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Hafnon

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Formula:
HfSiO4
Colour:
Red-orange, brown-yellow, colourless (rare)
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
6.97 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
In allusion to its composition, being a silicate of HAFNium, and ending in "ON" in allusion to, and to be consistent with, its relationship to ZircON.
Zircon Group.

The hafnium analogue of Thorite and Zircon. Zircon-Hafnon Series.

Currently the only hafnium-dominant mineral known, although native hafnium (not approved) was announced quite recently.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of HafnonHide

Approved
9.AD.30

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
51.5.2.2

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
5 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
14.10.2

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
10 : Silicates of Zr or Hf

Pronounciation of HafnonHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of HafnonHide

Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Red-orange, brown-yellow, colourless (rare)
Hardness:
7½ on Mohs scale
Density:
6.97 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
data for the synthetic material

Optical Data of HafnonHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.930 - 1.970 nε = 1.980 - 2.030
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of HafnonHide

Formula:
HfSiO4
Common Impurities:
Zr

Crystallography of HafnonHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/amd
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.5725(7) Å, c = 5.9632(4) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.907
Unit Cell V:
257.60 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals euhedral to irregular. Often zoned with zircon.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.29 (100)
2.512 (70)
4.43 (60)
1.705 (55)
2.638 (25)
2.057 (20)
2.324 (18)
(

Type Occurrence of HafnonHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
outermost zones of euhedral to irregular zircon crystals and fragments (to 1 cm)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Tantalum-bearing granitic pegmatites.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of HafnonHide

Other Language Names for HafnonHide

Russian:Гафнон

Relationship of Hafnon to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4xTet.
Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
ThoriteTh(SiO4)Tet.
ZirconZr(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Apatite"Apatite" is a field term for unidentified calcium phosphate members of the apatite group.
BaryteBaSO4
BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Bismoclite(BiO)Cl
CassiteriteSnO2
Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6
Feldspar GroupA group of silicate minerals.
Hydroxykenomicrolite(◻,Na,Sb3+)2Ta2O6(OH)
Kimrobinsonite(Ta,Nb)(OH)5-2x(O,CO3)x ; x near 1.2
Microlite GroupTa-dominant members of the Pyrochlore Supergroup.
MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
QuartzSiO2
Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6
ThoriteTh(SiO4)
TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
ZirconZr(SiO4)
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Albite1 photo of Hafnon associated with Albite on mindat.org.
Stibiotantalite1 photo of Hafnon associated with Stibiotantalite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AD.05LarniteCa2SiO4Mon.
9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AD.20BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4Orth.
9.AD.25AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25HydroandraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso.
9.AD.25KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
9.AD.25KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
9.AD.25PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
9.AD.25SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe3+10Si4O32Cl6Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.30Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4xTet.
9.AD.30ThoriteTh(SiO4)Tet.
9.AD.30ZirconZr(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.30Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.35HuttoniteThSiO4Mon.
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)Y4(Si,H4)4O12-x(OH)4+2xMon.
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

