Donate now to keep mindat.org alive!Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
The most common minerals on earthMineral PhotographyThe Elements and their Minerals
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Hedyphane

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Formula:
Ca2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl
Colour:
White, yellowish white, buff, bluish; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Resinous, Greasy
Hardness:
4 - 5
Specific Gravity:
5.82
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
First described from Långban, Sweden and named in 1830 by Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt from the Greek ηδύς for "sweet" or "beautiful" and φαίνεσθαι, "to appear", in allusion to the typical appearance and luster of specimens. Redefined by Roland C. Rouse, Pete J. Dunn, and Donald R. Peacor (1984).
Isostructural with:
A relatively rare mineral of the Apatite Supergroup found in metamorphosed manganese deposits. The Pb3Ca2 analogue of Turneaureite and Mimetite. The arsenate analogue of Phosphohedyphane.

Pb and Ca atoms are ordered on two different cation sites (M1 and M2) in the crystal structure.
Formerly thought to be a Ca-bearing variety of mimetite. A hydroxyl analogue "hydroxylhedyphane" may exist.

Flat, tabular habit
Semispherulitic aggregates
Prismatic, needlelike habit
Massive
In MW UV light: pale yellow
Flat, tabular habit
Semispherulitic aggregates
Prismatic, needlelike habit
Massive
In MW UV light: pale yellow
Flat, tabular habit
Semispherulitic aggregates
Prismatic, needlelike habit
Massive
In MW UV light: pale yellow



Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of HedyphaneHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7/B.39-140
8.BN.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1
41.8.2.1

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : A5(XO4)3Zq
22.2.17

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride

Physical Properties of HedyphaneHide

Resinous, Greasy
Comment:
Bright lustre
Colour:
White, yellowish white, buff, bluish; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness:
4 - 5 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
5.82 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of HedyphaneHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nω = 1.948 - 2.010 nε = 1.958 - 2.030
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of HedyphaneHide

Formula:
Ca2Pb3(AsO4)3Cl

Crystallography of HedyphaneHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/mmc
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.14 Å, c = 7.185 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.709
Unit Cell V:
639.78 ų
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic [0001]; also pyramidal to thick tabular {0001}. Massive.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
8.77 (40)
5.070 (40)
4.135 (50)
3.586 (70)
3.014 (100)
2.929 (80)
1.943 (80)

Type Occurrence of HedyphaneHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
As fingerthick fission filling in garnet-pyroxene matrix.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Metamorphosed manganese deposit.

Synonyms of HedyphaneHide

Other Language Names for HedyphaneHide

Varieties of HedyphaneHide

Baryt-HedyphaneA barium variety of Mimetite described from a dealer's label in the British Museum (NH) [now the Natural History Museum, London] collection.

Relationship of Hedyphane to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AiolositeNa4Bi(SO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
CaracoliteNa3Pb2(SO4)3ClMon.
CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)Hex.
FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F Hex. 6/m : P63/m
MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite16 photos of Hedyphane associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Willemite14 photos of Hedyphane associated with Willemite on mindat.org.
Austinite6 photos of Hedyphane associated with Austinite on mindat.org.
Schefferite6 photos of Hedyphane associated with Schefferite on mindat.org.
Smithsonite5 photos of Hedyphane associated with Smithsonite on mindat.org.
Braunite4 photos of Hedyphane associated with Braunite on mindat.org.
Quartz3 photos of Hedyphane associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Franklinite3 photos of Hedyphane associated with Franklinite on mindat.org.
Pyrophanite2 photos of Hedyphane associated with Pyrophanite on mindat.org.
Chervetite2 photos of Hedyphane associated with Chervetite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.BN.05AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)NaCeSr3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)Hex.
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)Hex.
8.BN.05ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OHMon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BN.05FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3FHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
8.BN.05TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3ClHex.
8.BN.05VanadinitePb5(VO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)NaLaSr3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Deloneite(Na0.5REE0.25Ca0.25)(Ca0.75REE0.25)Sr1.5(CaNa0.25REE0.25)(PO4)3F0.5(OH)0.5Trig.
8.BN.05FluorcaphiteSrCaCa3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)NaCeBa3(PO4)3F0.5Cl0.5Trig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OHMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BN.05PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)NaNdCa3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F Hex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.10ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

22.2.1SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
22.2.2LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2OMon. 2/m
22.2.3ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.4TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3ClHex.
22.2.5ShubnikoviteCa2Cu8(AsO4)6(OH)Cl · 7H2O
22.2.6RichelsdorfiteCa2Cu5Sb(AsO4)4(OH)6Cl · 6H2OMon. 2/m
22.2.7AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.8MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.9PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.10MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.11Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
22.2.12SahlinitePb14(AsO4)2O9Cl4Mon.
22.2.13GeorgiadèsitePb4(AsO3)Cl4(OH)Mon.
22.2.14VanadinitePb5(VO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.15KombatitePb14(VO4)2O9Cl4Mon.
22.2.16LeningraditePbCu3(VO4)2ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibam
22.2.18NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1

