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About GerhardtiteHide

Charles Frédéric Gerhardt
Emerald Green
Specific Gravity:
3.4 - 3.43
Crystal System:
Named in 1885 by Horace L. Wells and Samuel Lewis Penfield in honor of Charles Frédéric Gerhardt [August 21, 1816 Strassburg Germany - August 19, 1856 Strasbourg, Germany], who first prepared the artificial compound, in addition to many other achievements. Gerhardt studied organic chemistry under Justus von Liebig and Jean Baptiste Dumas. Gerhardt also worked with Auguste Cahours and Michel Eugène Chevreul in Paris. Gerhardt proposed some important changes in chemical formula notation that were controversial in the time period. After several laboratory assignments and private work as a scientific book translator (primarily of Liebig's works), Gerhardt became professor at University of Montpellier in Montpellier, France in 1844-1851. In 1854, Gerhardt became professor of chemistry in the École Polytechnique at Strassburg. Gerhardt wrote the important four volume book, Traité de chimie organique, but did not live to see its publication as he died from accidentally being poisoned by one of his experiments.
Dimorph of:
An uncommon secondary copper nitrate.

Easy to confuse with its dimorph rouaite (both have very similar X-ray powder diffraction patterns).

Classification of GerhardtiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

B : With OH
Dana 7th ed.:

1 : Anhydrous Nitrates Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen

13 : Nitrates

Physical Properties of GerhardtiteHide

Emerald Green
Light green
On {001} perfect; on {100} good.
3.4 - 3.43 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.389 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of GerhardtiteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.703 nβ = 1.713 nγ = 1.722
Measured: 85° , Calculated: 86°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.019
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v very strong
X = Green
Y = Green
Z = Blue

Chemical Properties of GerhardtiteHide


Crystallography of GerhardtiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2 2 2 - Disphenoidal
Space Group:
P21 21 21
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.087(2) Å, b = 13.813(4) Å, c = 5.597(2) Å
a:b:c = 0.441 : 1 : 0.405
Unit Cell V:
470.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals thick tabular {001}. Strongly striated on the pyramid zone. Faces often in oscillatory combination. Crystals flexible, with separation along {100}.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Oxidation zone of copper deposits

Type Occurrence of GerhardtiteHide

Other Language Names for GerhardtiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Gerhardtite associated with MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
7 photos of Gerhardtite associated with BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
4 photos of Gerhardtite associated with LikasiteCu3(NO3)(OH)5 · 2H2O
3 photos of Gerhardtite associated with CupriteCu2O
3 photos of Gerhardtite associated with CopperCu
1 photo of Gerhardtite associated with ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
1 photo of Gerhardtite associated with RouaiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.NB.05RouaiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3Mon. 2 : P21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

13.1NitratineNaNO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
13.2NiterKNO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmma
13.4NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
13.5NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
13.6NitrobariteBa(NO3)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
13.7ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
13.8SveiteKAl7(NO3)4(OH)16Cl2 · 8H2OMon.
13.9DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2OMon. 2/m
13.10HumberstoniteNa7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
13.11Mbobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.
13.12Hydrombobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 13-14H2OMon.
13.13Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Insoluble in water. Soluble in dilute acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for GerhardtiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Wells and Penfield (1885) American Journal of Science: 30: 50.
Lindgren and Hillebrand (1904) American Journal of Science: 18: 448.
Thoreau (1923) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 46: B 285.
Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 129, 190.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 308-309.
Kohler, K. (1955): Röntgenographische Untersuchungen an Gerhardtit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Kristallgeometrie, Kristallphysik, Kristallchemie 106, 474-475.
Oswald, H. R. (1961): Über natürlichen und künstlichen Gerhardtit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 116, 210-219 (in German with English abstract).
Helv. Chim. Acta: 35: 375-390.
Bovio, B. & Locchi, S. (1982): Crystal structure of the orthorhombic basic copper nitrate, Cu2(OH)3NO3. J. Cryst. Spectr. Res. 12, 507-517.
Tanaka, H.; Terada, S. (1993): Preparation and thermal decomposition of synthetic gerhardtite copper hydroxide nitrate (Cu2(OH)3NO3). Journal of Thermal Analysis 39, 1011-1018.
MELCHIORRE, E.B., WILLIAMS, P.A., ROSE, T.P. & TALYN, B.C. (2006): Biogenic nitrogen from termite mounds and the origin of gerhardtite at the Great Australia mine, Cloncurry, Queensland, Australia. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 1447-1455.
Samie, Farid; Tidblad, Johan; Kucera, Vladimir; Leygraf, Christofer (2007): Atmospheric corrosion effects of HNO3. Influence of temperature and relative humidity on laboratory-exposed copper. Atmospheric Environment 41, 1374-1382.
C. H. Yoder, E. Bushong, X. Liu, V. Weidner, P. McWilliams, K. Martin, J. Lorgunpai, J. Haller and R. W. Schaeffer (2010): The synthesis and solubility of the copper hydroxyl nitrates, gerhardtite, rouaite and likasite. Mineral. Mag. 74, 433-440.

