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Groutite

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Frank Fitch Grout
Formula:
Mn3+O(OH)
Colour:
Black, may be iridescent
Lustre:
Sub-Adamantine, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy, Dull
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Specific Gravity:
4.144
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1945 by John W. Gruner in honor of Frank Fitch Grout (August 1, January 24, 1880 Rockford, Illinois - August 1, 1958 Minneapolis, MN), petrologist, University of Minnesota, USA.
Polymorph of:
Isostructural with:
Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of GroutiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.FD.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
D : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
6.1.1.3

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
1 : XO(OH)
7.18.8

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn

Pronounciation of GroutiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of GroutiteHide

Sub-Adamantine, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy, Dull
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Black, may be iridescent
Streak:
dark brown
Hardness:
3½ - 4 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=630 - 711 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {010}
Less perfect {100}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Splintery
Density:
4.144 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.172 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of GroutiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.100 - 2.200 nγ = 2.100 - 2.200
2V:
Measured: 40° to 50°
Birefringence:
0.100
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Reflectivity:
13.7–22.0nmR=1–R2: (400%
13.4–21.3nmR=420%
13.3–20.7nmR=440%
13.1–20.2nmR=460%
13.0–19.7nmR=480%
13.0–19.4nmR=500%
12.9–19.1nmR=520%
12.9–19.0nmR=540%
12.8–19.0nmR=560%
12.7–18.7nmR=580%
12.7–18.6nmR=600%
12.7–18.5nmR=620%
12.6–18.3nmR=640%
12.5–18.2nmR=660%
12.4–18.0nmR=680%
12.4–17.9nmR=700%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 700%.
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
X= very dark brown to black
Y= yellowish brown

Chemical Properties of GroutiteHide

Formula:
Mn3+O(OH)

Crystallography of GroutiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.560 Å, b = 10.700 Å, c = 2.870 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.426 : 1 : 0.268
Unit Cell V:
140.03 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Wedge- or lens-shaped crystals. Type material showed: {110}, {120}, {130}, {010}, {100}, {111}, {021}, {134}
Twinning:
Reported
Comment:
Non-standard group Pnmd

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.349 (9)
4.195 (100)
3.471 (10)
2.8099 (34)
2.6743 (29)
2.5294 (13)
2.4288 (4)
2.3684 (48)
2.3076 (17)
2.2795 (2)
2.2297 (2)
2.2119 (7)
2.0078 (5)
1.9569 (3)
1.9372 (4)
1.7984 (3)
1.7833 (2)
1.7609 (9)
1.7354 (6)
1.6932 (26)
1.6055 (18)
1.5964 (7)
1.5604 (3)
1.5145 (9)
1.4848 (1)
1.4622 (4)
1.4491 (4)
1.4348 (6)
Comments:
ICDD 24-713 (Cayuna Range, Minnesota, USA) plus 51 lines of 1-4 intensity to 0.8227; see also ICDD 12-733 but with estimated intensities.

Type Occurrence of GroutiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Late stage mineralization in vugs in Banded Iron Formation (BIF)
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for GroutiteHide

German:Groutit
Simplified Chinese:锰榍石
Spanish:Groutita

Relationship of Groutite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
BracewelliteCrO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
DiasporeAlO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Montroseite(V3+,Fe3+)O(OH)Orth.
TsumgalliteGaO(OH)Orth.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Petrified Wood14 photos of Groutite associated with Petrified Wood on mindat.org.
Calcite9 photos of Groutite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Baryte7 photos of Groutite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Vesuvianite4 photos of Groutite associated with Vesuvianite on mindat.org.
Hureaulite3 photos of Groutite associated with Hureaulite on mindat.org.
Kutnohorite3 photos of Groutite associated with Kutnohorite on mindat.org.
Ramsdellite2 photos of Groutite associated with Ramsdellite on mindat.org.
Aragonite2 photos of Groutite associated with Aragonite on mindat.org.
Manganite2 photos of Groutite associated with Manganite on mindat.org.
Quartz2 photos of Groutite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FD.05SpertiniiteCu(OH)2Orth.
4.FD.10BracewelliteCrO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.FD.10DiasporeAlO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.FD.10GuyanaiteCrO(OH)Orth.
4.FD.10Montroseite(V3+,Fe3+)O(OH)Orth.
4.FD.10TsumgalliteGaO(OH)Orth.
4.FD.15ManganiteMn3+O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.FD.20Yttrotungstite-(Y)YW2O6(OH)3
4.FD.20Yttrotungstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,Y)W2O6(OH)3Mon. 2 : P21
4.FD.20Unnamed (Nd-analogue of Yttrotungstite-(Ce))(Nd,Ce,La)W2O6(OH)3
4.FD.25FrankhawthorneiteCu2Te6+O4(OH)2Mon.
4.FD.30KhinitePb2+Cu2+3[Te6+O6](OH)2Orth. mm2 : Fdd2
4.FD.30Khinite-3TPb2+Cu2+3Te6+O6(OH)2Trig. 3 : P32