Fluorescence of HedyphaneHide

LW UV ligt: Non fluorescent
SW UV light: faint orange

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in HNO3.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HedyphaneHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Breithaupt, J. F. A. (1830) Bestimmung neuer mineral-specien, hedyphan. Journal für Chemie und Physik. 60: 310-311.
Kersten (1831) Journal of Chemical Physics, Lancaster, PA: 62: 22 (as recalculated by Rammelsberg (1875): 337).
Michaelson (1831) Journal of Chemical Physics, Lancaster, PA: 62: 22.
Lundström (1879) Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 4: 266.
Igelström (1889) Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 11: 210 (as Pleonectite).
Igelström (1889) Jb. Min.: II: 40 (as Pleonectite).
Sjögren (1892) Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 14: 250.
Sjögren (1892) Bull. Geol. Inst. Upsala: 1: 1.
Aminoff (1923) Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 45: 124.
Foshag and Gage (1925) American Mineralogist: 10: 351.
Palache, C. and Berman (1927) American Mineralogist: 12: 180.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 900-902.
Rouse, R. C., Dunn, P. J. & Peacor, D. R. (1984): Hedyphane from Franklin, New Jersey and Långban, Sweden: cation ordering in an arsenate apatite.: American Mineralogist: 69, 920-927.

Internet Links for HedyphaneHide

Localities for HedyphaneHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Neuquén
    • Picunches Department
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2006) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina, Vol. 2, p 428 (Asociación Mineralógica Argentina)
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Leigh Creek
          • Puttapa
Elliott, P. (1991): Minerals from the Beltana mine, Puttapa, South Australia. Mineralogical Record: 22: 449-456.
Economic Geology 67: 1146-1167(1972); Journ. Geol. Soc. Aust. 18, 165-171 (1971)
Bulgaria
 
  • Vratsa Oblast (Vratza)
    • Balkan Mts (Stara Planina)
Minceva-Stefanova, J. (2001). Arsenate minerals diversity in oxidation zones of the polymetallic stratabound deposits in Western Balkan Mountain. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie Bulgare des Sciences, 54(6), 39.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Příbram
        • Vrančice
[Lapis 1995, 12, p.13-24]
C.Auer (2013)
    • South Bohemia Region
Duda, Rejl, Slivka: "Mineralien", 1991
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Spessart
      • Freigericht
        • Altenmittlau
Gerstenberg, A., Reinhardt, M. (2017): Nicht nur Azurit - die Mineralien von Altenmittlau im Spessart. Mineralien-Welt 28 (5), 43-59.
Ireland
 
  • Co. Galway
    • Killimor
de Haller, series of article in Bull. Soc. Genevoise de Minéralogie in the 1980s.
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Savona Province
      • Cairo Montenotte
        • Curagnata
Balestra, C., Balestra, G., Bracco, R. (2010): Curagnata, ovvero i minerali del secondo tunnel. Prie. Notiziario di Mineralogia Ligure. 6-3, 71-83
  • Piedmont
    • Torino Province
      • Lanzo Valleys
        • Balangero
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Narcao
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Scanu, S., Pendeggia, A. (1995) - Minerali della miniera di Mont'Ega, Narcao (CI)- Rivista Mineralogica Italiana,18,3,277-290.
      • Nuxis
        • Tamara Mt.
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana 3/1992-"I minerali del giacimento di Monte Tamara(Nuxis) 1 parte-pp. 167-180
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Canal San Bovo
        • Vanoi Valley
          • Pralongo
Conedera M., Bursi Gandolfi N., Ferretti P., Gualtieri A., Rocchetti I. (2016): Miniera di Pralongo. Una mineralizzazione cuprifera presso Canal San Bovo (Valle del Vanoi, Trento): Riv. Mineral. Ital., 50, 2 (2-2016), 90-119.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Montieri
        • Gerfalco
A.Costantini, G.Pagani (2015) Minerali: bellezze della natura nel parco delle colline metallifere - Tuscan mining geopark . 1-266
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Gini, C., Bargellini, C., Gamucci, C., Marinai, V., Nannoni, R. (2013). Botro ai Marmi. I minerali delle miniere Maffei e Montorsi. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2013, 63-83.
Nannoni, R., & Marinai, V. (2008). Monte Spinosa. Nuovi ritrovamenti alle miniere Maffei e Montorsi. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2/2008, 98-111.
Dini A., Senesi F. (2013): I giacimenti di Sn-W-As. Monte Valerio, Pozzatello, Santa Caterina, Botro ai Marmi e Campo alle Buche. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 37, 1 (1-2013), 84-92.
Senesi F., Sabelli C. (1999): Gli arseniati degli antichi scavi di Valle S. Caterina (Campiglia Marittima). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 23, 1 (1-1999), 51-55.
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
      • Santa Eulalia District
        • West Camp
          • Francisco Portillo
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
    • Mun. de Manuel Benavides
      • San Carlos
Panczner (1987): 118-396.; Mineralogical Record 39:6 pp55-62
  • Durango
    • Mun. de Mapimí
      • Mapimí
Rocks & Min.: 56:247.
Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
  • Zacatecas
    • Mun. de Ojo Caliente
      • La Blanca
Parker, R. (2010). Geology And Mineral Resources Of The Bilbao Silver-Lead-Zinc Deposit, State Of Zacatecas, Mexico. Private Company Report for Xtierra Inc.
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Gebhard, G. (1999): Tsumeb II. A Unique Mineral Locality. GG Publishing, Grossenseifen, Germany
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
Papua New Guinea
 
