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Hedleyite

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Formula:
Bi7Te3
Colour:
Tin white
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
8.91
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named by H.V. Warren and M.A. Peacock, M.A. in 1945 for the small town of Hedley, British Columbia, Canada, near the type locality.
Tin white metallic plates with perfect basal cleavage, mm thick to cm in width. Crystals have hexagonal outline, often with trigonal growth features.
Impossible to visually identify. All species in tetradymite/ tellurobismuthinite/pilsenite family must be analysed for positive identification.

One of many Bi-Te phases known. See also: UM1980-16-Te:Bi.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of HedleyiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1945
2.DC.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
C : Variable M:S
2.6.3.3

2 : SULFIDES
6 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 4:3
3.7.28

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi

Pronounciation of HedleyiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of HedleyiteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Tin white
Comment:
tarnishes easily to iron black
Hardness:
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect Basal cleavage {0001}
Density:
8.91 g/cm3 (Measured)    8.93 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HedleyiteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Slight - light gray to dark gray
Reflectivity:
400nmR1=59.0%R2=61.8%
420nmR1=59.3%R2=62.5%
440nmR1=59.9%R2=63.3%
460nmR1=60.5%R2=64.0%
480nmR1=61.0%R2=64.6%
500nmR1=61.3%R2=65.0%
520nmR1=61.6%R2=65.7%
540nmR1=61.7%R2=66.2%
560nmR1=61.8%R2=66.7%
580nmR1=62.0%R2=67.3%
600nmR1=62.3%R2=67.7%
620nmR1=62.6%R2=68.1%
640nmR1=62.9%R2=68.5%
660nmR1=63.1%R2=68.6%
680nmR1=63.4%R2=68.7%
700nmR1=63.6%R2=68.9%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 68.9%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Colour in reflected light:
White

Chemical Properties of HedleyiteHide

Formula:
Bi7Te3
Common Impurities:
Se,S

Crystallography of HedleyiteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3m
Setting:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.47 Å, c = 119.0 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 26.622
Unit Cell V:
2,059.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Platy masses

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.25 (100)
2.36 (50)
2.23 (40)
1.621 (40)
1.480 (40)
1.984 (30)
1.849 (30)

Type Occurrence of HedleyiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada, M37250.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Polymetallic skarn (Hedley)
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for HedleyiteHide

German:Hedleyit
Simplified Chinese:赫碲铋矿
Spanish:Hedleyita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Joséite-B4 photos of Hedleyite associated with Joséite-B on mindat.org.
Gold2 photos of Hedleyite associated with Gold on mindat.org.
Grossular2 photos of Hedleyite associated with Grossular on mindat.org.
Löllingite2 photos of Hedleyite associated with Löllingite on mindat.org.
Electrum1 photo of Hedleyite associated with Electrum on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.DC.05IkunoliteBi4(S,Se)3Trig.
2.DC.05IngoditeBi2TeSTrig.
2.DC.05Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig.
2.DC.05KawazuliteBi2Te2SeTrig.
2.DC.05LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
2.DC.05NevskiteBi(Se,S)Trig.
2.DC.05ParaguanajuatiteBi2Se3Trig.
2.DC.05PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05SkippeniteBi2TeSe2Trig.
2.DC.05SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2STrig.
2.DC.05TellurantimonySb2Te3Trig.
2.DC.05TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3Trig.
2.DC.05TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
2.DC.05BaksaniteBi6Te2S3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.DC.05Joséite-CBi16Te3S9
2.DC.05ProtojoséiteBi3(Te,S)2Trig.
2.DC.05SztrókayiteBi3TeS2
2.DC.05VihorlatiteBi24Se17Te4Trig.
2.DC.05TelluronevskiteBi3TeSe2Trig.
2.DC.05UM1983-09-S:BiPbTePbBi3S2Te

