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Hanksite

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Henry G. Hanks
Formula:
Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
Colour:
Colourless to grey, yellow or almost black; colourless in transmitted light..
Lustre:
Vitreous, Dull
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Specific Gravity:
2.562
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
Named by William Earl Hidden in 1885 in honor of Henry Garber Hanks (12 May 1826, Cleveland, Ohio, USA - 19 June 1907, Alameda County, California, USA) for service as first state mineralogist of California.

The mineral was on display, by Hanks, at the 1884 World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition at New Orleans, labelled as thenardite but noted by Hidden to be something different.

A crystal of the mineral was examined by Dana and Penfield in 1883, but the source locality was unknown so they waited to publish until more was found.
This page provides mineralogical data about Hanksite.


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Classification of HanksiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1885
7.BD.30

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
32.3.1.1

32 : COMPOUND SULFATES
3 : Anhydrous Compound Sulfates containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
12.2.2

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate

Physical Properties of HanksiteHide

Vitreous, Dull
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless to grey, yellow or almost black; colourless in transmitted light..
Streak:
White
Hardness:
3 - 3½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Good on {0001}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.562 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.585 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HanksiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.481 nε = 1.461
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.020
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate

Chemical Properties of HanksiteHide

Formula:
Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl
IMA Formula:
KNa22(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl

Crystallography of HanksiteHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.465(21) Å, c = 21.191(43) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.025
Unit Cell V:
2,009.84 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Large, short prismatic [0001] to tabular {0001} crystals to 20cm.; also as quartzoids with large {10_12}; {10_10} striated horizontally; crystals frequently in interpenetrating groups.

Crystallographic forms of HanksiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Hanksite - {110}, {113}, {001}, {223}
Hanksite - {110}, {113}, {001}
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of HanksiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Smithsonian Museum, Washington DC 81217
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Lacustrine evaporite deposit.

Other Language Names for HanksiteHide

Dutch:Hanksiet
German:Hanksit
Italian:Hanksite
Simplified Chinese:碳钾钠矾
碳酸芒硝
Spanish:Hanksita
Traditional Chinese:碳鉀鈉礬

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Tincalconite5 photos of Hanksite associated with Tincalconite on mindat.org.
Borax2 photos of Hanksite associated with Borax on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.BD.05SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FClIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
7.BD.05SulfohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
7.BD.10GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4ClTrig.
7.BD.10SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.BD.15KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)FMon.
7.BD.20CaracoliteNa3Pb2(SO4)3ClMon.
7.BD.20CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)Hex.
7.BD.20AiolositeNa4Bi(SO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
7.BD.25BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2Orth.
7.BD.35CannoniteBi2(SO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.BD.40LanarkitePb2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.BD.45GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2Mon. 2/m
7.BD.50ItoitePb3Ge4+(SO4)2O2(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BD.55ChiluiteBi3Te6+Mo6+O10.5Hex.
7.BD.60HectorfloresiteNa9(SO4)4(IO3)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.BD.65PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10Orth. 2 2 2 : F2 2 2
7.BD.70SundiusitePb10(SO4)O8Cl2Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

12.2.1BurkeiteNa6(CO3)(SO4)2Orth.
12.2.3TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
12.2.4MotukoreaiteMg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
12.2.5FerrotychiteNa6(Fe,Mn,Mg)2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.6NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2OOrth.
12.2.7CarbonatecyanotrichiteCu4Al2(CO3,SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2OOrth.
12.2.8RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2OOrth.
12.2.9TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2OOrth.
12.2.10Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2OTrig.
12.2.11LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
12.2.12MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
12.2.13SusannitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2Trig. 3 : P3
12.2.14WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
12.2.15CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
12.2.16NasledovitePbMn3Al4(CO3)4(SO4)O5 · 5H2O
12.2.17JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex.
12.2.18SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2OTric. 1 : P1
12.2.19ManganotychiteNa6Mn2(CO3)4(SO4)
12.2.20HauckiteFe3+3(Mg,Mn2+)24Zn18(SO4)4(CO3)2(OH)81Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
12.2.21ParaotwayiteNi(OH)2-x(SO4,CO3)0.5xMon.
12.2.22Carrboydite[(Ni1-xAlx)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2OHex.
12.2.23Mountkeithite[(Mg1-xFe3+x)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2OHex.
12.2.24CamérolaiteCu6Al3(OH)18(H2O)2[Sb(OH)6](SO4)Tric. 1 : P1

