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Hedenbergite

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Formula:
CaFe2+Si2O6
Colour:
brownish green, black
Lustre:
Vitreous, Dull
Hardness:
5½ - 6½
Specific Gravity:
3.56
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1819 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in honor of Mr. Anders Ludvig (Ludwig) Hedenberg [1781 Sweden - 1809 Sweden], formerly a clerk associated with Mountain College, and later chemistry student and co-worker with Berzelius and who first found it at Mormorgruvan, Tunaberg, Sweden and published a description of the mineral. Later Berzelius (in 1819) named the mineral and described it. Hedenberg and Berzelius attempted to make compounds involving nitrogen and sulfur. {N.B. The first initial commonly attributed to Anders Ludvig Hedenberg's name signifies the title "Mister" and not to a given name.}
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Classification of HedenbergiteHide

Hedenbergite and its relation to other pyroxenes (after Morimoto et al, 1989)

Previous petrological nomenclature of clinopyroxenes from basaltic magmas (after Poldervaart & Hess, 1951)

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.DA.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
A : Inosilicates with 2-periodic single chains, Si2O6; pyroxene family
65.1.3a.2

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
1 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
14.22.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca

Physical Properties of HedenbergiteHide

Vitreous, Dull
Transparency:
Transparent, Opaque
Colour:
brownish green, black
Streak:
white, grey
Hardness:
5½ - 6½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Good on {110}
Parting:
{100}{010}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.56 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.65 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HedenbergiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.699 - 1.739 nβ = 1.705 - 1.745 nγ = 1.728 - 1.757
2V:
Measured: 58° to 63°, Calculated: 56° to 72°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.029
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v strong
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= pale green, bluish green
Y= green, bluish green
Z= green, yellow green

Chemical Properties of HedenbergiteHide

Formula:
CaFe2+Si2O6
Common Impurities:
Mn,Zn,Ti,Al,Mg,Na,K

Crystallography of HedenbergiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.85 Å, b = 9.01 Å, c = 5.25 Å
β = 104.82°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.093 : 1 : 0.583
Unit Cell V:
450.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Short prismatic crystals, columnar or acicular aggregates, granular, lamellar, massive.
Twinning:
Simple and polysynthetic on {100} {010}

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of HedenbergiteHide

Synonyms of HedenbergiteHide

Other Language Names for HedenbergiteHide

Varieties of HedenbergiteHide

FerrosaliteObsolete name for a pyroxene that would now classify as hedenbergite in the current pyroxene nomenclature.
Hedenbergite-HyperstheneIntermediate between Hedenbergite & Hypersthene
Manganoan Hedenbergite

Relationship of Hedenbergite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3Mon.
ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3Mon.
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6Mon.
JervisiteNaSc3+Si2O6Mon.
JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6Mon.
KushiroiteCaAl[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
NamansiliteNaMn3+Si2O6Mon.
NatalyiteNaV3+Si2O6Mon.
Omphacite(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m
PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6Mon.
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz174 photos of Hedenbergite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Andradite110 photos of Hedenbergite associated with Andradite on mindat.org.
Ilvaite57 photos of Hedenbergite associated with Ilvaite on mindat.org.
Calcite26 photos of Hedenbergite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Prase24 photos of Hedenbergite associated with Prase on mindat.org.
Hematite22 photos of Hedenbergite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Arsenopyrite18 photos of Hedenbergite associated with Arsenopyrite on mindat.org.
Titanite13 photos of Hedenbergite associated with Titanite on mindat.org.
Fluorite12 photos of Hedenbergite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Andradite-Grossular Series10 photos of Hedenbergite associated with Andradite-Grossular Series on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DA.05Donpeacorite(Mn2+,Mg)Mg[SiO3]2Orth.
9.DA.05EnstatiteMgSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.DA.05FerrosiliteFeSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.DA.10ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3Mon.
9.DA.10ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3Mon.
9.DA.10KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DA.10Pigeonite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.DA.15Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15DiopsideCaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.15DavisiteCaScAlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15KushiroiteCaAl[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.15GrossmaniteCaTi3+ AlSiO6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.20Aegirine-augite(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.20Omphacite(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6Mon. 2/m
9.DA.25AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DA.25JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.25JervisiteNaSc3+Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.25KosmochlorNaCrSi2O6Mon.
9.DA.25NamansiliteNaMn3+Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.25NatalyiteNaV3+Si2O6Mon.
9.DA.30SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

65.1.3a.1DiopsideCaMgSi2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
65.1.3a.3Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
65.1.3a.4JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
65.1.3a.5PetedunniteCa(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6Mon.
65.1.3a.6EsseneiteCaFe3+[AlSiO6]Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.22.2Pyroxferroite(Fe,Mn,Ca)SiO3Tric.
14.22.3 Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
14.22.4KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
14.22.5TungusiteCa4Fe2Si6O15(OH)6
14.22.6Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
14.22.7IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
14.22.9AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Hedenbergite in petrologyHide

Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for HedenbergiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hedenberg, A.L. in Afhandlingar i Fysic, Kemi och Mineralogi. Utgifne af W. Hisinger och J. Berzelius. (Stockholm, 1806-18), Vol 2, p. 164.
Berzelius, J.J. (1819) Hedenbergite. Nouveau Système de Minéralogie. A Paris, Chez Méquignon-Marvis, 1819: 269-270.
A. Poldervaart , and H. H. Hess , "Pyroxenes in the Crystallization of Basaltic Magma," The Journal of Geology 59, no. 5 (Sep., 1951): 472-489.
Smith, J.V. (1966) X-ray emission microanalysis of rock-forming minerals. VI: Clinopyroxenes near the diopside-hedenbergite join. Journal of Geology: 74: 463-467.
Clark, J.R., Appleman, D.E., Papike, J.J. (1969) Crystal-chemical characterization of clinopyroxenes based on eight new structure refinements. MSA Special Paper: 2: 31-50.
Rustein, M.S. (1971) Re-examination of the wollastonite-hedenbergite (CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6) equilibria. American Mineralogist: 56: 2040-2052.
Cameron, M., Shigeho, S., Prewitt, C.T., Papike, J.J. (1973) High-temperature crystal chemistry of acmite, diopside, hedenbergite, jadeite, spodumene and ureyite. American Mineralogist: 58: 594-618.
Shimazaki, H., Yamanaka, T. (1973) Iron-wollastonite from skarns and its stability relation in the CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 join. Geochemical Journal: 7: 67-79.
(1978) Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 107: 113.
Ito, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Takeo; Yoshiasa, Akira (1982): A manganoan hedenbergite from the Nakatatsu mine, Fukui Prefecture, Japan and its crystal structure. Mineralogical Journal 11, 84-92.
Fehr, K.T., Hobelsberger, B. (1997) Experimentelle Bestimmung der chemischen Potentiale von Hedenbergit in der Mischreihe Hedenbergit-Petedunnit. Beiheft zum European Journal of Mineralogy: 9: 98.
Rothkopf, A.L., Fehr, K.T. (1998) The chemical potential of hedenbergite in hedenbergite-petedunnite solid solution determined by EMF measurements. Terra Abstracts: 10: Supplement 1: 53.
N.Morimoto, J. Fabries, A.K.Ferguson, I.V.Ginzburg, M.Ross, F.A.Seifeit and J.Zussman. 1989. "Nomenclature of pyroxenes" Canadian Mineralogist Vol.27 pp143–156 http://www.mineralogicalassociation.ca/doc/abstracts/ima98/ima98(12).pdf

Internet Links for HedenbergiteHide

Localities for HedenbergiteHide

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Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
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