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.6.3.BabkinitePb2Bi2(S,Se)3Trig.
2.6.3.1KochkaritePbBi4Te7Trig.
2.6.3.2AleksitePbBi2Te2S2Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.7.1PatróniteVS4Mon.
3.7.2DuranusiteAs4SOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m
3.7.5PararealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.6AlacrániteAs8S9Mon. 2/m : P2/b
3.7.7UzoniteAs4S5Mon.
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3Mon. 2/m
3.7.9JeromiteAmor.
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2(Se,S)3Mon. 2/m
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]Orth. mm2 : Pna21
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.7.14StibniteSb2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.15MetastibniteSb2S3Amor.
3.7.16TellurantimonySb2Te3Trig.
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.18NevskiteBi(Se,S)Trig.
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.21IkunoliteBi4(S,Se)3Trig.
3.7.22LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
3.7.23PoubaitePbBi2(Se,Te,S)4Trig.
3.7.24TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3Trig.
3.7.25SoučekitePbCuBi(S,Se)3Orth.
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.31Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig.
3.7.32IngoditeBi2TeSTrig.
3.7.33SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2STrig.
3.7.34KawazuliteBi2Te2SeTrig.
3.7.36SkippeniteBi2TeSe2Trig.
3.7.37KochkaritePbBi4Te7Trig.
3.7.38RucklidgeitePbBi2Te4Trig.
3.7.39AleksitePbBi2Te2S2Trig.
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HedleyiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Warren, H.V., Peacock, M.A. (1945) Hedleyite, a new bismuth telluride from British Columbia, with notes on wehrlite and some bismuth-tellurium alloys. University of Toronto Studies, Geological Series: 49: 55-69.
Fleischer, M. (1945) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 30: 644-644.
Thompson, R.M. (1949) The telluride minerals and their occurrence in Canada. American Mineralogist: 34: 342-382.
Doklady of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Earth Science Sections: 230: 153-155.
Brown, A., Lewis, B. (1962) The systems bismuth-tellurium and antimony-tellurium and the synthesis of the minerals hedleyite and wehrlite. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids: 23: 1597-1604.
Fleischer, M. (1963) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 48: 433-437.
Zav'ylov, E.N., Begizov, V.D., Nechelyustov, G.N. (1976) New data on hedleyite. Doklady Acad. Nauk SSSR: 230: 1439-1441. (in Russian).
Criddle, A.J., Stanley, C.J., eds (1993) Quantitative data file for ore minerals, 3rd ed. Chapman & Hall, London, 227.
Cook, N.J., Ciobanu, C.L., Wagner, T., Stanley, C.J. (2007) Minerals of the system Bi-Te-Se-S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. Canadian Mineralogist: 45: 665-708.
Ciobanu, C.L., Pring, A., Cook, N.J., Self, P., Jefferson, D., Dima, G.I., Melnikov, V. (2009) Chemical-structural modularity in the tetradymite group: A HRTEM study. American Mineralogist: 94: 517-534.
Cabral, A.R., Corrěa Neto, A.V. (2015) Empirical Bi8Te3 and Bi2Te from the São Sebastião gold deposit, Brazil: Implications for lode-gold mineralization in Minas Gerais. The Canadian Mineralogist: 53: 1061-1072.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C., Eds. Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/ (2016)

Internet Links for HedleyiteHide

Localities for HedleyiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Victoria
    • East Gippsland Shire
      • Benambra
        • Morass Creek gorge
    • Mount Alexander Shire
Cristiana Ciobanu & Bill Birch 2008, Gold-Bismuth-Tellurium Mineralisation at Maldon, Victoria, Australia: A Classic Locality Revisited, Sixth Iinternational Conference, Mineralogy and Museums
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Karawanken
      • Bad Eisenkappel (Bad Eisenkappl)
        • Ebriach
Brandstätter, F. & Niedermayr, G. (2006): 1433: Eine bemerkenswerte Pyrrhotin-Vererzung, mit Spuren von Cobaltit und Hedleyit sowie mit reichlich Prehnit aus einem alten Stollen in Ebriach, W Eisenkappel, Kärnten. In: Niedermayr, G., Bernhard, F., Bojar, H.-P., Brandstätter, F., Fink, H., Gröbner, J., Hammer, V. M. F., Knobloch, G., Kolitsch, U., Leikauf, B., Postl, W., Sabor, M. and Walter, F. (2006): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LV. Carinthia II, Teil 1, 196./116. Jahrgang, 121-157. (in German)
  • Tyrol
    • East Tyrol
      • Lienz
Auer, Ch. (2016): 1971) Anglesit, Aktinolith, Anorthit, "Apatit", Allanit-(Ce), Kassiterit, Elektrum, Ilmenit, Monazit-(Ce), Hedleyit, Segnitit, Titanit, Wismut ged. und Zirkon als Neufunde vom Lienzer Schlossberg, Osttirol. Pp. 217-218 in Walter, F. et al. (2016): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXV. Carinthia II, 206./126., 203-250.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Iron Quadrangle
      • Mariana (Marianna de Itacolumy)
        • Passagem de Mariana district
Oberthür, T. and Weiser, T. W. (2008): Gold-bismuth-telluride-sulphide assemblages at the Viceroy Mine, Harare-Bindura-Shamva greenstone belt, Zimbabwe. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 953-970. [contains also data on Passagem de Mariana Mine]
  • Pará
    • Carajás mineral province
      • Parauapebas
Grainger, C.J., Groves, D.I., Tallarico, F.H.B., and Fletcher, I.R. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 451-489.
Bulgaria
 
