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Gratonite

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Louis C. Graton
Formula:
Pb9As4S15
Colour:
Dark lead-gray
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
6.22
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named in 1939 by Charles Palache and D. Jerome Fisher in honor of Louis Caryl Graton (June 10, 1880, Parma, New York - July 22, 1970, New Haven Connecticut), Professor of Mining Geology, Harvard University, president of the Society of Economic Geologists (1931) and Penrose Medal recipient (1950).
Compare baumhauerite, liveingite, sartorite, 'UM1966-04-S:AsPb'.

The structure contains isolated and interconnected AsS3 pyramids, as, e.g., in case of baumhauerite, dufrénoysite, sartorite, and seligmannite.

Chemically related to, and sometimes associated with, jordanite.
Gratonite is considered a low-temperature dimorph of jordanite, the inversion occurring on heating below 250°C (Roland, 1968).


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Classification of GratoniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.JB.55

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
B : Galena derivatives, with Pb
3.3.2.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
3 : 3 <ø < 4
5.6.5

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
6 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Pb alone

Physical Properties of GratoniteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Dark lead-gray
Streak:
Black
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=130 - 146 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Density:
6.22(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    6.17 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of GratoniteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Weak
Colour in reflected light:
White - slightly yellow as compared to galena
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of GratoniteHide

Formula:
Pb9As4S15
Common Impurities:
Fe,Sb

Crystallography of GratoniteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 17.758(14) Å, c = 7.807(6) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.44
Unit Cell V:
2,132.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Prismatic crystals, massive.

Crystallographic forms of GratoniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Gratonite - {110}, {021}
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of GratoniteHide

Other Language Names for GratoniteHide

German:Gratonit
Simplified Chinese:细硫砷铅矿
Spanish:Gratonita

Relationship of Gratonite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
ArsenmarcobaldiitePb12(As3.2Sb2.8)Σ6S21Tric. 1 : P1
JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
KirkiitePb10Bi3As3S19Hex.
MarcobaldiitePb12(Sb3As2Bi)Σ6S21Tric. 1 : P1

