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Hardystonite

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About HardystoniteHide

Formula:
Ca2Zn(Si2O7)
Colour:
light brownish white, pale greyish-white, whitish, very pale pinkish
Lustre:
Adamantine, Resinous, Dull
Hardness:
3 - 4
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1899 by John E. Wolff after Hardyston Township, Sussex County, New Jersey, USA, locality of the Franklin orebody prior to incorporation of Franklin Borough in 1913. Hardyston Township surrounds the borough of Franklin today.
In daylight, natural hardystonite is a very non-descript massive ashen white mineral distinguished from massive calcite by a lack of cleavage and a somewhat greasy luster. (Note: Many photographers over-expose images of hardystonite to accentuate the blue fluorescent brightness. Such photos are often called "eBay blue", because deceptive sellers wish to increase their sales, but disappointed buyers feel cheated because the actual fluorescence of hardystonite is fairly dim compared with associated species such as calcite, willemite, or esperite.)

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Hardystonite.


Classification of HardystoniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.BB.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
B : Si2O7 groups, without non-tetrahedral anions; cations in tetrahedral [4] and greater coordination
55.4.2.2

55 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
4 : Si2O7 Groups, Generally with No Additional Anions with cations in [8] and lower coordination
14.7.14

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
7 : Silicates of Ba, Sr and Zn

Physical Properties of HardystoniteHide

Adamantine, Resinous, Dull
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
light brownish white, pale greyish-white, whitish, very pale pinkish
Streak:
white
Hardness:
3 - 4 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good

Optical Data of HardystoniteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.672 nε = 1.661
Birefringence:
0.009
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.011
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Optical Extinction:
parallel
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of HardystoniteHide

Formula:
Ca2Zn(Si2O7)
IMA Formula:
Ca2ZnSi2O7
Common Impurities:
Al,Fe,Mn,Pb,Mg,Na

Crystallography of HardystoniteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
P4 21m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.8287(16) Å, c = 5.0140(2) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.64
Unit Cell V:
307.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Large, rough crystals rare embedded in calcite or other matrix.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0002657HardystoniteBindi L, Bonazzi P, Rothlisberger F (2001) Hardystonite from Franklin Furnace: A natural modulated melilite American Mineralogist 86 747-75120010293
0018114HardystoniteWarren B, Trautz O (1930) The Structure of Hardystonite Ca2 Zn Si2 O7 _cod_database_code 1011252 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 75 525-52819300293
0010703HardystoniteLouisnathan S J (1969) Refinement of the crystal structure of hardystonite, Ca2ZnSi2O7 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 130 427-4371969Franklin, New Jersey, USA0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.533 Å(1)
5.016 Å(15)
4.222 Å(7)
3.911 Å(1)
3.716 Å(38)
3.500 Å(4)
3.086 Å(63)
2.871 Å(100)
2.767 Å(13)
2.508 Å(8)
2.475 Å(36)
2.423 Å(13)
2.388 Å(7)
2.314 Å(8)
2.284 Å(5)
2.2195 Å(8)
2.1711 Å(1)
2.1113 Å(1)
2.0389 Å(14)
1.9564 Å(2)
1.8985 Å(6)
1.8585 Å(11)
1.8447 Å(5)
1.8231 Å(3)
1.8079 Å(1)
1.7757 Å(12)
1.7620 Å(38)
1.7503 Å(19)
1.7316 Å(9)
1.623 Å(1)
1.6524 Å(6)
1.6413 Å(3)
1.6351 Å(1)
1.6006 Å(5)
1.5369 Å(6)
1.5343 Å(5)
1.5133 Å(3)
1.5082 Å(5)
1.4943 Å(1)
1.4671 Å(8)
1.4526 Å(1)
1.4346 Å(7)
1.4306 Å(7)
1.4073 Å(3)
1.3954 Å(7)
1.3850 Å(7)
1.3419 Å(1)
1.3333 Å(4)
1.3274 Å(1)
1.3243 Å(1)
plus 25 lines to 1.0968 Å(1)
Comments:
ICDD 35-745, 35-745a

Type Occurrence of HardystoniteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Occurs in a metamorphosed zinc-manganese-iron silicate-oxide orebody.

Other Language Names for HardystoniteHide

Simplified Chinese:锌黄长石
Spanish:Hardystonita

Relationship of Hardystonite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
Alumoåkermanite(Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
BennesheriteBa2Fe2+Si2O7Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
Ferri-gehleniteCa2Fe3+[AlSiO7]
GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
GugiaiteCa2Be(Si2O7)Tet.
Hydroxylgugiaite(Ca,◻)2(Be,Si)[(Si,Be)2O5(OH)2]Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
OkayamaliteCa2B(BSiO7)Tet.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
160 photos of Hardystonite associated with WillemiteZn2SiO4
106 photos of Hardystonite associated with FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4
86 photos of Hardystonite associated with CalciteCaCO3
79 photos of Hardystonite associated with ClinohedriteCaZn(SiO4) · H2O
24 photos of Hardystonite associated with EsperitePbCa2Zn3(SiO4)3
22 photos of Hardystonite associated with AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
16 photos of Hardystonite associated with BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
9 photos of Hardystonite associated with ZinciteZnO
8 photos of Hardystonite associated with DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
7 photos of Hardystonite associated with RhodoniteCaMn3Mn[Si5O15]