  • Montana Oblast
Dimitrova, D. et al. (2006): Bulgar. Acad. Sci. Annual Report No. 12, 19-32
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Nelson Mining Division
William (Bill) R. Howard (2007) Structural setting and geochemical correlations in bismuth (sulfo) telluride-native gold–bearing veins, CLY Group, British Columbia, Canada: A reduced intrusion-related gold system. Geologian tutkimuskeskus, Opas 53 – Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53, pp 45-50; http://aris.empr.gov.bc.ca/ArisReports/29864.PDF
    • New Westminster Mining Division
      • Hope
Manor, M.J., Scoates, J.S., Nixon,G.T., and Ames, D.E., 2014. Platinum-group mineralogy of the Giant Mascot Ni-CuPGE deposit, Hope, B.C. In: Geological Fieldwork 2013, British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, British Columbia Geological Survey Paper 2014-1, pp. 141-156.
    • Osoyoos Mining Division
      • Hedley
WARREN, H.V. & PEACOCK, M.A. (1945): Hedleyite, a new bismuth telluride from British Columbia, with notes on wehrlite and some bismuthBtellurium alloys. University of Toronto Studies, Geological Series 49, 55-69. Abstract American Mineralogist 30, 644; G E Ray, G. L. Dawson, R Simpson (1983) The Geology And Controls Of Skakn Mineralization In The Hedley Gold Camp Southern British Columbia* (92W8, 82315) British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. Geological Fieldwork, 1986, Paper 1987-1; MINFILE No 092HSE060; G.E. Ray and G.L. Dawson, (1994) The Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Hedley Gold Skarn District, Southern B.C. BC Geological Survey Bulletin 87:
Econ Geol (1992) 87:1541-1565; G E Ray, G. L. Dawson, R Simpson (1983) The Geology And Controls Of Skakn Mineralization In The Hedley Gold Camp Southern British Columbia* (92W8, 82315) British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. Geological Fieldwork, 1986, Paper 1987-1; MINFILE No 092HSE038; G.E. Ray and G.L. Dawson, (1994) The Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Hedley Gold Skarn District, Southern B.C. BC Geological Survey Bulletin 87:
Dana's New Mineralogy; THOMPSON, R.M. (1951) Mineral occurrences in Western Canada. American Mineralogist 36, 504-509.; Dawson, Garnet Linn. GEOLOGICAL SE flING OF TIlE HEDLEY GOLD SKARN CAMP WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO THE FRENCH MINE, SOUTH-CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA. Diss. University of British Columbia, 1994.
    • Skeena Mining Division
      • Iskut River
        • Sulphurets District
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
Econ Geol (1985) 80:1297-1327
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Val d'Or
Sabina (2003) 186.
  • Yukon
    • Whitehorse Mining District
      • Kluane District
Traill, R. J., 1970, A Catalogue of Canadian Minerals
China
 