Common AssociatesHide

EnargiteCu3AsS4
HutchinsoniteTlPbAs5S9
JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23
PyriteFeS2
RealgarAs4S4
SphaleriteZnS
TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Galena3 photos of Gratonite associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Pyrite3 photos of Gratonite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Schalenblende3 photos of Gratonite associated with Schalenblende on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.JB.Andorite VIAgPbSb3S6Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
2.JB.05DiaphoriteAg3Pb2Sb3S8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.JB.10CosalitePb2Bi2S5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.JB.15FreieslebeniteAgPbSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.JB.15MarriteAgPbAsS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.JB.20CannizzaritePb4Bi6S13Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.JB.20WittitePb9Bi12(S,Se)27Mon.
2.JB.25aJunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.25iNeyiteAg2Cu6Pb25Bi26S68Mon.
2.JB.25cNordströmiteCuPb3Bi7(Se4S10)Mon.
2.JB.25gNuffielditeCu1.4Pb2.4Bi2.4Sb0.2S7Orth.
2.JB.25dProuditeCuPb7.5Bi9.33(S,Se)22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.25hWeibullitePb5Bi8Se7S11Orth.
2.JB.25bFelbertaliteCu2Pb6Bi8S19Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.25jRouxeliteCu2HgPb23Sb27S65.5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.25fÁngelaiteCu2AgPbBiS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.JB.25iCuproneyiteCu7Pb27Bi25S68Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.30aGeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.JB.30aJordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.JB.30bKirkiitePb10Bi3As3S19Hex.
2.JB.30cTsugaruitePb4As2S7Orth.
2.JB.35cPillaitePb9Sb10S23ClO0.5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.35aZinkenitePb9Sb22S42Hex. 6 : P63
2.JB.35bScainiitePb14Sb30S54O5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.35dPellouxite(Cu,Ag)Pb10Sb12S27O(Cl,S)0.6Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.35fTubuliteAg2Pb22Sb20S53 Mon. m : Pb
2.JB.35eChovanitePb15-2xSb14+2xS36Ox (x ~ 0.2)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.40bAschamalmitePb6Bi2S9Mon. 2/m
2.JB.40aBursaitePb5Bi4S11 (?)Orth.
2.JB.40bEskimoiteAg7Pb10Bi15S36Mon.
2.JB.40aFizélyiteAg5Pb14Sb21S48 Mon. 2/m
2.JB.40aGustaviteAgPbBi3S6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.JB.40aLillianitePb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.JB.40cOurayiteAg3Pb4Bi5S13Orth.
2.JB.40aRamdohritePb5.9Fe0.1Mn0.1In0.1Cd0.2Ag2.8Sb10.8S24Mon. 2/m
2.JB.40aRoshchiniteAg19Pb10Sb51S96Orth.
2.JB.40dSchirmeritePbAgBi3S6 - Pb3Ag1.5Bi3.5S9Orth.
2.JB.40aTreasuriteAg7Pb6Bi15S32Mon.
2.JB.40aUchucchacuaiteAgMnPb3Sb5S12Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
2.JB.40eUstarasitePb(Bi,Sb)6S10 (?)
2.JB.40aVikingiteAg5Pb8Bi13S30Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.40aXilingolitePb3Bi2S6Mon.
2.JB.40bHeyrovskýitePb6Bi2S9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cccm
2.JB.40UM1988-05-S:AgBiCuHgPb(Hg,Ag,Cu,Pb)5Pb5Bi11S27
2.JB.40UM1988-06-S:AgBiCuHgPb(Pb,Hg)12(Cu,Ag)3(Bi,Sb)10(S,Te)27
2.JB.40aAndorite IVPb18Ag15Sb47S96Mon. 2 : P2
2.JB.60MarrucciiteHg3Pb16Sb18S46Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JB.65VurroitePb20Sn2(Bi,As)22S54Cl6Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.6.1SartoritePbAs2S4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.2DufrénoysitePb2As2S5Mon. 2 : P21
5.6.3LiveingitePb9As13S28Mon.
5.6.4BaumhaueritePb12As16S36Tric. 1 : P1
5.6.6JordanitePb14(As,Sb)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.7FülöppitePb3Sb8S15Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.8ZinkenitePb9Sb22S42Hex. 6 : P63
5.6.9PlagionitePb5Sb8S17Mon. 2/m
5.6.10HeteromorphitePb7Sb8S19Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.11LaunayiteCuPb10(Sb,As)12S20Mon.
5.6.12PlayfairitePb16(Sb,As)19S44ClMon.
5.6.13SemseyitePb9Sb8S21Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.6.14MadocitePb19(Sb,As)16S43Orth.
5.6.15BoulangeritePb5Sb4S11Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.6.17RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.18GuettarditePbAsSbS4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.6.19Twinnite Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4Mon. 2/m
5.6.20VeenitePb2(Sb,As)2S5Mon. 2 : P21
5.6.21SorbyiteCuPb9(Sb,As)11S26Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.6.22GeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.23GalenobismutitePbBi2S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.24CosalitePb2Bi2S5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.25CannizzaritePb4Bi6S13Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.6.26LillianitePb3-2xAgxBi2+xS6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.6.27GiessenitePb27Cu2(Bi,Sb)19S57Mon. 2/m
5.6.28Platynite
5.6.29XilingolitePb3Bi2S6Mon.
5.6.30WeibullitePb5Bi8Se7S11Orth.
5.6.31WittitePb9Bi12(S,Se)27Mon.
5.6.32KirkiitePb10Bi3As3S19Hex.
5.6.33UstarasitePb(Bi,Sb)6S10 (?)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for GratoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Palache, C., Fisher, D.J. (1939) Gratonite - preliminary description of a new mineral from Cerro de Pasco, Peru. American Mineralogist: 24: 136-136.
Palache, C., Fisher, D.J. (1940) Gratonite - A new mineral from Cerro de Pasco, Peru. American Mineralogist: 25: 255-265.
Rust, G.W. (1940) Geologic occurrence of gratonite at Cerro de Pasco, Peru. American Mineralogist: 25: 266-270.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 397-398.
Roland, G.W. (1968) The system Pb-As-S. Composition and stability of jordanite. Mineralium Deposita 3, 249-260.
Ribár, B., Nowacki, W. (1969) Neubestimmung der Kristallstruktur von Gratonit, Pb9As4S15. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 128: 321-338.
La Iglesia, A.; Doval, M.; Gonzalez, M. V.; Rodrigalvarez, R. (1978): Mineralogical and thermal study of the gratonite of Rio Tinto (Spain). Boletin Geologico y Minero 89(4), 373-378 (in Spanish).
Kharbish, S. (2016): Micro‐Raman spectroscopic investigations of extremely scarce Pb–As sulfosalt minerals: baumhauerite, dufrénoysite, gratonite, sartorite, and seligmannite. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 47, 1360-1366.

