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Grunerite

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Emmanuel L. Gruner
Formula:
◻Fe22+Fe52+Si8O22(OH)2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
nd
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
5 - 6
Name:
Named in 1853 by Gustav Adolph Kenngott in honor of Emmanuel Ludwig (Louis) Gruner [May 11, 1809 Ittigen, Switzerland - March 26, 1883 Beaucaire, France], professor of chemistry at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne and later chief mining engineer of Poitiers Department following as director of the School of Mines at Saint-Etienne. He became department head of metallurgy of Ecole des Mines in Paris and held several additional posts in government mining offices. Gruner was the first to chemically analyze the mineral which now bears his name.

Some early authors incorrectly spelled the name 'grünerite'.
Amphibole Group. Mg-Fe-Mn-Li Clino-Amphibole Subgroup.

Forms a series with cummingtonite.

The original description of the mineral in 1847 incorrectly determined it to be a pyroxene.



Classification of Grunerite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1847
9.DE.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
14.21.8

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
21 : Silicates of Fe and Mg

Physical Properties of Grunerite

Vitreous
Colour:
nd
Streak:
nd
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6

Optical Data of Grunerite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.663 - 1.686 nβ = 1.680 - 1.709 nγ = 1.696 - 1.729
2V:
Measured: 90° to 70°, Calculated: 84° to 86°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.033 - 0.043
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v

Chemical Properties of Grunerite

IMA Formula:
◻Fe22+Fe52+Si8O22(OH)2
Mindat.org Formula:
☐{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2

Grunerite is defined as a monoclinic amphibole belong to the magnesium-iron-manganese amphibole subgroup.

It is defined with Fe2+ as the dominant element both in the B and C positions.
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Grunerite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Space Group Setting:
C2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.5642(7) Å, b = 18.393(2) Å, c = 5.3388(3) Å
β = 101.892(3)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.52 : 1 : 0.29
Unit Cell Volume:
V 919.01 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of Grunerite

Relationship of Grunerite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Anthophyllite Root Name☐{X2}{Z5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Gedrite Root Name☐{X22+}{Z32+Z23+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
Manganocummingtonite☐{Mn22+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Manganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Proto-ferro-suenoite☐{Mn22+}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Sodic-ferro-anthophyllite{Na}{Fe22+}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Sodic-ferrogedrite{Na}{Fe22+}{Fe32+Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
Sodicanthophyllite{Na}{Mg2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Sodicgedrite{Na}{Mg2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Anthophyllite◻Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.05Cummingtonite◻Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z32+Z23+}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite◻Mn2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganogrunerite◻Mn2Fe52+Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Mn52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite{Na}{Li2}{Fe2Al2Li}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Fe23+Li)Si8O22F2
9.DE.10ActinoliteCa2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe2+0.5-2.5)Σ=5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite◻Ca2Mg2.5-0Fe2+2.5-5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblendeCa2Fe42+Al(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10JoesmithitePbCa2Mg3Fe23+(Si6Be2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblendeCa2(Mg4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Tremolite◻Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Tschermakite◻Ca2(Mg3Al2)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.10CannilloiteCa(Ca2)(Mg4Al)(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-cannilloiteCaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si5Al3)O22F2
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite☐{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite◻Ca2Mg5Si8O22F2
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasiteKCa2(Mg4Al)Si6Al2O22F2
9.DE.15EdeniteNaCa2Mg5(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-edeniteNaCa2Fe52+(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe32+AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasiteNaCa2(Fe42+Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15HastingsiteNaCa2(Fe42+Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15KaersutiteNaCa2(Mg3Ti4+Al)(Si6Al2)O22O2
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsiteNaCa2(Mg4Fe3+)Si6Al2O22(OH)2
9.DE.15PargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15SadanagaiteNaCa2(Mg3Al2)(Si5Al3)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-edeniteNaCa2Mg5(Si7Al)O22F2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaiteKCa2(Fe32+Fe23+)(Si5Al3)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaiteKCa2Mg3Al2(Si5Al3)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasiteKCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaiteKCa2(Fe32+Al2)(Si5Al3)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsiteNaCa2(Mg4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22F2
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsiteKCa2(Fe42+Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22F2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsiteKCa2[Fe42+Fe3+](Si6Al2)O22Cl2
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22F2
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasiteKCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22Cl2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite{K}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsiteKCa2(Mg4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasiteKCa2(Fe42+Al)Si6Al2O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Cr)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(NaCa)Fe32+Al2(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Barroisite◻NaCa[Mg3Al2](Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Fe42+(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNa(NaCa)(Fe42+Fe3+)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite☐{CaNa}{Fe32+Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-richteriteNa2CaFe52+Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ☐{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-katophoriteNa2CaFe42+Al(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3AlFe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20RichteriteNa2CaMg5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20WinchiteNaCa(Mg4Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20TaramiteNa2CaMg3Al2(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-richteriteNa(NaCa)Mg5Si8O22F2
9.DE.20KatophoriteNaNaCa(Mg4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richteriteK(NaCa)Mg5Si8O22F2
9.DE.20Potassic-richteriteK[CaNa][Mg5]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite◻(NaMn2+)(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite◻NaCa(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramiteNa(NaCa)(Mg3Al2)(Si6Al2)O22F2
9.DE.25ArfvedsoniteNaNa2(Fe42+Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermanniteNaNa2(Fe42+Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane◻Na2(Fe32+Al2)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Glaucophane◻Na2(Mg3Al2)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeiteKNa2(Mg2Mn23+Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-ferri-eckermanniteNaNa2(Mn42+Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeiteNa(NaLi)(Mg2Fe23+Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite◻Na2(Mg3Fe23+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsoniteNaNa2(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Riebeckite◻Na2(Fe32+Fe23+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiiteNaNa2(Mn22+Mn33+)Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2(Fe32+Fe23+)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻Li2(Fe32+Fe23+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Fe22+Fe23+Li)Si8O22F2
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistiteNa0.5{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsoniteNaNa2(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22F2
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeiteKNa2Mg2Fe23+LiSi8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(Si7Al)O22F2
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraiteNaNa2(MgMn23+LiTi4+)Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsoniteKNa2Fe42+Fe3+Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNaNa2(Mg3Mn3+Ti4+)Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsoniteKNa2(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22F2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedriziteNaLi2(LiFe22+Fe23+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsoniteKNa2Mg4Fe3+Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe22+Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)Si8O22F2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe32+Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2
14.21.1Olivine(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4
14.21.2RingwooditeMg2SiO4
14.21.3WadsleyiteMg2SiO4
14.21.4ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
14.21.5Anthophyllite◻Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
14.21.6Cummingtonite◻Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
14.21.7 Magnesiocummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.21.9MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
14.21.10ChesteriteMg17Si20O54(OH)6
14.21.11JimthompsoniteMg5Si6O16(OH)2
14.21.12ClinojimthompsoniteMg5Si6O16(OH)2
14.21.13MajoriteMg3(MgSi)(SiO4)3
14.21.14BalangeroiteMg21Si8O27(OH)20