  • Anhui Province
    • Tongling Prefecture
      • Shizishan ore field
Yunsheng Ren, Liandeng Liu, Jiwu Zhang, and Guohua Chen (2005): Gold 26(5), 9-12
Yunsheng Ren, Liandeng Liu, Jiwu Zhang, and Guohua Chen (2005): Gold 26(5), 9-12; Yunsheng Ren, Liandeng Liu, Guohua Chen, and Lianggen Liu (2007): Geology and Prospecting 43(3), 60-64
Xiangping Gu, Watanabe, M., Hoshino, K., and Shibata, Y. (2001): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 289–309; Jambor, J.L., Grew, E.S., and Roberts, A.C. (2002): American Mineralogist 87, 181-184.
  • Guangdong Province
    • Chaozhou Prefecture
      • Raoping Co.
Zhenru Zhang, Xianchang Luo, Rongmei Chen, Xingzhen Yu, Sixue Yang, Yingchen Ren, Jiuwu Zeng, and Weijun Sun (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(6), 38-40
    • Shanwei Prefecture
      • Lufeng Co.
Furong Huang (1998): Acta Geoscientia Sinica 19(1), 50-58; Furong Huang (2001): Geology of Chemical Minerals 25(1), 8-10
  • Hainan Province (Hainan Island)
    • Ledong Co.
Bin Shu, Ping'an Wang, Faxian Dong, and Zhongjian Li (2006): Geological Bulletin of China 25(6), 745-755
  • Hebei Province
    • Shijiazhuang Prefecture
      • Lingshou Co.
        • Shihu-Tuling gold field
Peng Qiming and Xu Hong (1994): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 13(1), 55-60.
  • Henan Province
    • Sanmenxia Prefecture
      • Lingbao Co.
        • Qinling Mine
Zhenkuan Luo, Kang Guan, Manzhi Wang, and Chuantai Wang (1999): Guizhou Geology 5(3), 69-74
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Ganzhou Prefecture
      • Anyuan Co.
Zhenru Zhang, Xianchang Luo, Rongmei Chen, Xingzhen Yu, Sixue Yang, Yingchen Ren, Jiuwu Zeng, and Weijun Sun (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(6), 38-40
      • Yudu Co.
Zhenru Zhang, Xianchang Luo, Rongmei Chen, Xingzhen Yu, Sixue Yang, Yingchen Ren, Jiuwu Zeng, and Weijun Sun (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(6), 38-40
  • Jilin Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Yanbian Chaoxianzu Autonomous Prefecture
      • Hunchun Co.
        • Xiaoxinancha
Chil-Sup So, Bai-Lu Jin, Seong-Taek Yun, Chul-Ho Heo, and Seung-Jun Youm (2002): Economic and Environmental Geology 35(3), 211-220.
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Chaoyang Prefecture
      • Jianping Co.
Liyan Zhang (1985): Geology and Prospecting 21(8), 34-39
    • Huludao Prefecture
      • Suizhong Co.
Peng Qiming and Xu Hong (1994): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 13(1), 55-60.
  • Yunnan Province
    • Honghe Autonomous Prefecture
      • Jinping Co.
Wang, C., and Zhou, M.-F. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41(8), 771-783
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Příbram District
        • Hvožďany
Zachariáš, J., Pudilová, M., Žák, K., Morávek, P., Litochleb, J., Váňa, T., Pertold, Z. (1997) P-T conditions, fluid inclusions and O, C, S isotope characteristics of gold-bearing mineralizations within the Central Bohemian Metallogenic Zone. - Acta Univ. Carolinae – Geologica, 41 (3-4), pp. 167–178.
        • Psí hory gold district
          • Mokrsko
Jiří Zachariáš, Petr Morávek, Petr Gadas, Jaroslava Pertoldová (2014): The Mokrsko-West gold deposit, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic: Mineralogy, deposit setting and classification. Ore Geology Reviews 58, 238-263.
    • Plzeň Region
      • Sušice (Schüttenhofen)
Vavřín, I.: Nové poznatky o selenidech Českého masívu. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 82-89.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Olomouc Region
      • Jeseník
Fojt, B., Hauk, J., Kotrba, Z.: Mineralogie zlata a doprovodných minerálů ze Zlatého chlumu u Jeseníku. Věstník ÚÚG, 1988, 63, 2.
Dominican Republic
 