51.5.2.1ZirconZr(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
51.5.2.3ThoriteTh(SiO4)Tet.
51.5.2.4Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4xTet.
51.5.2.5Thorogummite(Th,U)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4xTet.
51.5.2.6Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.10.1ZirconZr(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
14.10.3ZektzeriteLiNaZrSi6O15Orth.
14.10.4ParakeldyshiteNa2ZrSi2O7Tric.
14.10.5VlasoviteNa2ZrSi4O11Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.10.6Keldyshite(Na,H)2ZrSi2O7Tric. 1 : P1
14.10.7GaidonnayiteNa2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
14.10.8TerskiteNa4ZrSi6O16 · 2H2OOrth.
14.10.9ElpiditeNa2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2OOrth.
14.10.10HilairiteNa2Zr[SiO3]3 · 3H2OTrig.
14.10.11PetarasiteNa5Zr2(Si6O18)(Cl,OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
14.10.12KhibinskiteK2ZrSi2O7Mon.
14.10.13WadeiteK2Zr(Si3O9)Hex.
14.10.14DalyiteK2ZrSi6O15Tric.
14.10.15KostyleviteK2Zr(Si3O9) · H2OMon.
14.10.16UmbiteK2(Zr,Ti)Si3O9 · H2OOrth.
14.10.17ParaumbiteK3Zr2H(Si3O9)2 · nH2OOrth.
14.10.18GeorgechaoiteNaKZr[Si3O9] · 2H2OOrth. mm2
14.10.19GittinsiteCaZrSi2O7Mon.
14.10.20CalciocatapleiiteCaZr(Si3O9) · 2H2O
14.10.21CalciohilairiteCaZr[SiO3]3 · 3H2OTrig.
14.10.22ArmstrongiteCaZr[Si6O15] · 3H2OMon.
14.10.23Lemoynite(Na,K)2CaZr2Si10O26 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
14.10.24CatapleiiteNa2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2OMon.
14.10.25BaghdaditeCa3(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)O2Mon.
14.10.26LovozeriteNa2Ca(Zr,Ti)(Si6O12)[(OH)4O2] · H2OMon.
14.10.27Låvenite(Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.10.28PenkvilksiteNa4Ti2Si8O22 · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
14.10.29DarapiositeK(Na,◻,K)2(Li,Zn,Fe)3(Mn,Zr,Y)2[Si12O30]Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
14.10.30BaziriteBaZr(Si3O9)Hex.
14.10.31KomkoviteBaZr[Si3O9] · 3H2OTrig.
14.10.32ZirsinaliteNa6(Ca,Mn2+,Fe2+)Zr(Si6O18)Trig.
14.10.33Tranquillityite(Fe2+,Ca)8(Zr,Y)2Ti3(SiO4)3O12Hex.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HafnonHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Salt, D.J., Hornung, G. (1967) Synthesis and X-ray study of hafnium silicate. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 50: 549-550.
Correia Neves, J.M., Lopes Nunes, J.E., Sahama, T.G. (1974) High hafnium members of nthe zircon-hafnon series from the granite pegmatites of Zambézia, Mozambique. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 48: 73-80.
Fleischer, M. (1976) New mineral names - Hafnon. American Mineralogist: 61: 175.
Speer, J.A., Cooper, B.J. (1982) Crystal structure of synthetic hafnon, HfSiO4, comparison with zircon and the actinide orthosilicates. American Mineralogist: 67: 804-808. http://rruff.info/uploads/AM67_804.pdf
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C., Eds. (2016) Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/
Neves, J. C., Nunes, J. L., & Sahama, T. G. (1974). High hafnium members of the zircon-hafnon series from the granite pegmatites of Zambézia, Mozambique. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 48(1), 73-80.
Vance, E. R., & Mackey, D. J. (1978). Optical spectra of U 4+ and U 5+ in zircon, hafnon, and thorite. Physical Review B, 18(1), 185.
Nicola, J. H., & Rutt, H. N. (1974). A comparative study of zircon (ZrSiO4) and hafnon (HfSiO4) Raman spectra. Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, 7(7), 1381.
Ramakrishnan, S. S., Gokhale, K. V. G. K., & Subbarao, E. C. (1969). Solid solubility in the system zircon-hafnon. Materials Research Bulletin, 4(5), 323-327.
Manoun, B., Downs, R. T., & Saxena, S. K. (2006). A high-pressure Raman spectroscopic study of hafnon, HfSiO4. American Mineralogist, 91(11-12), 1888-1892. http://www.geo.arizona.edu/xtal/group/pdf/AM91_1888.pdf
Van Lichtervelde, M., Holtz, F., & Hanchar, J. M. (2010). Solubility of manganotantalite, zircon and hafnon in highly fluxed peralkaline to peraluminous pegmatitic melts. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 160(1), 17-32.
O'Neill, H. S. C. (2006). Free energy of formation of zircon and hafnon. American Mineralogist, 91(7), 1134-1141. http://people.rses.anu.edu.au/oneill_h/pubs/AM91_1134.pdf
Yin, R., Wang, R. C., Zhang, A. C., Hu, H., Zhu, J. C., Rao, C., & Zhang, H. (2013). Extreme fractionation from zircon to hafnon in the Koktokay No. 1 granitic pegmatite, Altai, northwestern China. American mineralogist, 98(10), 1714-1724. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ai_Cheng_Zhang/publication/275732885_Extreme_fractionation_from_zircon_to_hafnon_in_the_Koktokay_No_1_granitic_pegmatite_Altai_northwestern_China/links/5559247a08aeaaff3bf98d19.pdf
Meldrum, A., Zinkle, S. J., Boatner, L. A., & Ewing, R. C. (1998). Displacement-cascade amorphization and phase decomposition in zircon, hafnon, and thorite. Nature, 395, 56-58.
Vasquez, A., Rogers, J. D., Maciel, A., & Fraga, E. R. (1973). Nuclear quadrupole interaction in Hafnon. Revista Brasileira de Física, 3(2). http://sbfisica.org.br/bjp/download/v03/v03a20.pdf
Claiborne, L. L., Miller, C. F., Walker, B. A., Wooden, J. L., Mazdab, F. K., & Bea, F. (2006). Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: an example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(5), 517-543.
Tanner, C., Geisinger, K., & Wusirika, R. (2004). Temperature and wavelength dependence of refractive index of zircon and hafnon. Optical Materials, 26(3), 305-311.
Suzuki, K., Kouta, H., & Nagasawa, H. (1992). Hf-Zr interdiffusion in single crystal zircon. Geochemical Journal, 26(2), 99-104. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/geochemj1966/26/2/26_2_99/_pdf
Ramakrishnan, S. S., Subbarao, E. C., & Gokhale, K. V. G. K. (1970). Effect of solid solution of thermal stability of zircon. Materials Research Bulletin, 5(11), 965-972.
WANG, R., XU, S., LU, J., & CHEN, X. (1995). Discovery of hafnian zircons in the Suzhou granite. Chinese Science Bulletin, 40(10), 828-831.