Other Names for Grunerite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Grunerit
Simplified Chinese:铁闪石
Spanish:Grunerita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Grunerite in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Grunerite

Reference List:
Gruner, E.L. (1847) Description d'un minéral nouveau dont la composition correspond à un pyroxène à base de fer. C.R. Acad. Sci.: 24: 794-795.

Kenngott, A. (1853) Das Mohs'sche Mineralsystem dem gegenwärtigen Standpunkt der Wissenschaft germäss bearbeitet. Wien, Gerol & Sohn, p.69.

Lacroix, A. (1886) Propriétés optiques de la grünerite de Collobrières (Var.). Bull Soc. Franc. Mineral.: 9: 40-41.

Finger, L.W. (1969) The crystal structure and cation distribution of a grunerite. Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 2: 95-100.

Leake, B.E. (1978) Nomenclature of amphiboles. American Mineralogist: 63: 1023-1052.

Uchida, E. (1983) Grunerite from the Shinyama ore deposit, Kamaishi mine, Japan. The Canadian Mineralogist: 21: 517-528.

Hirschmann, M., Evans, B.W., Yang, H. (1994) Composition and temperature dependence of Fe-Mg ordering in cummingtonite-grunerite as determined by X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 79: 862-877.

Leake, B.E., Woolley, A.R., Arps, C.E.S., Birch, W.D., Gilbert, M.C., Grice, J.D., Hawthorne, F.C., Kato, A., Kisch, H.J., Krivovichev, V.G., Linthout, K., Laird, J., Mandarino, J.A., Maresch, W.V., Nickel, E.H., Rock, N.M.S., Schumacher, J.C., Smith, D.C., Stephenson, N.C.N, Ungaretti, L., Whittaker, E.J.W., Youzhi, G. (1997) Nomenclature of amphiboles: report of the Subcommittee on Amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. The Canadian Mineralogist: 35: 219-246.

Mandarino, J.A. (1998) The Second List of Additions and Corrections to the Glossary of Mineral Species (1995). The Amphibole Group. Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.

Boffa Ballaran, T., Angel, R.J., Carpenter, M.A. (2000) High-pressure transformation behaviour of the cummingtonite-grunerite solid solution. European Journal of Mineralogy: 12: 1195-1213.

Boffa Ballaran, T., Carpenter, M.A., Domeneghetti, M.C. (2001) Phase transition and mixing behavior of the cummingtonite-grunerite solid solution. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 28: 87-101.

Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R. (2006) On the classification of amphiboles. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 1-21.

Roth, P. (2007) Grunerite. in Minerals first discovered in Switzerland and minerals named after Swiss individuals. Kristallografik Verlag (Achberg Germany): 182-183.

Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Harlow, G.E., Maresch, W.V., Martin, R.F., Schumacher, J.C., Welch, M.D. (2012) Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup. American Mineralogist: 97: 2031-2048.



Internet Links for Grunerite

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Specimens:
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Localities for Grunerite

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