  • Monseñor Nouel Province
    • Maimón
Colomer, J. M., Andreu, E., Torró, L., Proenza, J. A., Melgarejo, J. A., Chavez, C., ... & Lewis, J. F. (2013). Mineralogy, textures and new sulphur isotope data of the Cerro de Maimón VMS deposit ores, Dominican Republic. In Mineral deposit research for a high-tech world. Proceedings of the 12th Biennial SGA Meeting (Vol. 2, pp. 518-521).; Torró, L., Proenza, J. A., Melgarejo, J. C., Alfonso, P., de Pablo, J. F., Colomer, J. M., ... & Chávez, C. (2016). Mineralogy, geochemistry and sulfur isotope characterization of Cerro de Maimón (Dominican Republic), San Fernando and Antonio (Cuba) Lower Cretaceous VMS deposits: formation during subduction initiation of the Proto-Caribbean lithosphere within a fore-arc. Ore Geology Reviews, 72, 794-817.
Finland
 
  • Eastern Finland Region
Hytönen,K. (1999): Suomen Mineraalit. Geologian tutkimuskeskus. Erillisjulkaisu, Jyväskylä, 399 pp (p.346)
Kojonen, Kari, Johanson, Bo and Pakkanen, Lassi (1991). Kelokorven malmiaiheiden malmimineragia ja petrografia. GTK raportti M 19/4244/-91/2/42
http://www.gsf.fi/explor/gold/kivisuo.htm
Geological Survey of Finland 2008. Pampalo(Ward)-Gold Database.
Geological Survey of Finland 2008. Rämepuro-Gold Database.
No reference listed
    • Rantasalmi
Kojonen,Kari 2008. Au-Ag tellurides-selenides in Finland. International Geological Congress, Oslo August 6-14th. Abstract
  • Northern Finland Region
    • Haapavesi
Kojonen, Kari, Johanson, Bo, Sipilä, Esko 1991. The Kiimala gold deposit in Haapavesi, Western Finland. in: Geological Survey of Finland, Current Research 1989-1990. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 12, 75-79, 1991
    • Kuusamo
Geological Survey of Finland 2008. Kouvervaara - Gold Database
    • Raahe
Geological Survey of Finland 2008. Laivakangas-N - Gold Database
  • Southwestern Finland Region
    • Huittinen
http://www.gsf.fi/explor/gold/jokisivu.htm; Eilu, P. (2003). Exploration for orogenic gold deposits. Fennoscandian Exploration and Mining 2003. Rovaniemi, Finland
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Lempäälä
Kuikka, Antti (2014) Pirkkalan alueen kultaesiintymien malmimineralogia. Summary: Ore mineralogy of the gold deposits in the Pirkkala area Volyymi: 212, Julkaisusarja: Tutkimusraportti - Report of Investigation. Geologin Tutkimuskeskus.
India
 
  • Karnataka
    • Kolar District
Mishra, B., and Panigrahi, M.K. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 173-181.
Italy
 
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
      • Ortles-Cevedale Group
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Nagano Prefecture
        • Chino City
Satoshi Matsubara, Ritsuro Miyawaki, Kazumi Yokoyama, Masako Shigeoka, Akira Harada, Takashi Yamada, Kazuko Kawashima, Koichi Shimizu, Hiroshi Miyajima (2010) Bi-Te minerals from the Mukaidani mine, Chino City, Nagano Prefecture, Japan. (Meeting of the Mineralogical Society of Japan)
    • Kanto Region
      • Gunma Prefecture
        • Midori City
          • Seta
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsankoubutsu Gojuonhairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou, p 80.
      • Ibaraki Prefecture
        • Kasama City
          • Iwama
Haruna, Makoto et al. (2002) Mineralogical and oxygen isotope constraints on the origin of the contact-metamorphosed bedded manganese deposit at Nagasawa, Japan. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40, 1069-1089.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Oita prefecture
      • Saiki City
        • Kiura mine (Shin-Kiura mine; Kiura emery mine)
Uehara, S., et al (2014) MInerals from Kyushu and Yamaguchi. (Fukuoka Mineral Club, 355 pages); Josef Vajdak specimens.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    • Altai Mts (Rudnyi Altai)
Baibatsha, A., Dyussembayeva, K., & Kassenova, A. (2015). Microparagenetic Associations of Gold in Ore-Forming Minerals from Deposits of Different Geological and Industrial Types of Kazakhstan. In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) (pp. 1-8). Springer International Publishing.
Norway
 