Fluorescence of HanksiteHide

Pale yellow under LW UV

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Readily soluble in water. Saline taste.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HanksiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hidden, W.E. (1885) On hanksite, a new anhydrous sulphato-carbonate of sodium from San Bernardino County, California, New York Acad. Sci. Annals: 3: 238-241. [also American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 30: 133-135, 1885; Mining & Scientific Press: 50: 1, 1885.
Dana, E.S., Penfield, S.L. (1885) Mineralogical Notes: A large crystal of hanksite. American Journal of Science: 30: 136.
Hanks, H.G. (1889) On the occurrence of hanksite in California. American Journal of Science: 137: 63-66.
Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 123: 1325.
Pratt, J.H. (1896) On northupite; pirssonite, a new mineral; Gaylussite and hanksite from Borax Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 2: 123-135; …Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 27: 416-429 (1896); …(abstract): Neues Jahrb., Band 2: 451-455 (1897).
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: 4: 109.
Koch (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 80: 416.
Gossner, B., Koch, J. (1931) Uber das Kristallgitter von Langbeinit, Northupit und Hanksit. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 80: 455-464.
Ramsdell, L.S. (1939) Composition, space group and unit cell of hanksite. American Mineralogist: 24: 109.
Murdoch, J. (1951) Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; gaylussite. American Mineralogist: 36: 358-361.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 628-629.
Carnahan, V. (1962) Hanksite. Mineralogist: 30: 4-9.
Kato, K., Saalfeld, H. (1972) The crystal structure of hanksite, KNa22[Cl(CO3)2(SO4)9] and its relation to the K2SO4 I structure type. Acta Crystallographica: B28: 3614-3617.
Araki, T., Zoltai, T. (1973) The crystal structure of hanksite. American Mineralogist: 58: 799-801.
Acta Crystallographica: B28: 3614-3617.
Lane, M.D. (2007) Mid-infrared emission spectroscopy of sulfate and sulfate-bearing minerals. American Mineralogist: 92: 1-18.
Palaich, S.E.M., Manning, C.E., Schauble, E., Kavner, A. (2013) Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction investigation of the behavior of hanksite and tychite at high pressures, and a model for the compressibility of sulfate minerals. American Mineralogist: 98: 1543-1549.

Internet Links for HanksiteHide

Localities for HanksiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Neuquén
    • Ñorquín department
      • Copahue
        • Copahue Geothermal Field
Mineralogical Magazine 71 (2007) 235-240.
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
      • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
Sweden
 
  • Medelpad
    • Sundsvall
Kresten, P. (1990): The Alnø area (in Swedish). In: Lundqvist, T. (Ed.), Beskrivning Till Bergrundskartan Over Västernorrlands län. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, serie Ba, 31, 238–278
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 629; Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols.
    • Mono Co.
Murdoch, Joseph (1951c), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 214.
Murdoch, Joseph (1951c), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 374; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207, 283.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Argus Range (Argus Mountains; Darwin Range; Tortoise Mountains)
        • Argus District
          • Trona
Arliguie M collection
American Journal of Science (1885), ser. 3, 30, 133-135; Hidden, William Earl (1885), On hanksite, a new anhydrous sulphate-carbonate of sodium from San Bernardino County, California: New York Academy of Science Annals: 3: 230-241; Hanks, Henry Garber (1889), On the occurrence of hanksite in California: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 37: 63; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 16-18; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 284; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 549, 629; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 213.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 9.
    • San Luis Obispo Co.
      • Carrizo Plain
Collection of NHM, Vienna
        • Soda Lake area
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 214.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Soda Lake District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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