  • New Ireland Province
    • Lihir Island area
Petersen, S., Herzig, P. M., Hannington, M. D., Jonasson, I. R., & Arribas, A. (2002). Submarine gold mineralization near Lihir Island, New Ireland fore-arc, Papua New Guinea. Economic Geology, 97(8), 1795-1813.
Republic of Macedonia
 
  • Veles
Geologia Croatica (1993) 46, 229-32; Can. Mineral. (1996) 34, 1287-1297
      • Jakupica Mts
        • Babuna Valley
Bermanec et al, 1996
Chukanov, Nikita V., Jančev, Simeon., Pekov, Igor V. (2015): The association of Oxygen-bearing minerals of the chalcophile elements in the orogenetic zone related to the “mixed series” complex near Nežilovo, Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 115–124
Spain
 
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Toledo
      • Madridejos
        • Cerro de Pichita in La Perdiguera
Menor, César (2010): Mineralogía de Pb-Zn en Madridejos (Toledo). Rev. Acopios vol.1. pp. 53-67.
        • Cerros de La Perdiguera
Menor, César (2010): Mineralogía de Pb-Zn en Madridejos (Toledo). Rev. Acopios vol.1. pp. 53-67.
Menor, César (2010): Mineralogía de Pb-Zn en Madridejos (Toledo). Rev. Acopios vol.1. pp. 53-67.
Sweden (TL)
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Schweigger (1830) J. Chem. Phys.: 60, 310; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 857, 902, 1021; Rocks & Minerals: 60: 240; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
Holtstam, D. & Langhof, J. eds. (1999): Långban: The mines, their minerals, geology and explorers. Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, p.89
Adolfsson, S. G. (1979): Notes on Recent Underground Collecting at Långban. Mineralogical Record. 10: 215-217
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
Holtstam, D. & Norrestam, R. (1993): Lindqvistite Pb2MeFe16O27,a novel hexagonal ferrite mineral from Jakobsberg, Filipstad, Sweden. American Mineralogist. 78, 1304-1312
Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62 (3), 395-407
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 902.; Nysten, P. (1984): Kleinod des Nordens - Harstigen in Schweden. Magma 2/1984, 12-30.
  • Västmanland
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
Moore, P. B. (1972). III. On Igelström's Manganese Arsenates and Antimonates from the Sjö Mine, Grythyttan, Örebro County, Sweden. GFF, 94(3), 423-434.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • Caldbeck Fells
        • Carrock Fell
No reference listed
    • Somerset
      • Cranmore
Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Painted Rock Mts
        • Painted Rock District
          • Theba
Joan Rosell - RosellMinerals.com (2014)
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Santa Rita Mts
        • Tyndall District
          • Cottonwood Canyon
            • Amado
              • Devil's Cash Box ridge
                • Glove Mine group (Zombie & Zeco claims; Festiago-Franklin; Blacksmith adit)
J.D. Mizer, collection
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
        • Russ District
          • Reward
Raman ID 12-13-2007 on material personally collected by Tom Trebisky.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Bullion Mts (Bullion Range)
        • Stedman District (Ludlow; Rochester; Buckeye)
          • Stedman
Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, Vol. 76 No. April 2006; Robert M. Housley (2005) Recent rare mineral finds in southern California and Nevada desert mines. Abstracts from the 2005 Desert Symposium. California State University, Desert Studies Consortium and LSA Associates, Inc.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mts
        • Goodsprings District
Rocks & Minerals 83:1 pp 65-69
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Palache(1935):121; Dunn(1995):Pt5:651.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2017, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: November 22, 2017 23:45:51 Page generated: November 6, 2017 19:53:43
Go to top of page