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.BB.10ÅkermaniteCa2Mg(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
9.BB.10CebolliteCa5Al2(SiO4)3(OH)4Orth.
9.BB.10GehleniteCa2Al(AlSiO7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
9.BB.10GugiaiteCa2Be(Si2O7)Tet.
9.BB.10Jeffreyite(Ca,Na)2(Be,Al)(Si2O7,HSi2O7)Orth.
9.BB.10OkayamaliteCa2B(BSiO7)Tet.
9.BB.10Alumoåkermanite(Ca,Na)2(Al,Mg,Fe2+)(Si2O7)Tet. 4 2m : P4 21m
9.BB.15BaryliteBe2Ba(Si2O7)Orth.
9.BB.15Barylite-1OBe2Ba(Si2O7)Mon. m : Pm
9.BB.20AndrémeyeriteBaFe2+2(Si2O7)Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

55.4.2.1FresnoiteBa2Ti(Si2O7)OTet. 4mm : P4bm
55.4.2.3Jeffreyite(Ca,Na)2(Be,Al)(Si2O7,HSi2O7)Orth.
55.4.2.4LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6FOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
55.4.2.5Meliphanite(Ca,Na)2(Be,Al)[Si2O6(OH,F)]Tet. 4 : I4
55.4.2.6GugiaiteCa2Be(Si2O7)Tet.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.7.1SanborniteBa2(Si4O10)Orth.
14.7.2KrauskopfiteBaSi2O5 · 3H2OMon.
14.7.3WalstromiteBaCa2(Si3O9)Tric.
14.7.4MacdonalditeBaCa4Si16O36(OH)2 · 10H2OOrth.
14.7.5EricssoniteBaMn2+2Fe3+(Si2O7)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
14.7.6Ericssonite-2OBaMn2+2Fe3+(Si2O7)O(OH)Orth.
14.7.7GillespiteBaFe2+Si4O10Tet.
14.7.8AndrémeyeriteBaFe2+2(Si2O7)Mon.
14.7.9PellyiteBa2Ca(Fe,Mg)2Si6O17Orth.
14.7.10TaikaniteSr3BaMn2+2(Si4O12)O2Mon.
14.7.11WillemiteZn2SiO4Trig. 3 : R3
14.7.12HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mm2 : Imm2
14.7.13ZincsiliteZn3Si4O10(OH)2 · 4H2O (?)Mon.
14.7.15PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
14.7.16ClinohedriteCaZn(SiO4) · H2OMon. m : Bb
14.7.17JunitoiteCaZn2Si2O7 · H2OOrth. mm2
14.7.18LarsenitePbZnSiO4Orth. mm2 : Pna21
14.7.19EsperitePbCa2Zn3(SiO4)3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.7.20HodgkinsoniteMn2+Zn2(SiO4)(OH)2Mon.
14.7.21GerstmanniteMnMgZn(SiO4)(OH)2Orth.
14.7.22GageiteMn21(Si4O12)2O3(OH)20Mon. 2/m
14.7.23FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2

Fluorescence of HardystoniteHide

Dull persistent purple to blue (SW UV); blue (LW UV).

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
None, but a common constituent of zinc rich slags from smelting processes.

References for HardystoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Wolff J E (1899) On hardystonite, a new calcium-zinc silicate from Franklin Furnace, New Jersey. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 34, 479-481
Palache, C. (1935), USGS PP 180: 94.
Dunn, Pete J. (1995): Pt3: 411-412.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 130: 427-437.

Internet Links for HardystoniteHide

Localities for HardystoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Kutná Hora District
      • Poličany
        • Vrchlice river valley
Pauliš P. Mineralogické lokality okolí Kutné Hory. Kuttna, Kutná Hora 1999. ISBN 80-902719-0-1.
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Märkischer Kreis
        • Iserlohn
          • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld-Südharz
      • Hettstedt
Elmar Lackner collection
Besteman, Andre, et al, Hettstedt-smelter slag-dumps, Mansfeld Basin, Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany, The Strahlen Foundation.
Peter Neschen Collection
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Chihuahua Municipality
      • Avalos
Espejel-Garcia, D., Wenglas-Lara, G., Villalobos-Aragon, A., & Espejel-Garcia, V. V. (2012, December). Geochemical characterization and leaching behavior of slags: by-product materials from an old lead smelter in Chihuahua, Mexico. In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
Namibia
 
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
Poland
 
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Świętochłowice City County
Puziewicz, J., Zainoun, K. and Bril, H. (2007): Primary phases in pyrometallurgical slags from a zinc-smelting waste dump, Świętochłowice, Upper Silesia, Poland. Can. Mineral. 45, 1189-1200.; Tyszka, R., Pietranik, A., Kierczak, J., Zieliński, G., & Darling, J. (2018). Cadmium distribution in Pb-Zn slags from Upper Silesia, Poland: Implications for cadmium mobility from slag phases to the environment. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 186, 215-224.
USA
 
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • San Bernardino Mountains
        • Bear Valley District
          • Fawnskin (Grout)
Verbeek, Earl R. and Van Fleet, James, 2014, Hardystonite from the Desert View Mine, California: The Picking Table, vol. 55, no. 1, p. 15-17.
  • Illinois
    • Vermilion Co.
      • Danville
        • Hegeler
Piatak, N. M. & Seal, R. R., II (2010): Mineralogy and the release of trace elements from slag from the Hegeler Zinc smelter, Illinois (USA). Applied Geochemistry, 25, 302-320
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Palache(1935):94; Dunn(1995):Pt3:411-412.
Van King
Christopher O'Neill
Van King; Chester S. Lemanski, Jr.
Weissman purchased specimen
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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