  • Troms
    • Nordreisa
      • Oksfjorddalen
Lindahl, I. (1975): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.
Lindahl, I. (1975): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.
Lindahl, I. (1975): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.
Lindahl, I. (1975): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.
Lindahl, I. (1975): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, no 60. Hedleyite (Bi14Te6) from the Vaddas-Rieppe area, north Troms, Northern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 55: 283-290.
Pacific Ocean
 
  • East Pacific Rise
    • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
      • Southern Gorda Ridge
Eos Trans. AGU, 81 (48), Fall Meet. Suppl., 2000
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Ząbkowice District
Mikulski, S. Z. (2005, January). The telluride mineralization event (s) within the late-variscan gold deposits in the western Sudetes (NE part of the Bohemian massif, SW Poland). In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1415-1418). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Portugal
 
  • Vila Real District
    • Boticas
      • Bobadela
Mercedes Fuertes-Fuente, Antonia Cepedal, Alexandre Lima, Armanda Dória, Maria dos Anjos Ribeiro, Alexandra Guedes (2016): The Au-bearing vein system of the Limarinho deposit (northern Portugal): Genetic constraints from Bi-chalcogenides and Bi–Pb–Ag sulfosalts, fluid inclusions and stable isotopes. Ore Geology Reviews 72, 213-231.
Romania
 
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
        • Ocna de Fier (Vaskö-Moraviţa; Vaskö-Moravicza; Eisenstein)
Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 65(3), pp. 351–372
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Tenkeli Au-W-Sn district
Gamyanin, G. N.; Bortnikov, N. S.; Zhdanov, Yu. Ya.; Zayakina, N. V.; Mokhov, A. V.; Popova, S. K.; Suknev, V. S. (2007): New Pb-​As-​bearing eulytite from the Galechnoe ore deposit, eastern Yakutia, Russia. Doklady Earth Sciences 413, 300-303.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Khabarovskiy Kray
      • Komsomolski ore District
Gonevchuk, V. G., Gonevchuk, G. A., Korostelev, P. G., Semenyak, B. I., & Seltmann, R. (2010). Tin deposits of the Sikhote–Alin and adjacent areas (Russian Far East) and their magmatic association. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 777-802.
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
[MinRec 32:8]
Simanenko, L.F. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 290-303
Gvozdev, V.I., Dobroshevsky, K.N., Vakh, A.S. et al. (2016): Malinovka deposit—A new type of gold mineralization in Primorye, Russia: Geology, mineralogy, and genesis. Russ. J. of Pac. Geol. 10, 34-49.
      • Vostok
Handbook of Mineralogy; Soloviev, S. G., & Krivoshchekov, N. N. (2011). Vostok-2 gold-base-metal-tungsten skarn deposit, Central Sikhote-Alin, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 53(6), 478-500.
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Ladoga Region
Ivashchenko, V. I., Valkama, M., Sundblad, K., Golubev, A. I., & Alekseev, V. Y. (2011, September). New data on mineralogy and metallogeny of scarns in the Pitkyaranta ore region. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 440, No. 1, pp. 1307-1311). SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica
V. I. Ivashchenko, O. B. Lavrov, K. Sundblad and A. N. Toritsin (2007) Au-Ag-Bi-Te-Se vein mineralization at Roikonkoski, Karelia, northern Lake Ladoga region. Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53 pp 51-56
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica Co.
Pršek, J., & Peterec, D. (2008). Bi-Se-Te mineralization from Úhorná (Spišsko Gemerské Rudohorie Mts., Słovakia): A preliminary report. Mineralogia, 39(3), 87-103.
Spain
 
