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Grossular

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Gooseberries
Formula:
Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Colour:
Brown, orange, red, yellow, green, white, colorless
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Hardness:
6½ - 7
Specific Gravity:
3.594
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
Originally named "cinnamon stone" ("Kanelstein" in German) in 1803 by Abraham Gottlob Werner and renamed grossularite by Werner in 1808. Named for the color of gooseberries (Ribes grossularium) as the original specimens were this color.
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Classification of GrossularHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
51.4.3b.2

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
16.9.6

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
9 : Aluminosilicates of Ca

Physical Properties of GrossularHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Brown, orange, red, yellow, green, white, colorless
Comment:
Colorless when pure (rare), commonly red orange to brown.
Streak:
White to pale Brownish white
Hardness:
6½ - 7 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
Rarely observed on {110}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.594 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.594 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of GrossularHide

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 1.731 - 1.754
Birefringence:
0.0-0.005
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
Weak strain birefringence

Chemical Properties of GrossularHide

Formula:
Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Common Impurities:
Fe,Cr

Crystallography of GrossularHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Ia3d
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.851 Å
Unit Cell V:
1,664.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Dodecahedra or trapezohedra, granular, compact, massive. May have hexoctahedral faces. Rarely tetrahexahedral or octahedral.
Twinning:
Not observed

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.959 (25)
2.647 (100)
2.417 (20)
2.321 (18)
1.921 (25)
1.643 (25)
1.581 (50)

Type Occurrence of GrossularHide

Synonyms of GrossularHide

Other Language Names for GrossularHide

Varieties of GrossularHide

CaswelliteA waxy to resinous material with a foliated appearance and derived from the hydrothermal alteration and replacement of hendricksite mica in the Franklin ore body, Franklin, New Jersey, USA. Both hendricksite and vesuvianite occurred intimately together an...
Chrome-bearing GrossularChrome-bearing rather than chromian- is the preferred name recommended by the IMA (Bayliss et al. 2005).
Green chrome-rich variety of Grossular, often confused with uvarovite.
Gooseberry StoneA yellowish-green variety of grossular.
HessoniteA gemmy, more or less orange (due to small iron content) variety of Grossular garnet.
HibschiteA variety of Grossular with part of the orthosilicate ions replaced by hydroxide ions. Previously considered by some to be a discrete mineral species itself.

Igumnovite is similar, with Cl in place of (OH).
Grossular-Hibschite Series, and the Hibschi...
Leuco garnetColourless variety of grossular.
LeukogranatColourless variety of grossular.
Magnesian GrossularA Mg-bearing grossular.
Manganoan Grossular
PlazoliteA hydrous variety of grossular, like "hibschite" and "hydrogrossular".
RosoliteA rose-pink variety of grossular.
Stannoan GrossularA stanniferous variety of grossular.
Transvaal JadeGreen massive grossular
TsavoriteA green chromian, vanadian Grossular.

5 chemical types were recognized for the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt material:
- vanadian grossular, V>Cr>Mn
- vanadian grossular, V>Mn>Cr
- Mn-bearing vanadian grossular, Mn>V>Cr
- Mn-bearing ch...

Relationship of Grossular to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
Berzeliite(NaCa2)Mg2(AsO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
Bitikleite Group
BlythiteMn2+3Mn3+2[SiO4]3
Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso.
HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
IrinarassiteCa3Sn2Al2SiO12 Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso.
KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
KhohariteMg3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso.
MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
Menzerite-(Y){(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe2+)}3{(Mg,Fe2+),(Fe3+,Al)}2[SiO4]3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
Palenzonaite(Ca,Na)3CaMn2+2(VO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3Iso.
SchäferiteCa2NaMg2(VO4)3Iso.
SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
SkiagiteFe2+3Fe3+2[SiO4]3
SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
UM1984-37-SiO:CrMnMn2+3(Cr3+,Mn3+)2Si3O12
UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
YafsoaniteCa3Zn3(TeO6)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3)
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

