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Guano workings on the north island

North Chincha Island, Pisco Province, Ica, Peru
1 - 2
Crystal System:
Bodo Unger reported a new material that believed was xanthine in 1844. Einbrodt (1846) showed the identification was incorrect. Unger (1846) agreed, provided a full corrected description and named it guanine after the guano it was found in.
Aromatic heterocycle; a nucleobase and an important constituent of both DNA and RNA.

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Classification of GuanineHide

Approval Year:
First Published:
Approval History:
The compound was already found in guano on North Chinca Island, Chile, by Bodo Unger in 1846, but it was confirmed as a natural occurence in bat guano from Murra-el-clevyn Cave, Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia, in 1973.

C : Miscellaneous Organic Minerals
A : Miscellaneous Organic Minerals

4 : Miscellaneous

32 :

Physical Properties of GuanineHide

Transparent, Translucent
1 - 2 on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of GuanineHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of GuanineHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.51 Å, b = 11.27 Å, c = 3.64 Å
β = 96.8°
a:b:c = 1.465 : 1 : 0.323
Unit Cell V:
672.52 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
7.9 (40)
6.32 (70b)
3.53 (50)
3.22 (100b)
2.63 (50)
2.00 (50)
1.80 (50)

Type Occurrence of GuanineHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Seabird guano.

Synonyms of GuanineHide

Other Language Names for GuanineHide


Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

10.CA.05RefikiteC20H32O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
10.CA.20AbelsoniteNi(C31H32N4)Tric. 1 : P1
10.CA.25KladnoiteC6H4(CO)2NHMon. 2/m
10.CA.30Tinnunculite (of Chesnokov & Shcherbakova)C10H12N8O8Orth.
10.CA.35UreaCO(NH2)2Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

32.1EvenkiteC21H44Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
32.3SimonelliteC19H24Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
32.6CarpathiteC24H12Mon. 2/m : P21/b
32.7RefikiteC20H32O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
32.10KladnoiteC6H4(CO)2NHMon. 2/m
32.11AcetamideCH3CONH2Trig. 3m : R3c
32.13UreaCO(NH2)2Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
32.15AbelsoniteNi(C31H32N4)Tric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for GuanineHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Unger, B. (1844) Ann. Chem. Phys.: 62: 158.
Unger, B. (1845) Ueber das Xanthin und dessen Verbindungen. Annal. Chem. Phys.: 65: 222-239.
Einbrodt, P. (1846) Notiz uber die Zusammensetzung des Harnoxyds. Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie: 58: 15-18.
Unger, B. (1846) Bemerkungen zu obiger Notiz. Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie: 58: 18-20.
Unger, B. (1846) Das Guanin und seine Verbindungen. Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie: 59: 58-68.
Hutchinson, G.E. (1950) Survey of existing knowledge of biogeochemistry. 3, The biogeochemistry of vertebrate excretion. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History: 96: 554 pgs.
Bridge, P.J. (1974) Guanine and uricite, two new organic minerals from Peru and Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine: 39: 889-890.
Thewalt, U., Bugg, C.E., Marsh, R.E. (1971) The crystal structure of guanine monohydrate. Acta Crystallographica: B27: 2358-2362.

Internet Links for GuanineHide

Localities for GuanineHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Western Australia
    • Dundas Shire
      • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
Mineralogical Magazine (1974): 39: 889.-890.; Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson; Bridge, P.J.(1973):Guano Minerals from Murra-el-Evelyn Cave Western Australia, Mineralogical Magazine (December 1973):39:467-469
      • Madura Roadhouse
Mineralogical Magazine (1977): 41: 33-35.
  • Antofagasta
    • El Loa Province
      • San Pedro de Atacama
        • Cordillera de la Sal
De Waele, J., Forti, P., Picotti, V., Galli, E., Rossi, A., Brook, G., & Cucchi, F. (2009). Cave deposits in Cordillera de la Sal (Atacama, Chile). Geological Constrains on the Onset and Evolution of an Extreme Environment: the Atacama area. Geoacta, Special Publication, 2, 113-117.
De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Sanna, L., Vattano, M., Galli, E., & Forti, P. (2017). Secondary minerals from halite caves in the Atacama Desert (Chile). In 17th International Congress of Speleology (No. I, pp. 242-246). Australian Speleological Federation Inc.
  • Coahuila
    • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
      • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
        • Limestone caves
Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
Peru (TL)
  • Ica
    • Pisco Province
Min Mag 39 (1974), 889
South Africa
  • Western Cape
    • West Coast District
Minerals of South Africa
Mineral and/or Locality  
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