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

6.1.1.1DiasporeAlO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
6.1.1.2Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
6.1.1.4Montroseite(V3+,Fe3+)O(OH)Orth.
6.1.1.5BracewelliteCrO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.18.1ManganositeMnOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.18.3PyrolusiteMnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.18.5Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.18.7ManganiteMn3+O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.18.9Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.18.11Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.18.12Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m

Fluorescence of GroutiteHide

Not fluorescent in ultraviolet

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Manganese ore

References for GroutiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Gruner, John W. (1947) Groutite, HMnO2, a new mineral of the diaspore-goethite group, American Mineralogist, 32, 654-659.
Fleischer, Michael (1948) New mineral names, American Mineralogist, 33, 384-386.
Dent Glasser, L. S. and Ingram, L. (1968) Refinement of the crystal structure of groutite, α-MnOOH, Acta Crystallographica, B24, 1233-1236.
Majmundar, H. H. (1969) Ramsdellite and groutite from Nova Scotia, The Canadian Mineralogist, 9, 718-720
Acta Crystallographica: 24: 1233-1236.
Kohler, T., Armbruster, T., and Libowitzky, E. (1997) Hydrogen bonding and Jahn-Teller distortion in groutite, α-MnOOH, and manganite, γ-MnOOH, and their relations to the manganese dioxides ramsdellite and pyrolusite. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 133: 486-500.

Internet Links for GroutiteHide

Localities for GroutiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Córdoba
    • Minas Department
Sureda (1978): Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina 33(4):299-324
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
No reference listed
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Mineralogical Record 24,203-216,218.
Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
      • Bleiberg District
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
Belgium
 
  • Liège Province
    • Stavelot Massif
Hatert, F., Blondieau, M., Puccio, S., Baijot, M. et Gustine, C. (2014) - Le gisement de manganèse de la vallée de la Lienne, Belgique. Le Règne Minéral, 117, pp. 5-28, editions du Piat.
Canada
 
  • Nova Scotia
    • Hants Co.
      • Walton
H.H. Majmundar, "Ramsdellite and Groutite from Nova Scotia", Canadian Mineralogist, vol. 9, pp. 718-720, 1969.
R.W. Boyle, "The Geology, Geochemistry, and Origin of the Barite, Manganese, and Lead-Zinc-Copper-Silver Deposits of the Walton-Cheverie Area, Nova Scotia", Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 166, 1972.
  • Ontario
    • Rainy River District
      • Schwenger Township
Richard Gunter specimen (ID by XRD)
  • Québec
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
Grice, J.D. and Williams, R. (1979): Famous mineral localities: The Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 10(2):69-80
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Hulunbuir League (Hulunbei'er Prefecture)
      • New Barag Right Banner (Xin Barag Youqi)
Zhicheng Lü, Paiping Zhang, Guozheng Duan, Libo Hao, and Guanghua Dong (2002): Journal of Mineraloy and Petrology 22(1), 1-5
  • Sichuan Province
    • Leshan Prefecture
      • Jinkouhe District
Xingfen Wang (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(12), 8-11
France
 
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Haute-Saône
      • Faucogney-et-la-Mer
        • Esmoulières
          • Saphoz
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
Perseil, E. A. (1967): Manganese mineralization of the Upper Devonian in Las Cabesses (Ariege). Comptes Rendus du Congres National des Societes Savantes, Section des Sciences 91 (Part 2), 313-321.
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
      • Aure Valley
        • Vielle-Aure
DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., TIXADOR Y., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) La mine de Coustou, Vielle-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées. Le Règne Minéral, 47, 23-31. (in french)
    • Pyrénées-Orientales
      • Corneilla-de-Conflent
        • Plateau d'Ambulla (Las Ambollas)
Berbain, C., Favreau, G. & Aymar, J. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, Association Française de Microminéralogie Ed., 80.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Titisee-Neustadt
        • Eisenbach
S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Spessart
        • Hösbach
          • Rottenberg
Aufschluss 50, 65-78 (1999)
  • Lower Saxony
    • Peine
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Elbingerode
Lapis 2003(2), 13-20
  • Thuringia
    • Harz
      • Nordhausen
        • Ilfeld
Gunnar Färber (EDS- and XRD-analysed; pers. comm. to Uwe Kolitsch)
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
  • Macedonia Department
    • Kavála Prefecture
      • Kavála
Andrew P. Fornadel, Paul G. Spry, Vasilios Melfos, Michael Vavelidis and Panagiotis Ch. Voudouris (2011): Is the Palea Kavala Bi–Te–Pb–Sb ± Au district, northeastern Greece, an intrusion-related system? Ore Geology Reviews, 39, 119-133.
Hungary
 
