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Gerhardtite

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Charles Frédéric Gerhardt
Formula:
Cu2(NO3)(OH)3
Colour:
Emerald Green
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
3.4 - 3.43
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1885 by Horace L. Wells and Samuel Lewis Penfield in honor of Charles Frédéric Gerhardt [August 21, 1816 Strassburg Germany - August 19, 1856 Strasbourg, Germany], who first prepared the artificial compound, in addition to many other achievements. Gerhardt studied organic chemistry under Justus von Liebig and Jean Baptiste Dumas. Gerhardt also worked with Auguste Cahours and Michel Eugène Chevreul in Paris. Gerhard proposed some important changes in chemical formula notation that were controversial in the time period. After several laboratory assignments and private work as a scientific book translator (primarily of Liebig's works), Gerhardt became professor at University of Montpellier in Montpellier, France in 1844-1851. In 1854, Gerhard became professor of chemistry in the École Polytechnique at Strassburg. Gerhardt wrote the important four volume book, Traité de chimie organique, but did not live to see its publication as he died from accidentally being poisoned by one of his experiments.
Dimorph of:
An uncommon secondary copper nitrate.

Easy to confuse with its dimorph rouaite (both have very similar X-ray powder diffraction patterns).


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of GerhardtiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.NB.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
N : NITRATES
B : With OH
Dana 7th ed.:
19.1.1.1
19.1.1.1

19 : NITRATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : Anhydrous Nitrates Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
13.3

13 : Nitrates

Physical Properties of GerhardtiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Emerald Green
Streak:
Light green
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {001} perfect; on {100} good.
Density:
3.4 - 3.43 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.389 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of GerhardtiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.703 nβ = 1.713 nγ = 1.722
2V:
Measured: 85° , Calculated: 86°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.019
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r < v very strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Green
Y = Green
Z = Blue

Chemical Properties of GerhardtiteHide

Formula:
Cu2(NO3)(OH)3
IMA Formula:
Cu2NO3(OH)3

Crystallography of GerhardtiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
2 2 2 - Disphenoidal
Space Group:
P21 21 21
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.087(2) Å, b = 13.813(4) Å, c = 5.597(2) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.441 : 1 : 0.405
Unit Cell V:
470.59 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals thick tabular {001}. Strongly striated on the pyramid zone. Faces often in oscillatory combination. Crystals flexible, with separation along {100}.

Type Occurrence of GerhardtiteHide

Other Language Names for GerhardtiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Malachite7 photos of Gerhardtite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Brochantite7 photos of Gerhardtite associated with Brochantite on mindat.org.
Likasite4 photos of Gerhardtite associated with Likasite on mindat.org.
Cuprite3 photos of Gerhardtite associated with Cuprite on mindat.org.
Copper3 photos of Gerhardtite associated with Copper on mindat.org.
Chrysocolla1 photo of Gerhardtite associated with Chrysocolla on mindat.org.
Rouaite1 photo of Gerhardtite associated with Rouaite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.NB.05RouaiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3Mon. 2 : P21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

13.1NitratineNaNO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
13.2NiterKNO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmma
13.4NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
13.5NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
13.6NitrobariteBa(NO3)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
13.7ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
13.8SveiteKAl7(NO3)4(OH)16Cl2 · 8H2OMon.
13.9DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2OMon. 2/m
13.10HumberstoniteNa7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
13.11Mbobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.
13.12Hydrombobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 13-14H2OMon.
13.13Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Insoluble in water. Soluble in dilute acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for GerhardtiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Wells and Penfield (1885) American Journal of Science: 30: 50.
Lindgren and Hillebrand (1904) American Journal of Science: 18: 448.
Thoreau (1923) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 46: B 285.
Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 129, 190.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 308-309.
Kohler, K. (1955): Röntgenographische Untersuchungen an Gerhardtit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Kristallgeometrie, Kristallphysik, Kristallchemie 106, 474-475.
Oswald, H. R. (1961): Über natürlichen und künstlichen Gerhardtit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 116, 210-219 (in German with English abstract).
Helv. Chim. Acta: 35: 375-390.
Bovio, B. & Locchi, S. (1982): Crystal structure of the orthorhombic basic copper nitrate, Cu2(OH)3NO3. J. Cryst. Spectr. Res. 12, 507-517.
Tanaka, H.; Terada, S. (1993): Preparation and thermal decomposition of synthetic gerhardtite copper hydroxide nitrate (Cu2(OH)3NO3). Journal of Thermal Analysis 39, 1011-1018.
MELCHIORRE, E.B., WILLIAMS, P.A., ROSE, T.P. & TALYN, B.C. (2006): Biogenic nitrogen from termite mounds and the origin of gerhardtite at the Great Australia mine, Cloncurry, Queensland, Australia. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 1447-1455.
Samie, Farid; Tidblad, Johan; Kucera, Vladimir; Leygraf, Christofer (2007): Atmospheric corrosion effects of HNO3. Influence of temperature and relative humidity on laboratory-exposed copper. Atmospheric Environment 41, 1374-1382.
C. H. Yoder, E. Bushong, X. Liu, V. Weidner, P. McWilliams, K. Martin, J. Lorgunpai, J. Haller and R. W. Schaeffer (2010): The synthesis and solubility of the copper hydroxyl nitrates, gerhardtite, rouaite and likasite. Mineral. Mag. 74, 433-440.