CalciteCaCO3
ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Diopside579 photos of Grossular associated with Diopside on mindat.org.
Vesuvianite156 photos of Grossular associated with Vesuvianite on mindat.org.
Clinochlore126 photos of Grossular associated with Clinochlore on mindat.org.
Calcite106 photos of Grossular associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Epidote80 photos of Grossular associated with Epidote on mindat.org.
Quartz54 photos of Grossular associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Prehnite47 photos of Grossular associated with Prehnite on mindat.org.
Wollastonite35 photos of Grossular associated with Wollastonite on mindat.org.
Pectolite31 photos of Grossular associated with Pectolite on mindat.org.
Chlorite Group28 photos of Grossular associated with Chlorite Group on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AD.05LarniteCa2SiO4Mon.
9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AD.20BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4Orth.
9.AD.25AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25HydroandraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso.
9.AD.25KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
9.AD.25KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
9.AD.25PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
9.AD.25SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe3+10Si4O32Cl6Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.30Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4xTet.
9.AD.30HafnonHfSiO4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.30ThoriteTh(SiO4)Tet.
9.AD.30ZirconZr(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.30Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.35HuttoniteThSiO4Mon.
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)Y4(Si,H4)4O12-x(OH)4+2xMon.
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

51.4.3b.1AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
51.4.3b.3UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
51.4.3b.4GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.9.1GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
16.9.2AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Tric. 1 : P1
16.9.3Yoshiokaite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)O4]Trig. 3 : P3
16.9.4SvyatoslaviteCa(Al2Si2O8)Orth.
16.9.5DmisteinbergiteCa(Al2Si2O8)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
16.9.7VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)Orth.
16.9.8Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
16.9.9Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.9.10PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2Orth. mm2
16.9.11KamaishiliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2Tet.
16.9.12BicchuliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
16.9.13MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
16.9.14ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
16.9.15CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4Orth.
16.9.17KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso.
16.9.18LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
16.9.19ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
16.9.20WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
16.9.21VertumniteCa4Al4Si4O6(OH)24 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
16.9.22ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2OMon. m : Bb
16.9.23LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
16.9.24YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.
16.9.25Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
16.9.26EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2OMon.
16.9.27GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
16.9.28CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2OOrth.
16.9.30StelleriteCa4(Si28Al8)O72 · 28H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fmmm
16.9.31SträtlingiteCa2Al2SiO7 · 8H2OTrig.
16.9.32AmstalliteCaAl(Si,Al)4O8(OH)4 · (H2O,Cl)Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Fluorescence of GrossularHide

Almost always non-fluorescent; may be a weak golden yellow (LW & SW)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Grossular in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for GrossularHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Klaproth, M.H. (1807) Chemische Untersuchung des olivgrünen Granats aus Sibirien, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Vierter Band, Rottmann Berlin: 319-324.
Hofmeister, A.M., Chopelas, A. (1991) Thermodynamic properties of pyrope and grossular from vibrational spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 76: 880-891.
Cho, H., Rossman, G.R. (1993) Single-crystal NMR studies of low-concentration hydrous species in minerals: grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 78: 1149-1164.
Stalder, A., Aufdenblatten, M. (1995) Granat (Grossular) aus dem Täschtal VS. Schweizer Strahler: 10: 267-279.
Geiger, C.A., Armbruster, T. (1997) Mn3Al2Si3O12 spessartine and Ca3Al2Si3O12 grossular garnet: Structural dynamic and thermodynamic properties. American Mineralogist: 82: 740-747.
Wang, L., Essene, E.J., Zhang, Y. (2000) Direct observation of immiscibility in pyrope-almandine-grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 85: 41-46.
Milke, R. (2004) Spiral growth of grossular under hydrothermal conditions. American Mineralogist: 89: 211-218.
Rodehorst, U., Carpenter, M.A., Boffa Ballaran T., Geiger, C.A. (2004) Local structural heterogeneity, mixing behaviour and saturation effects in the grossular-spessartine solid solutions. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 31: 387-404.
Antao, S. M. (2013) Is near-endmember birefringent grossular non-cubic? New evidence from synchrotron diffraction. The Canadian Mineralogist: 51: 771-784.

Internet Links for GrossularHide

Localities for GrossularHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

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