Internet Links for GerhardtiteHide

Localities for GerhardtiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Cloncurry
Wallace, M.E., Pring, A. (1990) Gerhardtite, a copper hydroxy-nitrate from the Great Australia mine, Cloncurry, Queensland. Australian Mineral. 5, 51-54. Sharpe, J.L., Williams, P.A. (2000) Exotic Secondary Copper Mineralization in the Eastern Mt Isa Block, Northwest Queensland. The Royal Society of New South Wales, 133:31-32. Melchiorre, E.B., Williams, P.A., Rose, T.P., Talyn, B.C. (2006) Biogenic nitrogen from termite mounds and the origin of Gerhardtite at the Great Australia Mine, Cloncurry, Queensland, Australia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 44(6), 1447-1455.
Sharpe, J.L., Williams, P.A. (2000) Exotic Secondary Copper Mineralization in the Eastern Mt Isa Block, Northwest Queensland. The Royal Society of New South Wales, 133:31-32.
  • Atacama
    • Copiapó Province
      • Quebrada San Miguel
Terry Szenics
  • Tarapacá
    • Tamarugal Province
      • Collahuasi District
Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
DR Congo
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kambove District
      • Likasi
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 309.; Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).; http://www.champ-hannut.be/fichierpdf/Rev%20SP%202017%20NL.pdf
      • Luambo
Oswald, H.R. (1961): Über natürlichen und künstlichen Gerhardtit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 116, 210-219.
  • Lualaba
    • Kolwezi mining district
Personal communication from Jasun McAvoy. Jasun acquired the material from one of the miners. The material has been analyzed.
Personal communication from Jasun McAvoy and Carsten Slotta.
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-Maritimes
      • Guillaumes
        • Daluis
Riviéra Scientifique:85:3-12, 2001 (15 Oct 2001), Sarp, et al.; Sarp, H. and Černý, R. (2000): Rollandite, Cu3(AsO4)2.4H2O, a new mineral: its description and crystal structure. Eur. J. Mineral., 12, 1045-1050. MR 33 (2002), 169
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
U. Kolitsch, J. Gröbner, F. Brandstätter and R. Bayerl (2010): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald (IV): Calcioandyrobertsit, Cotunnit, Gerhardtit, Khaidarkanit, Lukrahnit, Mckinstryit, Moolooit, Rhabdophan-(La), Rouait und Uricit. Lapis 35 (9), 22-27; 62 (in German).
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Hochsauerlandkreis
        • Bestwig
          • Ramsbeck
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Burbach
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Kazincbarcika District
Collector:Koller G.-Analysed by Szakáll S.-2010
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Luigi Chiappino
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77.
  • Karaganda Region
Voloshin, A. V., Pakhomovskiy, Ya. A., Stepanov, V. I., Bulgak, L. V. and Men-shikov, Yu. P. (1988): Gerhardtite, likasite, and spertiniite from the oxidation zone of Dzhezkazgan chalcosite ores; first finds in the USSR. Novye Dannye o Mineralakh SSSR, 35, 40-47. (in Russian) ; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Zagora Province
      • Djebel Saghro
        • Bou Skour mining district
Georges FAVREAU collection
  • Crimea
    • Pereval'noye Village area
Geologiya SSSR (The geology of USSR) (1969) - Nedra (Moscou), 1969, vol. VIII, 575 p.
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Huércal-Overa
        • Cuesta Alta
          • Cerro Minado Mines
VIÑALS, J., FAVREAU, G., and EYTIER C. & J.-R. (2010): Bobkingite, capgaronnite, juanitaite, gerhardtite, reevesite and other rare minerals from Cerro Minado, Huercal-Overa (Almería). Mineral Up, 4, 3, 6-23 Versions simultaneously published in Catalan (Mineralogistes de Catalunya); in Spanish version (Revista de Minerales).
  • Arizona
    • Greenlee Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 230.
Merritt Stephen Enders (2000) The Evolution of Supergene Enrichment in the Morenci Porphyry Copper Deposit, Greenlee County, Arizona. PhD Thesis, University of Arizona
      • Gila Hot Springs Mining District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 309; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 230; Lindgren, W. & W.F. Hillebrand (1904), Minerals from the Clifton-Morenci district, AZ, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 18: 448-460; Lindgren, W. (1905), The copper deposits of the Clifton-Morenci district, AZ, USGS PP 43; Guild, F.N. (1905), The petrography of the Tucson Mountains, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 20: 313; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Osborn Mining District
        • Tonopah
          • Belmont Mountain
Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
    • Pima Co.
      • Sierrita Mountains
        • Pima Mining District (Olive Mining District; Mineral Hill Mining District; Twin Buttes Mining District)
          • San Xavier
            • Mission complex
              • Mineral Hill
                • Mineral Hill Mines (Azurite group; Old Azurite Mine; Copper Glance Mine)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 183, 230, 336; Williams, S.A. (1961), Gerhardtite from the Daisy shaft, Mineral Hill mine, Pima Co., AZ, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 4: 123.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Black Hills (Black Hill Range)
        • Verde Mining District
          • Jerome
Wells, H.L. & S.L. Penfield (1885), Gerhardtite and artificial cupric nitrates, American Journal of Science: 30: 50-57; Dana 6: 1094; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 309; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 230-231; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
  • Michigan
    • Ontonagon Co.
In the collection of Brent Thorne.
      • Mass City
Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • Red Canyon
Journal of Geosciences, 60 (2015), 1–10; Kampf, A.R., Kasatkin, A.V., Čejka, J., Marty, J. (2015): Plášilite, Na(UO2)(SO4)(OH)•2H2O, a new uranyl sulfate mineral from the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA. Journal of Geosciences. 60, 1-10
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