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About GeikieliteHide

Sir Archibald Geikie, Director General, British Geological Survey.
black, red, brownish black
5 - 6
Specific Gravity:
3.79 - 4.2
Crystal System:
Member of:
For Sir Archibald Geikie (Edinburgh 28 December 1835 – Haslemere, Surrey 10 November 1924), Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and Director-General of the Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland.
Ilmenite Group. Geikielite-Ilmenite Series. The magnesium analogue of Ilmenite, Pyrophanite, and Ecandrewsite. The titanium analogue of Akimotoite.
May be confused with Hematite.

Classification of GeikieliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations

3 : A2X3

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Physical Properties of GeikieliteHide

Translucent, Opaque
black, red, brownish black
purple brown
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
On {1011}
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
3.79 - 4.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.895 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of GeikieliteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.310 - 2.350 nε = 1.950 - 1.980
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.360 - 0.370
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Colour in reflected light:
Internal Reflections:
O = Pinkish red
E = Brownish to purplish red

Chemical Properties of GeikieliteHide

Common Impurities:

Crystallography of GeikieliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.05478(26) Å, c = 13.8992(7) Å
a:c = 1 : 2.75
Unit Cell V:
307.56 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Tabular to prismatic crystals.

Type Occurrence of GeikieliteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Natural History Museum, London 69078-69079

Synonyms of GeikieliteHide

Other Language Names for GeikieliteHide

Simplified Chinese:镁钛矿

Relationship of Geikielite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
Hemleyite(Fe2+0.48Mg0.37Ca0.04Na0.04Mn2+0.03Al0.03Cr3+0.01)sum=1.00Si1.00O3Trig. 3 : R3
IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
Unnamed (Fe-Cr Oxide)FeCrO3Trig. 3 : R3
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite7 photos of Geikielite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Lizardite6 photos of Geikielite associated with Lizardite on mindat.org.
Spinel5 photos of Geikielite associated with Spinel on mindat.org.
Pseudosinhalite4 photos of Geikielite associated with Pseudosinhalite on mindat.org.
Tazheranite1 photo of Geikielite associated with Tazheranite on mindat.org.
Fluorapatite1 photo of Geikielite associated with Fluorapatite on mindat.org.
Phlogopite1 photo of Geikielite associated with Phlogopite on mindat.org.
Rutile1 photo of Geikielite associated with Rutile on mindat.org.
Titanclinohumite1 photo of Geikielite associated with Titanclinohumite on mindat.org.
Zirconolite1 photo of Geikielite associated with Zirconolite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05HematiteFe2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05Unnamed (Auroantimonate)AuSbO3
4.CB.05TistariteTi3+2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
4.CB.10BixbyiteMn3+2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV3+2V4+O5Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2Hex. 6 : P63
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3Mon. 2/m
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.50SenarmontiteSb2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pccn
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20Iso. 2 3 : I2 3
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteV3+Ti2O5(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 3 : R3 3 : R3,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3,Fe3+)O3Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.9.2RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.9.3AnataseTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.14Jacobsite-QT(Mn2+)M(Fe3+2)O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.17UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for GeikieliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Fletcher (1892), Nature: 46: 620.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 535-541.
Acta Crystallographica: B45: 542-549.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1995) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume II. Silica, Silicates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 904pp., 2 volumes: 220.