  • Asturias
    • Salas
Cepedal, A., M. Fuertes-Fuente, A. Martín-Izard, S. González-Nistal, and L. Rodríguez-Pevida (2006), Tellurides, selenides and Bi-mineral assemblages from the Río Narcea Gold Belt, Asturias, Spain: genetic implications in Cu–Au and Au skarns. Mineralogy and Petrology: 87: 277–304.
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna
    • Säter
No reference listed
  • Västerbotten
    • Skellefteå
      • Boliden
        • Skellefteå Mine
Kjell Gatedal
      • Sandfors
No reference listed
T. Wikström, thesis from Stockholm University
Switzerland
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Evionnaz
      • Salanfe
MEISSER, N. et DELLA VALLE, G. (1993): Hedleyite, Bi7Te3, and Joseite-B, Bi4Te2S, from Salanfe skarn, Aiguilles-Rouge massif, Switzerland. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 73, 149-150. ; Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd; Viloyati Khodzhent; Viloyati Leninabad)
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Pendzhikent (Penjikent; Panjakent)
        • Chinorsai intrusion
Novgorodova, M.I., Generalov, M.Ye., Gorshkov, A.I., Sivtsov, A.V., Uspenskiy, Ye.I (1991) Association of native gold with bismuthyl carbonates and tellurates. Izvestiya Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol.: 4: 102-108 (in Russian); in: Jambor, J.L., Grew, E.S. (1993): New mineral Names. :merican Mineralogist: 78: 234
      • Yagnob River
D.I.Belakovskiy data
Belakovski D.I.. Die Mineralien der brennenden Kohlefloze von Ravat in Tadshikistan, Lapis, 1990, N 12 p.21-26. (in German); Belakovski D.I.. Die Mineralien der brennenden Kohlefloze von Ravat in Tadshikistan, Lapis, 1990, N 12 p.21-26. (in German)
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • Caldbeck Fells
        • Carrock Fell
BMS Database
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Dolgellau Gold Belt
        • Bontddu
BMS Database
Ukraine
 
  • Odessa Oblast'
    • Dnister-Bug domain
      • Savran-Sinistovska ore zone
Ciobanu, C. L., Cook, N. J., Pring, A., Brugger, J., Danyushevsky, L. V., & Shimizu, M. (2009). ‘Invisible gold’in bismuth chalcogenides. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73(7), 1970-1999.; Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Wagner, T., & Stanley, C. J. (2007). Minerals of the system Bi–Te–Se–S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(4), 665-708.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Southeast Fairbanks Borough
Illig, Peter (2015) Amphibole Au -Cu Skarn and Massive Sulfide Replacement at the Peak Deposit,Eastern Interior,Alaska
  • Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • McCoy District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Washington
    • Okanogan Co.
      • Myer Creek District
        • Buckhorn Mountain
          • Southwest Zone and Gold Bowl (Crown Jewel) Zone
http://www.pnwfm.org/newsletters/PNWFM_newsletter_0409.pdf
Uzbekistan
 
  • Navoiy Viloyati (Navoi)
    • Central Kyzylkum Region
      • Zarafshan
        • Muruntau ore field
Koneev, R.I., Turesebekov, A.H., Ignatikov, E.N., Vasilevsky, B.B., and Rakhimov, R.R. (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (Eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Vol. 1, 1403-1406; Rustam Koneev, Evgeniy Ignatikov, Arpay Turesebekov, Umid Aripov, Rustam Khalmatov, Obidjon Kodirov, Miraziz Usmanov (2005) Gold ore deposits of Uzbekistan: Geochemistry and nanomineralogy of tellurium and selenium. IGCP Project 486, 2005 Field Workshop, Kiten, Bulgaria, 14-19 September 2005
  • Samarkand Viloyati (Samarqand)
    • North Nuratau Mts
      • Zarmitan
Torsten Graupner, Samuel Niedermann, Dieter Rhede, Ulf Kempe, Reimar Seltmann, C. Terry Williams and Reiner Klemd (2010): Multiple sources for mineralizing fluids in the Charmitan gold(-tungsten) mineralization (Uzbekistan). Mineralium Deposita 45, 667-682. ; Rustam Koneev, Evgeniy Ignatikov, Arpay Turesebekov, Umid Aripov, Rustam Khalmatov, Obidjon Kodirov, Miraziz Usmanov (2005) Gold ore deposits of Uzbekistan: Geochemistry and nanomineralogy of tellurium and selenium. IGCP Project 486, 2005 Field Workshop, Kiten, Bulgaria, 14-19 September 2005; Eshimov, T. E. & Khamrabaeva, Z. I. (1987): Bismuth ore mineralization of Zarmitan. Uzbekiston Geologiya Zhurnali 1987 (4), 78-82 (in Russian).
  • Sidaryo Viloyati (Syrdar'ya)
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Zimbabwe
 
  • Harare
Oberthür, T. and Weiser, T. W. (2008): Gold-bismuth-telluride-sulphide assemblages at the Viceroy Mine, Harare-Bindura-Shamva greenstone belt, Zimbabwe. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 953-970.
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