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Bakony Mts
      • Eplény
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
      • Úrkút
        • Csárda Hill
Szakáll & Jánosi (1996) The Minerals of Hungary
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Adilabad District
Rao, J. S. R. Krishna; Kasipathi, C. (1985): Occurrence of todorokite from Adilabad Manganese Mines, Andhra Pradesh. Current Science 54, 862.
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Vara Valley
        • Borghetto Vara
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Oshima peninsula
      • Hiyama Subprefecture
        • Imakane (Imagane; Hanaishi)
Hariya (1959) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series 4, 10, 255-262.; Miura, Hiroyuki;Kudou, Haruhiko;Choi, Jai Ho;Hariya, Yu (1990) The Crystal Structure of Ramsdellite from Pirika Mine. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and mineralogy; Vol.XXII, No.4
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Aomori Prefecture
        • Shimokita peninsula
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Kazakhstan
 
  • Kostanay Province (Qostanay Oblysy; Kostanai Oblast')
    • Rudny
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
Mexico
 
  • Baja California (Baja California Norte; BC Norte)
    • Mun. de Tecate
      • Los Gavilanes
http://www.minrec.org/pdfs/MR25-General-G_small.pdf
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
      • Santa Eulalia District
        • East Camp
Megaw, P.K.M., 1990b, Geology and geochemistry of the Santa Eulalia mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico.: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, 549 p
  • Durango
    • Mun. de Mapimí
      • Mapimí
Rocks & Min.: 56:247.
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
    • Arendal
      • Arendal Iron Mines
        • Øyestad
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 89
  • Vest-Agder
    • Kristiansand
Breivik, H. ; Myre, K. & Larsen, A. O. (2007): Manganforekomster på Sørlandet: Kvivikdalen (Kostøl, Ålefjær): Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skrift, 35, 25-31
Portugal
 
  • Aveiro District
    • Anadia
      • Moita
  • Setúbal District
    • Santiago do Cacém
      • Cercal
Martins da Pedra collection
Romania
 
  • Suceava Co.
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
[World of Stones 12:49]
      • Polar Yakutia
Econ Geol (1995) 90:658-675
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
Minerals of South Africa
      • Hotazel
Van King
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
[Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Murcia
    • Cartagena
      • Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión
        • San Ginés de la Jara
          • Cabezo de San Ginés
Sweden
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg district
Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
Sandström, F., Lorin, T. & Strand, U. (2009): Geologi och mineralogi i Gåsgruvefältet, Filipstad. Litofilen. 26 (2): 16-38
Ukraine
 
  • Kirovohrad Oblast' (Kirovohrads'ka Oblast')
    • Haivoron district
Dominik Schlaefli - collection
Łukasz Kruszewski
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Apache Co.
      • Black Mesa Basin
Christian Rewitzer collection
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
          • Bisbee
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 240; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 38.
    • Navajo Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 240.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Pinal Mts
        • Pioneer District
          • Superior
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 240.
    • Yuma Co.
      • Kofa Mts (S.H. Mts)
        • Kofa District
          • Kofa Game Range
            • King of Arizona Mine (King of Arizona property; King of Arizona group of claims; King of Arizona vein; Kofa Mine; Gleason Mine; Homestake claim)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 140.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 240, 315.
            • North Star Mine (Northstar Mine)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 240, 339, 398.
      • Little Horn Mts
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 240; Cousins, N.B. (1972), Relationship of black calcite to gold and silver mineralization in the Sheep Tanks mining district, Yuma Co., AZ, AZ State Univ. M.S. thesis.
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Michigan
    • Gogebic Co.
      • Gogebic iron range
        • Wakefield
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Iron Co.
      • Menominee iron range
        • Stambaugh
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Minnesota
    • Crow Wing Co.
      • Cuyuna North Range
        • Ironton
American Mineralogist (1947): 32: 654-659.
Amer.Min.(1945) 30, 169
        • Riverton
R&M 48:6 p 420
Allen Lundgren collection
      • Cuyuna Range
Min.Rec.: 20(5):390; 21:97; Rocks & Min.: 62:319.
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Candelaria District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Klein, C., Jr: Am.Min.:53:1417 (1968); Klein, C., Jr. & Frondel, C.: Am. Min.:52:858-860 (1967); Dunn(1995):Pt4:593.
  • New Mexico
    • Sierra Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
AmMIn 64:1199-1218
George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.; George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.; American Mineralogist 44:877-878
  • Utah
    • Utah Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
        • East Tintic District
Sangameshwar, S. R., & Barnes, H. L. (1983). Supergene processes in zinc-lead-silver sulfide ores in carbonates. Economic Geology, 78(7), 1379-1397.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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