Internet Links for GeikieliteHide

Localities for GeikieliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land
      • Sør Rondane Mts
Grew, E. S., Essene, E. J., Peacor, D. R., Su, S. C. and Asami, M. (1991): Dissakisite-(Ce), a new member of the epidote group and the magnesium analogue of allanite-(Ce), from Antarctica. American Mineralogist 76, 1990-1997.
    • Victoria Land
      • Allan Hills
Rosenshein, E. B., Ivanova, M. A., Dickinson, T. L., McCoy, T. J., Lauretta, D. S., Guan, Y., (2006) Oxide-bearing and FeO-rich clasts in aubrites. Meteoritics, vol. 41, Issue 4, p.495-503
  • Tasmania
    • Circular Head municipality
      • Corinna-Savage River district
Bottrill & Taheri, 2008, Savage River mine, Unpub. Rept, Mineral Resources Tasmania
  • Lower Austria
    • Mostviertel
      • Dunkelstein Forest
        • Dunkelsteinerwald
          • Kochholz
Kolitsch, U. (2018): 2095) Arsenopyrit (Co-haltig), Fluorapatit, Geikielith, Klinochlor und Zirkonolith im Spinell-Forsterit-Marmor von Kochholz, Dunkelsteinerwald, Niederösterreich. Pp. 238-240 in Walter, F. et al. (2018): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVII. Carinthia II, 208./128., 185-254.
  • Styria
    • Weiz
      • Stubenberg am See
Tropper, P. et al. (2001, 2007); http://www.franzbernhard.x10hosting.com/polishedslabs.html
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Ötz valley
Gasteiger, P., Tropper, P., Haefeker, U. & Tessadri, R. (2013): Petrographie und Mineralchemie von Betafit aus dem Pollestal (Ötztal-Stubai Kristallin). Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 159, 55 (abs.).
  • São Paulo
    • Cajati
MinRec 15:261-270
  • British Columbia
    • Greenwood Mining Division
      • Grand Forks
Richard Gunter collection
  • Ontario
    • Haliburton Co.
      • Monmouth Township
Analysis by Tony Steede at the ROM
  • Québec
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Chelsea
Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 41
        • Wakefield
Sabina, A.P. (1987) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Hull-Maniwaki, Quebec, Ottawa-Peterborough, Ontario. GSC Misc. Report 41, 34-35 p.
  • Shaanxi
    • Hanzhong
      • Ningqiang Co.
Lin, Y. T. & Kimura, M. (1996). Discovery of Complex Titanium Oxide Associations in a Plagioclase-Olivine Inclusion (POI) in the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite. Lunar and Planetary Science, vol. 27, pages 755-756. (1996).
  • Shandong
    • Linyi
      • Yimeng Mts (Yimeng Shan)
        • Mengyin Co.
Qi Lu, Huifang Liu, and Ping Xiao (2007): Geological Science and Technology Information 26(2), 1-7
  • Tibet
    • Nyingtri Prefecture (Linzhi Prefecture)
      • Mêdog Co. (Motuo Co.)
        • Mount Namjagbarwa (Mount Nanjiabawa)
Yan Liu, Zhesheng Ma, Xiuling Han, Huyun Zhou, Peishan Zhang, and Dalai Zhong (1997): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 16(4), 338-340
Czech Republic
  • Vysočina Region
    • Třebíč District
      • Okříšky
Houzar S.: Spinel z Číhalína a Nové Vsi u Třebíče, západní Morava. Minerál, 2010, 18, 1, 69-71.
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Novák, M., Šrein, V.: Ryzí antimon v rutilu z dolomitického mramoru od Studnice u Nového Města na Moravě. Minerál, 1997, roč. 5, č. 4, s. 265-266.
  • Greenland
    • Sermersooq
      • Nuuk (Godthåb)
        • Fiskenæsset (Fiskenaesset; Qeqertarsuatsiaat)
Windley B.F. et al. (1989): Geikielite and ilmenite in Archaean meta-ultramafic rocks, Fiskenaesset, West Greenland. European Journal of Mineralogy. 1, 427-437
  • Kainuu
    • Kuhmo
      • Näätäniemi
  • Northern Savonia
O´Brien, H.E.& Tyni,M. 1999. Mineralogy and geochemistry of kimberlites and related rocks from Finland. Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, Cape Town, South Africa.
  • Occitanie
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Prats-de-Mollo-la Preste (Prats de Molló-la Presta)
Dubru. M, (1986) Pétrologie et géochimie du marbre à brucite et des borates associés au gisement de tungstène de Costabonne, (Pyrénées orientales, France) 930p
  • Tamil Nadu
    • Teni District
Burtseva, M. V., et al. "Features of mineral and chemical composition of the Khamambettu Carbonatites, Tamil Nadu." Journal of the Geological Society of India 81.5 (2013): 655-664.
  • Campania
    • Naples
Pascal, M.-L., Di Muro, A., Boudouma, O., Fointeilles, M., Principe, C. (2008): Zirconlite, calzirtite, baddeleyite, betafite, geikielite and qandilite in skarn ejecta from Vesuvius - inferences for the magma-wallrock interactions. EGU General Assembly 2008. Geophysical Research Abstract, 10, EGU2008-A-06674, 2008. ; Pascal, M.-L., Di Muro, A., Boudouma, O., Fointeilles, M., Principe, C. (2008): Zirconolite, calzirtite, baddeleyite, betafite, geikielite and qandilite in skarn ejecta from Vesuvius - inferences for the magma-wallrock interactions. EGU General Assembly 2008. Geophysical Research Abstract, 10, EGU2008-A-06674, 2008.
