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Hausmannite

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Johann F. L. Hausmann
Formula:
Mn2+Mn23+O4
System:
Tetragonal
Colour:
Brown-black
Lustre:
Resinous, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Hardness:
Name:
Originally named "blättricher Schwarz-Braunstein" in 1813 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann, Professor of Mineralogy, University of Göttingen, Germany (February 22, 1782, Hanover, Germany - December 26, 1859, Göttingen, Germany).

Renamed by Wilhelm Haidinger in 1827 in honor of Hausmann.
Black granular aggregates or as pseudo-octahedral crystals.


Classification of Hausmannite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.BB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
7.2.7.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
7.18.2

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn

Physical Properties of Hausmannite

Resinous, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Brown-black
Streak:
Dark brown
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Very Good
{001} nearly perfect; {112} and {011} indistinct.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4.83 - 4.85 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.84 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Hausmannite

RI values:
nω = 2.462 nε = 2.152
Birefringence:
0.310
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.310
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Distinct
Reflectivity:
nmR=9.5-16.5 (470 nm%
nmR=8.1-15.5 (546 nm%
nmR=7.6-14.9 (589 nm%
nmR=7.1-14.4 (650 nm%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 9.5-16.5 (470 nm%.
Colour in reflected light:
Gray-white
Internal Reflections:
Deep blood-red to red-brown
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
O = light gray-white; E = dark gray-white
Comments:
Lamellar twinning in polished sections often visible.

Chemical Properties of Hausmannite

Formula:
Mn2+Mn23+O4
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Zn,Fe,Ca,Ba,Mg

Crystallography of Hausmannite

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/amd
Space Group Setting:
I41/amd
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.762 Å, c = 9.470 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.644
Unit Cell Volume:
V 314.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Pseudo-octahedral {001}; {013} usually smooth and bright, {011} often dull and striated parallel to [100]. Massive, granular.
Twinning:
Twin plane {112}, often repeated as fivelings; also lamellar.

Crystallographic forms of Hausmannite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Hausmannite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hausmannite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hausmannite no.13 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of Hausmannite

Epitaxial Minerals:
JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Epitaxy Comments:
Oriented intergrowths.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.924 (30)
3.089 (40)
2.881 (17)
2.768 (85)
2.487 (100)
2.463 (20)
2.367 (20)
2.037 (20)
1.8288 (7)
1.7988 (25)
1.7008 (10)
1.6405 (8)
1.5762 (25)
1.5443 (50)
1.5260 (2)
1.4721 (3)
1.4405 (20)
1.4260 (3)
1.3841 (4)
1.3823 (2)
1.3487 (6)
1.3055 (1)
1.2777 (10)
1.2431 (6)
1.2305 (5)
Comments:
ICDD 24-734 synthetic, 22 additional lines to 0.9146 with intensities 1-8; see also ICDD 18-791

Type Occurrence of Hausmannite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Manganese ore deposit

Relationship of Hausmannite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
HetaeroliteZnMn2O4
HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2O
IwakiiteMn2+Fe23+O4
4.BB.05ChromiteFe2+Cr2O4
4.BB.05CochromiteCoCr2O4
4.BB.05CoulsoniteFe2+V23+O4
4.BB.05CuprospinelCu2+Fe23+O4
4.BB.05Filipstadite(Mn2+,Mg)2(Sb5+,Fe3+)O4
4.BB.05FrankliniteZnFe23+O4
4.BB.05GahniteZnAl2O4
4.BB.05GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4
4.BB.05HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
4.BB.05JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
4.BB.05ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4
4.BB.05MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4
4.BB.05MagnesiochromiteMgCr23+O4
4.BB.05MagnesioferriteMgFe23+O4
4.BB.05MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
4.BB.05Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4
4.BB.05QandiliteMg2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
4.BB.05SpinelMgAl2O4
4.BB.05TrevoriteNiFe23+O4
4.BB.05UlvöspinelFe22+TiO4
4.BB.05VuorelaineniteMn2+V23+O4
4.BB.05ZincochromiteZnCr2O4
4.BB.10HetaeroliteZnMn23+O4
4.BB.10HydrohetaeroliteHZnMn3+5/3O4
4.BB.10IwakiiteMn2+Fe23+O4
4.BB.15MaghemiteFe2.67O4
4.BB.15TitanomaghemiteFe(Fe,Ti)2O4
4.BB.20TegengreniteMg2(Sb,Mn)O4
4.BB.25XieiteFeCr2O4
7.18.1ManganositeMn2+O
7.18.3PyrolusiteMnO2
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2
7.18.5AkhtenskiteMnO2
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)
7.18.7ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
7.18.9NsutiteMnx2+Mn4+1-xO2-2x(OH)2x
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn2+(OH)2
7.18.11Birnessite(Na,Ca,K)0.6(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
7.18.12Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn34+O7 · 3H2O
7.18.13CianciulliiteMg2Mn2+Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2O

Other Names for Hausmannite

Other Information

Not fluorescent in ultraviolet
Other Information:
Iron rich hausmannite is anomalously magnetic (Wessels mine).
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hausmannite

Reference List:
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Blättricher Schwarz-Braunstein. Handbuch der Mineralogie: 1: 293. Göttingen.

Haidinger, W. (1827) Royal Society of Edinburgh, Transactions: 11: 127.

Haidinger, W. (1828) Mineralogische Beschreibung der Manganerze. I. Prismatoïdisches Manganerz, Manganit. II. Pyramidales Manganerz, Hausmannit. III. Untheilbares Manganerz, Psilomelan. IV. Brachytypes Manganerz, Braunit. V. Prismatisches Manganerz, Pyrolusit: Poggendorffs Annalen der Physik und Chemie: 14: 197-211.

Turner, E. (1828) Chemical examination of the oxides of manganese. Part II. On the composition of the ores of manganese described by Mr. Haidinger. The Philosophical Magazine: 4: 96-104.

Haidinger, M.W. (1831) II. Pyramidal Manganese-ore Hausmannite. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: 11: 127-129.

Rammelsberg, J. (1865) Ann. Phys.: 124: 521.

Flink, G. (1888) Ak Stockholm, Bh.: 12(7): 40.

Koechlin (1908) Über Hausmannit und Braunitkrystalle von Brasilien. Min. Mitt.: 27: 262.

Miser, H.D., Fairchild, J.G. (1920) Hausmannite in the Batesville district, Arkansas. Washington Academy of Science Journal: 10(1): 1-8.

Aminoff, G. (1926) On the crystal structure of hausmannite (MnMn2O4). Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 64: 475-490.

Krüll (1932) Chem. Erde: 7: 473.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 707: 712-715.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1974) 375.

Jarosch, D. (1987) Crystal structure refinement and reflectance measurements of hausmannite. Mineralogy and Petrology: 37: 15-23.

Kleyenstuber, A., Burger, A. (1995) Magnetic hausmannite from hydrothermally altered manganese ore in the Palaeoproterozoic Kalahari manganese deposit, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 59: 703-716.

Baron, V., Gutzmer, J., Rundlöf, H., Tellgren, R. (1998) The influence of iron substitution on the magnetic properties of hausmannite, Mn2+(Fe,Mn)3+2O4. American Mineralogist: 83: 786-793.

Gillot, B., El Guendouzi, M., Laarj, M. (2001) Particle size effects on the oxidation-reduction behavior of Mn3O4 hausmannite. Materials Chemistry and Physics: 70: 54-60.

Internet Links for Hausmannite

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Specimens:
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Localities for Hausmannite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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