Internet Links for GratoniteHide

Localities for GratoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Mendoza
    • Las Heras Department
      • Uspallata
Schalamuk, I.B. et al (1994) Revista del Museo de La Plata
Brodtkorb, Milka K. de (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la República Argentina. Tomo I. (Asociación Mineralógica Argentina)
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Madoc area
        • Huntingdon Township
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
China
 
  • Yunnan Province
    • Nujiang Autonomous Prefecture
      • Lanping Co.
        • Baiyangping ore field
          • Western ore zone
Xiaohu Wang, Yucai Song, Zengqian Hou, Hongrui Zhang, Zhe Wang, Tianming Zhuang, Chong Zhang, and Tianfu Zhang (2011): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 30(3), 507-518
Xiaohu Wang, Yucai Song, Zengqian Hou, Hongrui Zhang, Zhe Wang, Tianming Zhuang, Chong Zhang, and Tianfu Zhang (2011): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 30(3), 507-518
Dominican Republic
 
  • Sánchez Ramírez Province
    • Cotuí
Kettler, R. M., Rye, R. O., Kesler, S. E., Meyers, P. A., Polanco, J., & Russell, N. (1992). Gold deposition by sulfidation of ferrous Fe in the lacustrine sediments of the Pueblo Viejo district (Dominican Republic): The effect of Fe–C–S diagenesis on later hydrothermal mineralization in a Maar-Diatreme complex. Chemical geology, 99(1), 29-50.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Lahr
        • Reichenbach
Lapis 21(12), 42 (1996)
    • Wiesloch
P. Ramdohr, (1980) The Ore Minerals and Their Intergrowths,2nd ed., Pergammon Press, pg 757. P. Ramdohr, Ore Mineralogy, 3rd ed., pg 1159
  • Saxony
    • Vogtland
      • Reichenbach
        • Limbach
Tröger, S. (2012): Der Steinbruch Reimersgrün im Sächsischen Vogtland. Lapis 37 (10), 32-39.
Ireland
 
  • Co. Galway
    • Killimor
C. Gibson (1979), quoted by J.A. Clifford et al., in Andrew, C.J., Crowe, R.W.A., Finlay, S., Pennell, W.M. and Pyne, J.F., eds. (1986) Geology and genesis of mineral deposits in Ireland, Irish Association for Economic Geology, Dublin Conference, 1984, pp. 419-439.; Ryback, G., Nawaz, R. and Farley, E. (1988) Seventh Supplementary List of British Isles Minerals (Irish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 52, n° 365, pp. 267-274.
  • Co. Tipperary
    • Moyne
Econ Geol (2005) 100:63-86
Isle of Man
 
  • Laxey
MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1995, VOL. 59, PP. 573-576
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Aomori Prefecture
        • Minami-Tsugaru-gun
          • Ikarigaseki
Minerals in Japan, p. 248 (Field Best Encyclopedia, vol. 15) ; Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62, 793-799
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Gebhard, G. (1999): Tsumeb II. A Unique Mineral Locality. GG Publishing, Grossenseifen, Germany
Peru
 