        • Monte Somma
          • Ercolano
            • San Vito
Gentile P. (1986) - Geikielite del M. Somma (NA) e del M. dei tre Abati (PC) - Riv. Miner. Ital., Milano, fasc. 3, pp. 127-130
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Piacenza Province
      • Trebbia Valley
        • Coli
Gentile P. (1986) - Geikielite del M. somma (Na) e del M. dei tre Abati (Pc) - Riv. Miner. Ital., Milano, fasc.3, pp. 127-130
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
Caponera, I., Fiori, S., Pucci, R., & Signoretti, E. (2007). I minerali dei Colli Albani. Un aggiornamento sugli ultimi dieci anni di ricerche. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 74-91.
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Chiesa in Valmalenco
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work
        • Masino Valley
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work
  • Piedmont
    • Metropolitan City of Turin
      • Sangone Valley
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Different Municipalities
The Canadian Mineralogist, Volume 42, Number 6, December 2004, pp. 1825-1845.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Fiemme Valley
        • Predazzo
Ferry J.M., Wing B.A., Penniston-Dorland S.C., Rumble D. (2002): The direction of fluid flow during contact metamorphism of siliceous carbonate rocks: new data for the Monzoni and Predazzo aureoles, northern Italy, and a global review. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 142, 679–699.
      • Giudicarie Valleys
        • Breguzzo
          • San Pietro-Breguzzo Valley
            • Malga Trivena hut
Gieré, R., Williams, C.T. (1992): REE-bearing minerals in a Ti-rich vein from the Adamello contact aureole (Italy). Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 112, 83-100.
        • Daone & Breguzzo
          • Valbona (Val Bona) & Val d'Arnò
Gardes M.L., Baumgartner L.P., Valle J.V. (1999): Stable isotopic evidence for limited fluid flow through dolomitic marble in the Adamello contact aureole, Cima Uzza, Italy. Journal of Petrogr., 40, 6, 853-872.
  • Fukushima
    • Iwaki City
Nedachi et al (1984) Ganseki-Koubutsu-Koshogaku Zasshi, 79, 200-213.
  • Iwate
    • Miyako City
      • Kamineichi
Watanabe et al (1963) Kotoite, Mg3(BO3)2, from the Neichi mine, Iwate prefecture, Japan. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, series B, 39, 164-169; Kato, A. & Matsubara, S. (1991): Geikielite, baddeleyite and zirconolite in dolomitic marble from the Neichi mine, Miyako City, Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Series C, 17, 11-20.
  • Assaba Region
Meteoritical Bulletin Database
  • Nampula Province
Hurai, V., Paquette, J. L., Huraiová, M., Slobodník, M., Hvožďara, P., Siegfried, P., ... & Milovská, S. (2017). New insights into the origin of the Evate apatite-iron oxide-carbonate deposit, Northeastern Mozambique, constrained by mineralogy, textures, thermochronometry, and fluid inclusions. Ore Geology Reviews, 80, 1072-1091.; Gajdošová, M., Huraiová, M., Hurai, V., & Konečný, P. (2017) In situ chemical dating of new accessory minerals from the Evate deposit in Mozambique. CAM–2017 (Conference on Accessory Minerals)
  • Mandalay Region
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
Franz Neuhold & Gerald Giester (SXRD- and EDS-analysis)
North Korea
  • North Hwanghae Province
    • Suan-gun
      • Hol Kol Mine (Holgol; Suan; Namjong)
Resource Geology, vol. 50, no. 4, 213-228, 2000
  • Buskerud
Robinson, P., Langenhorst, F., McEnroe, S.A., Fabian, K. & Ballaran, T.B. (2014): Ferroan geikielite and coupled spinel-rutile exsolution from titanohematite: Interface characterization and magnetic properties. American Mineralogist 99, 1694-1712.
  • Sogn og Fjordane
    • Selje
      • Liset
Smith, D.C., Kechid, S-A. and Rossi, G. (1986): Occurrence and properties of lisetite, CaNa2Al4Si4O16, a new tectosilicate in the system Ca-Na-Al-Si-O. American Mineralogist. 71: 1372-1377
    • Skardu District
Gordon Cressey (1986) Geikielite and Perovskite in Serpentine-Brucite Marble from Baltistan, Northern Areas (Kashmir), Pakistan. Mineralogical Magazine 50:345-346.
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Lake Baikal area
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Nikita V. Chukanov (2014) Infrared spectra of mineral species. Springer
  • Khabarovsk Krai
    • Ayan-Maya district
      • Aldan shield
Lennikov, A. M., Zalishak, B. L., & Oktyabrsky, R. A. (2004). The Konder massif of ultramafic and alkaline rocks and related PGM mineralization. In Interim IAGOD Conf. Excursion Guidebook. Vladivostok: Dalnauka (p. 29).