Internet Links for GerhardtiteHide

Localities for GerhardtiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Cloncurry
Wallace, M. E. & Pring, A. (1990): Gerhardtite, a copper hydroxy-nitrate from the Great Australia mine, Cloncurry, Queensland. Australian Mineral. 5, 51-54.
Chile
 
  • Atacama Region
    • Copiapó Province
      • Quebrada San Miguel
Terry Szenics
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Collahuasi District
Sulphides analysed by geology dep. of company; sulphates, phosphates, analysed by Bob Jenkins (Usa) 2007
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Katanga Copper Crescent
      • Likasi (Jadotville; Jadotstad)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 309.
      • Luambo
Oswald, H.R. (1961): Über natürlichen und künstlichen Gerhardtit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 116, 210-219.
France
 
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-Maritimes
      • Guillaumes
        • Daluis
Riviéra Scientifique:85:3-12, 2001 (15 Oct 2001), Sarp, et al.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
U. Kolitsch, J. Gröbner, F. Brandstätter and R. Bayerl (2010): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald (IV): Calcioandyrobertsit, Cotunnit, Gerhardtit, Khaidarkanit, Lukrahnit, Mckinstryit, Moolooit, Rhabdophan-(La), Rouait und Uricit. Lapis 35 (9), 22-27; 62 (in German).
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Meschede
        • Ramsbeck
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Siegerland
      • Burbach
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Rudabányai Mts
Collector:Koller G.-Analysed by Szakáll S.-2010
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Luigi Chiappino
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    • Chu-Sarysu basin
      • Dzhezkazgan (Zhezqazghan)
Voloshin, A. V., Pakhomovskiy, Ya. A., Stepanov, V. I., Bulgak, L. V. and Men-shikov, Yu. P. (1988): Gerhardtite, likasite, and spertiniite from the oxidation zone of Dzhezkazgan chalcosite ores; first finds in the USSR. Novye Dannye o Mineralakh SSSR, 35, 40-47. (in Russian) ; Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Djebel Saghro (Jbel Saghro)
        • Bou Skour district
Georges FAVREAU collection
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Huércal-Overa
        • Cuesta Alta
          • Cerro Minado Mines
VIÑALS, J., FAVREAU, G., and EYTIER C. & J.-R. (2010): Bobkingite, capgaronnite, juanitaite, gerhardtite, reevesite and other rare minerals from Cerro Minado, Huercal-Overa (Almería). Mineral Up, 4, 3, 6-23 Versions simultaneously published in Catalan (Mineralogistes de Catalunya); in Spanish version (Revista de Minerales).
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Pereval'noye Village area
Geologiya SSSR (The geology of USSR) (1969) - Nedra (Moscou), 1969, vol. VIII, 575 p.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Greenlee Co.
      • Gila Hot Springs District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 309; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 230; Lindgren, W. & W.F. Hillebrand (1904), Minerals from the Clifton-Morenci district, AZ, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 18: 448-460; Lindgren, W. (1905), The copper deposits of the Clifton-Morenci district, AZ, USGS PP 43; Guild, F.N. (1905), The petrography of the Tucson Mountains, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 20: 313; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
      • Shannon Mts
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 230.
Merritt Stephen Enders (2000) The Evolution of Supergene Enrichment in the Morenci Porphyry Copper Deposit, Greenlee County, Arizona. PhD Thesis, University of Arizona
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Big Horn Mts
        • Osborn District
          • Tonopah
            • Belmont Mountain
Raman analyzed at the University of Arizona.
    • Pima Co.
      • Sierrita Mts
        • Pima District (Olive District; Mineral Hill District; Twin Buttes District)
          • San Xavier
            • Mission complex
              • Mineral Hill
                • Mineral Hill Mines (Azurite group; Old Azurite Mine; Copper Glance Mine)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 183, 230, 336; Williams, S.A. (1961), Gerhardtite from the Daisy shaft, Mineral Hill mine, Pima Co., AZ, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 4: 123.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Black Hills (Black Hill Range)
        • Verde District
          • Jerome
Wells, H.L. & S.L. Penfield (1885), Gerhardtite and artificial cupric nitrates, American Journal of Science: 30: 50-57; Dana 6: 1094; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 309; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 230-231; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
  • Michigan
    • Ontonagon Co.
In the collection of Brent Thorne.
      • Mass City
Ref.: Rocks & Min.: 58:112; 63:494; 65:240-243.
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • White Canyon District
        • Red Canyon
Journal of Geosciences, 60 (2015), 1–10; Kampf, A.R., Kasatkin, A.V., Čejka, J., Marty, J. (2015): Plášilite, Na(UO2)(SO4)(OH)•2H2O, a new uranyl sulfate mineral from the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA. Journal of Geosciences. 60, 1-10
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