  • Cajamarca Department
    • Yanacocha District
      • Yanacocha Mine
Deditius, A.P., Utsunomiya, S., Sanchez-Alfaro, P., Reich, M., Ewing, R.C., Kesler, S.E. (2015): Constraints on Hf and Zr mobility in high-sulfidation epithermal systems: formation of kosnarite, KZr2(PO4)3, in the Chaquicocha gold deposit, Yanacocha district, Peru. Mineralium Deposita, 50, 429-436.
  • La Libertad Department
    • Santiago de Chuco Province
      • Quiruvilca District
Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
  • Lima Department
    • Oyon Province
Vizquerra Benavides, J.A. (2006): Preliminary geochemical, petrological and mineralogical investigation of the high-grade Ag-Pb-Zn Pozo-Rico, Uchucchacua, Peru. Unpublished masters thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada, 205 pp.
  • Pasco department
    • Pasco province
[Amer.Min.(1939) 24, 136; www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
      • Simón Bolívar District
Mine is well know for Gratonite and I saw 20 foot benches of pyrite in the open pit. [Rock Currier]
Poland
 
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Bytom District (Beuthen)
P. Ramdohr, Ore Mineralogy, 3rd ed., pg 1128; Eligiusz Szełęg collection
    • Tarnowskie Góry district
      • Tarnowskie Góry (Tarnowitz)
Pieczonka, J. (2010): Polymetallic mineralization in Triassic strata of the NW part of the Kraków-Częstochowa Monocline. Mineralogia: 41(1-2), 35-53
Serbia
 
  • Podrinje District
Slobodan A. Radosavljević, Jovica N. Stojanović, Ana S. Radosavljević-Mihajlović, Vladan D. Kašić (2013): Polymetallic mineralization of the Boranja orefield, Podrinje Metallogenic District, Serbia: zonality, mineral associations and genetic features. Periodico di Mineralogia, 82, 61-87.
      • Krupanj
Slobodan A. Radosavljević, Jovica N. Stojanović, Aleksandar M. Pačevski, Hg-bearing sphalerite from the Rujevac polymetallic ore deposit, Podrinje Metallogenic District, Serbia: Compositional variations and zoning, Chemie der Erde - Geochemistry, Volume 72, Issue 3, September 2012, Pages 237-244, ISSN 0009-2819, 10.1016/j.chemer.2011.12.003.
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Huelva
      • Minas de Riotinto
Burkart-Baumann, I.; Ottemann, J.; Nuber, B. (1968): Gratonite from the Rio Tinto deposits, southern Spain. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1968, 215-224 (in German); La Iglesia, A.; Doval, M.; Gonzalez, M. V.; Rodrigalvarez, R. (1978): Mineralogical and thermal study of the gratonite of Rio Tinto (Spain). Boletin Geologico y Minero 89(4), 373-378 (in Spanish).
Calvo, M. et al.(1999). Bocamina (4), 50-86
Calvo, M. (2003) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol II. Sulfuros y sulfosales. Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Alava. Vitoria. 705 págs.
Switzerland
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
Huff, R. C.; Huff, R. G.; Vajdak, J. (2000): Gratonite, an unexpected contribution to the sulfosalt mineralogy of Lengenbach. Rocks and Minerals, 75 (3), 174-175.
Taiwan
 
  • Taiwan Province
    • New Taipei City
      • Ruifang District
        • Chinkuashih Mine (Jinguashi Mine; Kinkwaseki Mine; Kinkaseki Mine)
Hwang, J. Y and Meyer, H O A (1982) The Mineral Chemistry and Genesis of the Chinkuashih ore deposits, Taiwan. Proceedings of the Geological Society of China 25:88-101
USA
 
  • Idaho
    • Lemhi Co.
      • Blue Wing District
        • Patterson
R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
  • Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Lynn District
        • Elko
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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