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About HafnonHide

Red-orange, brown-yellow, colourless (rare)
Specific Gravity:
6.97 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Member of:
In allusion to its composition, being a silicate of HAFNium, and ending in "ON" in allusion to, and to be consistent with, its relationship to ZircON.
Zircon Group.

The hafnium analogue of Thorite and Zircon. Zircon-Hafnon Series.

Currently the only hafnium-dominant mineral known, although native hafnium (not approved) was announced quite recently.

Classification of HafnonHide


9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
5 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
10 : Silicates of Zr or Hf

Pronounciation of HafnonHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of HafnonHide

Transparent, Translucent
Red-orange, brown-yellow, colourless (rare)
7½ on Mohs scale
6.97 g/cm3 (Calculated)
data for the synthetic material

Optical Data of HafnonHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.930 - 1.970 nε = 1.980 - 2.030
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of HafnonHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of HafnonHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.5725(7) Å, c = 5.9632(4) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.907
Unit Cell V:
257.60 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals euhedral to irregular. Often zoned with zircon.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
3.29 Å(100)
2.512 Å(70)
4.43 Å(60)
1.705 Å(55)
2.638 Å(25)
2.057 Å(20)
2.324 Å(18)

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
weathered pegmatite (Mt. Holland)

Type Occurrence of HafnonHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
outermost zones of euhedral to irregular zircon crystals and fragments (to 1 cm)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Tantalum-bearing granitic pegmatites.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of HafnonHide

Other Language Names for HafnonHide


Relationship of Hafnon to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2OTet.
ReiditeZrSiO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
ZirconZr(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Feldspar GroupA group of silicate minerals.
Kimrobinsonite(Ta,Nb)(OH)5-2x(O,CO3)x ; x near 1.2
Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Hafnon associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
1 photo of Hafnon associated with StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AD.AdrianiteCa12(Al4Mg3Si7)O32Cl6Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.05LarniteCa2SiO4Mon. 2/m
9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AD.25AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25EringaiteCa3Sc2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe3+10Si4O32Cl6Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.30CoffiniteU(SiO4) · nH2OTet.
9.AD.30ZirconZr(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.30Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd · nH2OTet.,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4xTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.10.1ZirconZr(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
14.10.5VlasoviteNa2ZrSi4O11Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.10.6Keldyshite(Na,H)2ZrSi2O7Tric. 1 : P1
14.10.7GaidonnayiteNa2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
14.10.8TerskiteNa4ZrSi6O16 · 2H2OOrth.
14.10.9ElpiditeNa2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2OOrth.
14.10.10HilairiteNa2Zr[SiO3]3 · 3H2OTrig.
14.10.11PetarasiteNa5Zr2(Si6O18)(Cl,OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
14.10.15KostyleviteK2Zr(Si3O9) · H2OMon.
14.10.16UmbiteK2(Zr,Ti)Si3O9 · H2OOrth.
14.10.17ParaumbiteK3Zr2H(Si3O9)2 · nH2OOrth.
14.10.18GeorgechaoiteNaKZr[Si3O9] · 2H2OOrth. mm2
14.10.20CalciocatapleiiteCaZr(Si3O9) · 2H2OOrth.
14.10.21CalciohilairiteCaZr[SiO3]3 · 3H2OTrig.
14.10.22ArmstrongiteCaZr[Si6O15] · 3H2OMon.
14.10.23Lemoynite(Na,K)2CaZr2Si10O26 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
14.10.24CatapleiiteNa2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2OMon.
14.10.26LovozeriteNa2Ca(Zr,Ti)(Si6O12)[(OH)4O2] · H2OMon.
14.10.27Låvenite(Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.10.28PenkvilksiteNa4Ti2Si8O22 · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
14.10.29DarapiositeKNa2Mn2(Li2ZnSi12)O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
14.10.31KomkoviteBaZr[Si3O9] · 3H2OTrig.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HafnonHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Salt, D.J., Hornung, G. (1967) Synthesis and X-ray study of hafnium silicate. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 50: 549-550.
Correia Neves, J.M., Lopes Nunes, J.E., Sahama, T.G. (1974) High hafnium members of the zircon-hafnon series from the granite pegmatites of Zambézia, Mozambique. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 48: 73-80.
Fleischer, M. (1976) New mineral names - Hafnon. American Mineralogist: 61: 175.
Speer, J.A., Cooper, B.J. (1982) Crystal structure of synthetic hafnon, HfSiO4, comparison with zircon and the actinide orthosilicates. American Mineralogist: 67: 804-808. http://rruff.info/uploads/AM67_804.pdf
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C., Eds. (2016) Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/
Vance, E. R., & Mackey, D. J. (1978). Optical spectra of U 4+ and U 5+ in zircon, hafnon, and thorite. Physical Review B, 18(1), 185.
Nicola, J. H., & Rutt, H. N. (1974). A comparative study of zircon (ZrSiO4) and hafnon (HfSiO4) Raman spectra. Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, 7(7), 1381.
Ramakrishnan, S. S., Gokhale, K. V. G. K., & Subbarao, E. C. (1969). Solid solubility in the system zircon-hafnon. Materials Research Bulletin, 4(5), 323-327.
Manoun, B., Downs, R. T., & Saxena, S. K. (2006). A high-pressure Raman spectroscopic study of hafnon, HfSiO4. American Mineralogist, 91(11-12), 1888-1892. http://www.geo.arizona.edu/xtal/group/pdf/AM91_1888.pdf
Van Lichtervelde, M., Holtz, F., & Hanchar, J. M. (2010). Solubility of manganotantalite, zircon and hafnon in highly fluxed peralkaline to peraluminous pegmatitic melts. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 160(1), 17-32.
O'Neill, H. S. C. (2006). Free energy of formation of zircon and hafnon. American Mineralogist, 91(7), 1134-1141. http://people.rses.anu.edu.au/oneill_h/pubs/AM91_1134.pdf
Yin, R., Wang, R. C., Zhang, A. C., Hu, H., Zhu, J. C., Rao, C., & Zhang, H. (2013). Extreme fractionation from zircon to hafnon in the Koktokay No. 1 granitic pegmatite, Altai, northwestern China. American mineralogist, 98(10), 1714-1724. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ai_Cheng_Zhang/publication/275732885_Extreme_fractionation_from_zircon_to_hafnon_in_the_Koktokay_No_1_granitic_pegmatite_Altai_northwestern_China/links/5559247a08aeaaff3bf98d19.pdf
Meldrum, A., Zinkle, S. J., Boatner, L. A., & Ewing, R. C. (1998). Displacement-cascade amorphization and phase decomposition in zircon, hafnon, and thorite. Nature, 395, 56-58.
Vasquez, A., Rogers, J. D., Maciel, A., & Fraga, E. R. (1973). Nuclear quadrupole interaction in Hafnon. Revista Brasileira de Física, 3(2). http://sbfisica.org.br/bjp/download/v03/v03a20.pdf
Claiborne, L. L., Miller, C. F., Walker, B. A., Wooden, J. L., Mazdab, F. K., & Bea, F. (2006). Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: an example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(5), 517-543.
Tanner, C., Geisinger, K., & Wusirika, R. (2004). Temperature and wavelength dependence of refractive index of zircon and hafnon. Optical Materials, 26(3), 305-311.
Suzuki, K., Kouta, H., & Nagasawa, H. (1992). Hf-Zr interdiffusion in single crystal zircon. Geochemical Journal, 26(2), 99-104. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/geochemj1966/26/2/26_2_99/_pdf
Ramakrishnan, S. S., Subbarao, E. C., & Gokhale, K. V. G. K. (1970). Effect of solid solution of thermal stability of zircon. Materials Research Bulletin, 5(11), 965-972.
WANG, R., XU, S., LU, J., & CHEN, X. (1995). Discovery of hafnian zircons in the Suzhou granite. Chinese Science Bulletin, 40(10), 828-831.
Grüneberger, M., Schmidt, C., Jahn, S., Rhede, D., Loges, A., Wilke, M. (2016): Interpretation of Raman spectra of the zircon-hafnon solid solution. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 721-731.

