Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Grossular

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Gooseberries
Formula:
Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Colour:
Brown, orange, red, yellow, green, white, colorless
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Hardness:
6½ - 7
Specific Gravity:
3.594
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
Originally named "cinnamon stone" ("Kanelstein" in German) in 1803 by Abraham Gottlieb Werner and renamed grossularite by Werner in 1808. Named for the color of gooseberries (Ribes grossularium) as the original specimens were this color.

Classification of Grossular

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
51.4.3b.2

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
16.9.6

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
9 : Aluminosilicates of Ca

Physical Properties of Grossular

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Brown, orange, red, yellow, green, white, colorless
Comment:
Colorless when pure (rare), commonly red orange to brown.
Streak:
White to pale Brownish white
Hardness:
6½ - 7 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
Rarely observed on {110}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.594 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.594 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Grossular

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 1.731 - 1.754
Birefringence:
0.0-0.005
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
Weak strain birefringence

Chemical Properties of Grossular

Formula:
Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Common Impurities:
Fe,Cr

Crystallography of Grossular

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Ia3d
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.851 Å
Unit Cell V:
1,664.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Dodecahedra or trapezohedra, granular, compact, massive. May have hexoctahedral faces. Rarely tetrahexahedral or octahedral.
Twinning:
Not observed

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.959 (25)
2.647 (100)
2.417 (20)
2.321 (18)
1.921 (25)
1.643 (25)
1.581 (50)

Type Occurrence of Grossular

Synonyms of Grossular

Other Language Names for Grossular

Varieties of Grossular

Caswellite

A waxy to resinous material with a foliated appearance and derived from the hydrothermal alteration and replacement of hendricksite mica in the Franklin ore body, Franklin, New Jersey, USA. Both hendricksite and vesuvianite occurred intimately together an...

Chrome-bearing Grossular

Chrome-bearing rather than chromian- is the preferred name recommended by the IMA (Bayliss et al. 2005).
Green chrome-rich variety of Grossular, often confused with uvarovite.

Hessonite

A gemmy, more or less orange (due to small iron content) variety of Grossular garnet.

Hibschite

A variety of Grossular with part of the orthosilicate ions replaced by hydroxide ions. Previously considered by some to be a discrete mineral species itself.

Igumnovite is similar, with Cl in place of (OH).
Grossular-Hibschite Series, and the Hibschite-Kat...

Leuco garnet

Colourless variety of grossular.

Leukogranat

Colourless variety of grossular.

Magnesian Grossular

A Mg-bearing grossular.

Manganoan Grossular
Plazolite

A hydrous variety of grossular, like "hibschite" and "hydrogrossular".

Rosolite

A rose-pink variety of grossular.

Stannoan Grossular

A stanniferous variety of grossular.

Transvaal Jade

Green massive grossular

Tsavorite

A green chromian, vanadian Grossular.

5 chemical types were recognized for the Neoproterozoic Metamorphic Mozambique Belt material:
- vanadian grossular, V>Cr>Mn
- vanadian grossular, V>Mn>Cr
- Mn-bearing vanadian grossular, Mn>V>Cr
- Mn-bearing chr...

Relationship of Grossular to other Species

Other Members of this group:
AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Berzeliite(NaCa2)Mg2(AsO4)3
Bitikleite Group
BlythiteMn2+3Mn3+2[SiO4]3
Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3
HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
IrinarassiteCa3Sn2Al2SiO12
KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
KhohariteMg3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
Menzerite-(Y){(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe2+)}3{(Mg,Fe2+),(Fe3+,Al)}2[SiO4]3
Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3
MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Palenzonaite(Ca,Na)3CaMn2+2(VO4)3
PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
SchäferiteCa2NaMg2(VO4)3
SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
SkiagiteFe2+3Fe3+2[SiO4]3
SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
UM1984-37-SiO:CrMnMn2+3(Cr3+,Mn3+)2Si3O12
UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
YafsoaniteCa3Zn3(TeO6)2
Forms a series with:

Common Associates

CalciteCaCO3
ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Diopside579 photos of Grossular associated with Diopside on mindat.org.
Vesuvianite156 photos of Grossular associated with Vesuvianite on mindat.org.
Clinochlore126 photos of Grossular associated with Clinochlore on mindat.org.
Calcite106 photos of Grossular associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Epidote80 photos of Grossular associated with Epidote on mindat.org.
Quartz54 photos of Grossular associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Prehnite47 photos of Grossular associated with Prehnite on mindat.org.
Wollastonite35 photos of Grossular associated with Wollastonite on mindat.org.
Pectolite31 photos of Grossular associated with Pectolite on mindat.org.
Chlorite Group28 photos of Grossular associated with Chlorite Group on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

9.AD.05LarniteCa2SiO4
9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2
9.AD.20BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4
9.AD.25AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25HydroandraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe3+10Si4O32Cl6
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
9.AD.30Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
9.AD.30HafnonHfSiO4
9.AD.30ThoriteTh(SiO4)
9.AD.30ZirconZr(SiO4)
9.AD.30Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)
9.AD.35HuttoniteThSiO4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)Y4(Si,H4)4O12-x(OH)4+2x
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

16.9.1GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)
16.9.2AnorthiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
16.9.3Yoshiokaite(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)O4]
16.9.4SvyatoslaviteCa(Al2Si2O8)
16.9.5DmisteinbergiteCa(Al2Si2O8)
16.9.7VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
16.9.8Zoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
16.9.9Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
16.9.10PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
16.9.11KamaishiliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2
16.9.12BicchuliteCa2(Al2SiO6)(OH)2
16.9.13MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2
16.9.14ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4
16.9.15CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4
16.9.17KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
16.9.18LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
16.9.19ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2O
16.9.20WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
16.9.21VertumniteCa4Al4Si4O6(OH)24 · 3H2O
16.9.22ScoleciteCaAl2Si3O10 · 3H2O
16.9.23LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
16.9.24YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2O
16.9.25Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
16.9.26EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2O
16.9.27GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2O
16.9.28CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2O
16.9.30StelleriteCa4(Si28Al8)O72 · 28H2O
16.9.31SträtlingiteCa2Al2SiO7 · 8H2O
16.9.32AmstalliteCaAl(Si,Al)4O8(OH)4 · (H2O,Cl)

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)

51.4.3b.1AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
51.4.3b.3UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
51.4.3b.4GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3

Fluorescence of Grossular

Almost always non-fluorescent; may be a weak golden yellow (LW & SW)

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Grossular in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Grossular

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Klaproth, M.H. (1807) Chemische Untersuchung des olivgrünen Granats aus Sibirien, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Vierter Band, Rottmann Berlin: 319-324.
Hofmeister, A.M., Chopelas, A. (1991) Thermodynamic properties of pyrope and grossular from vibrational spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 76: 880-891.
Cho, H., Rossman, G.R. (1993) Single-crystal NMR studies of low-concentration hydrous species in minerals: grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 78: 1149-1164.
Stalder, A., Aufdenblatten, M. (1995) Granat (Grossular) aus dem Täschtal VS. Schweizer Strahler: 10: 267-279.
Geiger, C.A., Armbruster, T. (1997) Mn3Al2Si3O12 spessartine and Ca3Al2Si3O12 grossular garnet: Structural dynamic and thermodynamic properties. American Mineralogist: 82: 740-747.
Wang, L., Essene, E.J., Zhang, Y. (2000) Direct observation of immiscibility in pyrope-almandine-grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 85: 41-46.
Milke, R. (2004) Spiral growth of grossular under hydrothermal conditions. American Mineralogist: 89: 211-218.
Rodehorst, U., Carpenter, M.A., Boffa Ballaran T., Geiger, C.A. (2004) Local structural heterogeneity, mixing behaviour and saturation effects in the grossular-spessartine solid solutions. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 31: 387-404.
Antao, S. M. (2013) Is near-endmember birefringent grossular non-cubic? New evidence from synchrotron diffraction. The Canadian Mineralogist: 51: 771-784.

Internet Links for Grossular

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-1755.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Grossular specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Grossular

Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2017, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: July 28, 2017 20:01:47 Page generated: July 24, 2017 14:47:08
Go to top of page