  • Murmansk Oblast
N. I. Krasnova (2001): The Kovdor phlogopite deposit, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist, 39, 33–44.
Mikhailova, J. A., Kalashnikov, A. O., Sokharev, V. A., Pakhomovsky, Y. A., Konopleva, N. G., Yakovenchuk, V. N., ... & Ivanyuk, G. Y. (2016). 3D mineralogical mapping of the Kovdor phoscorite–carbonatite complex (Russia). Mineralium Deposita, 51(1), 131-149.; Gregory Ivanyuk, Andrei Kalashnikov, Julia Mikhailova, Yakov Pakhomovsky, Nataly Konoplyova, Victor Yakovenchuk, Ayya Bazai (2018) 3D mineralogical mapping of the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p101
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Aldan Shield
      • Chara and Tokko Rivers Confluence
  • Bratislava Region
    • Pezinok Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
South Africa
  • Free State
    • Xhariep District
      • Jagersfontein
Minerals of South Africa
  • Limpopo
    • Phalaborwa
      • Loolekop
Minerals of South Africa; Lee, M. E., Goosen, W. E., Minnaar, E. G., & Liebenberg, T. Microanalysis of mineral inclusions in primary baddeleyite from the Phalaborwa complex.
  • Northern Cape
    • Francis Baard District
  • Andalusia
    • Málaga
Romero Silva JC (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga España. Edita CEDMA County council
Calvo, M. (2009): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp; Romero Silva, JC (2003). Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga. Edita CEDMA County Council of Malaga. 318pp. 1 map
      • Mijas
Romero Silva, JC (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga. Published by the Malaga County Council CEDMA. 318pp. 1 map; Romero Silva, JC (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga. Edita CEDMA Malaga County Council. 318pp. 1 map
      • Ojén
        • Sierra Blanca
Calvo, M. (2009) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp.
  • Extremadura
    • Cáceres
      • Garrovillas de Alconétar
Weibel, M. (1955): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 4, 379-411.
Sri Lanka
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
Nature (1892) 46, 620; Mineralogical Magazine(1893) 10, 145
Nature (1892) 46, 620; Mineralogical Magazine(1893) 10, 145
Nature (1892) p621
  • Scotland
    • Highland
      • Ballachulish
Ferry, J.M. (1996) Three novel isograds in metamorphosed siliceous dolomites from the Ballachulish aureole, Scotland. American Mineralogist, 81(3-4), 485-496.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 230.
  • California
    • Monterey Co.
      • Santa Lucia Mts (Santa Lucia Range)
        • Slates Hot Springs
Wise, Wm. S. (1959), An occurrence of geikielite: American Mineralogist : 44: 879-882; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 173, 460.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
        • Crestmore quarries
          • Chino Hill
Jenni, Clarence M. (1957), Crestmore and its minerals: Gems & Minerals, No. 238: (July 1957): 64, 79; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 173.
      • Jurupa Valley
        • Jurupa Mts
Murdoch, Joseph & Joseph J. Fahey (1948), Geikielite, a new find from California (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin: 59: 1341-1342; Murdoch, Joseph & Joseph J. Fahey (1949), Geikielite, a new find from California: American Mineralogist: 34: 835-838; Cooney, R.L. (1956), The mineralogy of the Jensen and Henshaw quarries near Riverside, California: Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of California at Los Angeles: 43; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 173; Devito, F. and Ordway, A. (1984), The Jensen Quarry, Riverside County, California. Mineralogical Record: 15(5): 273-290.
  • Massachusetts
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Chelmsford
Cook, L.P. (1974) Metamorphosed Carbonate Rocks of the Nashoba Formation, Eastern Massachusetts. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University PhD Dissertation, 454 pages.
  • Michigan
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Hermansville
Xu, J., Melgarejo, J. C., i Abat, L. T., & Castillo-Oliver, M. (2017) Magma mingling at the Menominee pipe, USA? Contributions from texture and mineral chemistry. 11th International Kimberlite Conference Extended Abstract No. 11IKC-4625, 2017
  • Missouri
    • Dent Co.
Smith, F., 1968; U.S. Geological Survey,2005,Mineral Resources Data System :U.S. Geological Survey,Reston, Virginia
  • New York
    • Orange Co.
      • Town of Warwick
Glenn Rheim
  • Masvingo
    • Chiredzi mining district (Hartley mining district)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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