Internet Links for HafnonHide

Localities for HafnonHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Yilgarn shire
      • Mount Holland pegmatite field
M. Jacobson, M. Calderwood, B. Grguric; Pegmatites of Western Australia; (Perth 2007) and conversations between writer (Kim Macdonald) and owner of lease Fred Rose in 2012.
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Lac-du-Bonnet area
      • Bernic Lake
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 15, pp.489-499 (1977)
  • Ontario
    • Renfrew Co.
      • Lyndoch Township
Verified Scott Ercit, National Museums of Canada
  • Québec
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Val-des-Monts
Rock & Min. 82, 412; Hilderley, M., Ercit, T.S., Rowe, R.A. (2006) 33rd Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, abstracts, 13-14.
China
 
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
          • Koktokay pegmatite field (Keketuohai pegmatite field)
Yin, R., Wang, R. C., Zhang, A. C., Hu, H., Zhu, J. C., Rao, C., & Zhang, H. (2013). Extreme fractionation from zircon to hafnon in the Koktokay No. 1 granitic pegmatite, Altai, northwestern China. American mineralogist, 98(10), 1714-1724.
Morocco
 
  • Marrakech-Safi Region
    • Rehamna Province
      • Jebilet Mtn (Djebilet Mtn)
Fontan, F. (1978) : Etude minéralogique et essais expérimentaux sur les phosphates de fer et de manganèse des pegmatites des Jebilet (Maroc) et des Pyrénées (France), PhD thesis, Toulouse, 272 p.
Mozambique (TL)
 
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 48, 73-80
Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 48, 73-80. (2) (1976); American Mineralogist, 61, pp. 175(1976); Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 48, 73-80
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 48, 73-80 ; Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Wolfgang Henckel
USA
 
  • North Carolina
    • Yancey Co.
      • Spruce Pine District
        • Burnsville
          • Hurricane Mountain
"Mineralogy of the Ray Mica Mine, Yancey County, N.C." by J.W. Miller and C.W. Allen
Zimbabwe
 
  • Masvingo
    • Bikita area
Cerny, P., Anderson, A. J., Tomascak, P. B., & Chapman, R. (2003). Geochemical and morphological features of beryl from the Bikita granitic pegmatite, Zimbabwe. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(4), 1003-1011.
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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