Internet Links for HafnonHide

Localities for HafnonHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Western Australia
    • Yilgarn shire
      • Mount Holland pegmatite field
M. Jacobson, M. Calderwood, B. Grguric; Pegmatites of Western Australia; (Perth 2007) and conversations between writer (Kim Macdonald) and owner of lease Fred Rose in 2012.
  • Manitoba
    • Lac-du-Bonnet area
      • Bernic Lake
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 15, pp.489-499 (1977); Bannatyne, B. B. (1985). Industrial minerals in rare-element pegmatites of Manitoba (Vol. 84, No. 1). Manitoba Energy and Mines, Geological Services.
  • Ontario
    • Renfrew County
      • Lyndoch Township
Verified Scott Ercit, National Museums of Canada
  • Québec
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Val-des-Monts
Rock & Min. 82, 412; Hilderley, M., Ercit, T.S., Rowe, R.A. (2006) 33rd Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, abstracts, 13-14.
  • Xinjiang
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
          • Koktokay pegmatite field (Keketuohai pegmatite field)
Yin, R., Wang, R. C., Zhang, A. C., Hu, H., Zhu, J. C., Rao, C., & Zhang, H. (2013). Extreme fractionation from zircon to hafnon in the Koktokay No. 1 granitic pegmatite, Altai, northwestern China. American mineralogist, 98(10), 1714-1724.; Wang R, Yin R, Zhang A (2014)Evolution and decomposition of Zr-Hf-U-bearing columbite-group minerals in Koktokay no. 1 granitic pegmatite dyke, Altai, northwestern China. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 263
  • Marrakesh-Safi Region
    • Rehamna Province
      • Jebilet Mtn (Djebilet Mtn)
Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
Mozambique (TL)
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 48, 73-80
Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 48, 73-80. (2) (1976); American Mineralogist, 61, pp. 175(1976); Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 48, 73-80
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 48, 73-80 ; Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Wolfgang Henckel
  • North Carolina
    • Yancey Co.
      • Spruce Pine Mining District
        • Burnsville
          • Hurricane Mountain
"Mineralogy of the Ray Mica Mine, Yancey County, N.C." by J.W. Miller and C.W. Allen
  • Masvingo
    • Bikita area
Cerny, P., Anderson, A. J., Tomascak, P. B., & Chapman, R. (2003). Geochemical and morphological features of beryl from the Bikita granitic pegmatite, Zimbabwe. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(4), 1003-1011.
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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