuskina, I.O., Gałuskin, E.V., Lazic, B., Armbruster, T., Dzierżanowski, P., Prusik, K., Wrzalik, R. (2010): Eringaite, Ca3Sc2(SiO4)3, a new mineral of the garnet group. Mineralogical Magazine, 74, 365-373.
South Ossetia
  • Greater Caucasus Mountain Range
    • Kel’ volcanic area
      • Shadil-Khokh volcano
Galuskina, I.O., Krüger, B., Galuskin, E.V. ,Armbruster, T., Gazeev, V.M., Włodyka, R., Dulski, M. & Dzierżanowski, P. (2015): Fluorchegemite, Ca7(SiO4)3F2, a new mineral from the edgrewitebearing endoskarn zone of an altered xenolith in ignimbrites from Upper Chegem Caldera, Northern Caucasus, Kabardina-balkaria, Russia; Occurrence, crystal structure, and new data on the mineral assemblages. Canadian Mineralogist. 53, 325-344.
  • Medelpad
    • Timrå
Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
  • Western Region
    • Kabarole District
Barker, D.S. and Nixon, P.H. (1989) High-Ca, low-alkali carbonatite volcanism at Fort Portal, Uganda. Contributions to Minralogy and Petrology.: 103: 166-177.
  • Northern Ireland
    • Co. Antrim
      • Glenoe
P. A. Sabine, M. T. Styles and B. R. Young (1985) The Nature and Paragenesis of Natural Bredigite and Associated Minerals from Carneal and Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine 49:663-670.
      • Larne
American Mineralogist: 33: 786
  • Scotland
    • North West Highlands
      • Ardnamurchan
American Mineralogist 35:1080
      • Isle of Muck
Tilley, C.E. (1947) The gabbro-limestone contact zone of Camas Mor, Muck, Inverness-shire. Comptes Rendus de la Société geologique de Finlande, No. 140, 97–105.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Darwin Hills
        • Darwin District
          • Darwin
Am Min (1962) 47:1003-1005
      • Panamint Mts (Panamint Range)
        • Cottonwood Mts
          • Ubehebe District
            • Lost Burro Spring
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 259.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
        • Crestmore quarries
          • Sky Blue Hill
Larsen, Esper Signius & William F. Foshag (1921), Merwinite, a new calcium magnesium orthosilicate from Crestmore, California: American Mineralogist:6: 144; Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmorre, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 352-381; Woodford, A.O. (1943), Crestmore minerals: California Division Mines Report 39: 358; Burnham, C. W. (1959), Contact metamorphism of magnesian limestones at Crestmore, California Geological Society of America Bulletin: 70: 880; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 494.
Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 352-381.
Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmorre, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 352-381.
Shannon, Earl Victor (1922), Velarsenite from a new locality in Tulare County, California: US National Museum Proceedings: 60, art. 22, 4 pp.:
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Kansas
    • Decatur Co.
Keil, K., G. I. Huss & H. B. Wiik (1969). The Leoville, Kansas, Meteorite: A Polymict Breccia of Carbonaceous Chondrites and Achondrite. Meteorite Researchedited by Peter M. Millman. Astrophysics and Space Science Library: Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Volume 12, 1969, p 217.; Patzer, A., Hezel, D. C., Bendel, V. & Pack, A. (2012) Chondritic ingredients: I. Usual suspects and some oddballs in the Leoville CV3 meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 47 (1): 142-157. (Jan 2012)
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Stoneham
Bastin, Edson Sunderland (1911) Geology of the pegmatites and associated rocks of Maine, including feldspar, quartz, mica, and gem deposits. USGS Bulletin 445.
  • New Mexico
    • Luna Co.
      • Camel Mountain-Eagle Nest District
NMBGMR Open-file Report OF-459
      • Tres Hermanas Mts
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd rev. ed., 1996
  • Oklahoma
    • Washita Co.
Grady, M. M., Pratesi, G. & Moggi-Cecchi, V. (2015) Atlas of Meteorites. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom. 373 pages.
  • Texas
    • Culberson Co.
      • Apache Peak area
Rocks & Minerals: 66(3): 196-224.
    • Uvalde Co.
  • Virginia
    • Henrico Co.
Bischoff, A. & Keil, K. (1984) Al-rich objects in ordinary chondrites: Related origin of carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites and their constituents. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48 (4): 693-709. ; Fredriksson, K. (1969) The Sharps Chondrite — New Evidence on the Origin of Chondrules and Chondrites: IN: Meteoritic Research: Peter M. Millman, Editor: pp. 155-165. D. Reidel Publishing Company: Dordrecht-Holland. 941 pages.
    • Highland Co.
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
      • Reno Junction
American Mineralogist, Volume 73, pages 1440-1448, 1988
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