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Hematite

This page kindly sponsored by Norman King
Formula:
Fe2O3
Colour:
Steel-grey to black in crystals and massively crystalline ores, dull to bright "rust-red" in earthy, compact, fine-grained material.
Lustre:
Metallic, Sub-Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
5 - 6
Specific Gravity:
5.26
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Member of:
Name:
Originally named about 300-325 BCE by Theophrastus from the Greek, "αιματίτις λίθος" ("aematitis lithos") for "blood stone". It is possibly the first mineral ever named ending with a "-ite" suffix. Translated in 79 by Pliny the Elder to haematites, "bloodlike", in allusion to the vivid red colour of the powder. The modern form evolved by authors frequently simplifying the spelling by excluding the "a", somewhat in parallel with other words originally utilising the root "haeme".
Polymorph of:
Hematite Group. The iron analogue of Corundum, Eskolaite, and Karelianite.

Hematite is rather variable in its appearance - it can be in reddish brown, ocherous masses, dark silvery-grey scaled masses, silvery-grey to black crystals, and dark-grey masses, to name a few. What they all have in common is a rust-red streak.
Black crystals may be confused with ilmenite.

NOTE: The 'hematite' used in jewelry, and often sold as magnetized items, is nothing of the sort and is an artificially created material, see Magnetic Hematite.

In an experimental volcanic gas condensation by Africano et al. (2002) it deposited in high fO2 conditions during cooling from ca. 800°C down to ca. 650°C.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Hematite.


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Classification of HematiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.CB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
Dana 7th ed.:
4.3.1.2
4.3.1.2

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.20.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
20 : Oxides of Fe

Pronounciation of HematiteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of HematiteHide

Metallic, Sub-Metallic, Dull, Earthy
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Steel-grey to black in crystals and massively crystalline ores, dull to bright "rust-red" in earthy, compact, fine-grained material.
Comment:
See Rossman, G. R. (1996) for cause of red colour.
Streak:
Reddish brown ("rust-red")
Hardness:
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=1000 - 1100 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Parting:
Partings on {0001} and {1011} due to twinning. Unique cubic parting in masses and grains at Franklin Mine, Franklin, NJ.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Comment:
Elastic in thin lamellae
Density:
5.26 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.255 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HematiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 3.150 - 3.220 nε = 2.870 - 2.940
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.280
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Distinct
Colour in reflected light:
White to greyish white with bluish tint
Internal Reflections:
Red
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
O = brownish red
E = yellowish red

Chemical Properties of HematiteHide

Formula:
Fe2O3
Common Impurities:
Ti,Al,Mn,H2O

Crystallography of HematiteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3c
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.038(2) Å, c = 13.772(12) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.734
Unit Cell V:
302.72 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Crystals generally thick to thin tabular {0001}, rarely prismatic [0001] or scalenohedral; also rarely rhombohedral {1011}, producing pseudo-cubic crystals. Often found in sub-parallel growths on {0001} or as rosettes ("iron roses.") Sometimes in micaceous to platy masses. May be compact columnar or fibrous masses, sometimes radiating, or in reniform masses with a smooth fracture ("kidney ore"), and botryoidal and stalactic. Frequently in earthy masses, also granular, friable to compact, concretionary and oolitic.
Twinning:
Penetration twins on {0001}, or with {1010} as a composition plane. Frequently exhibits a lamellar twinning on {1011} in polished section.

Crystallographic forms of HematiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
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Hematite no.319 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hematite no.331 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Hematite no.337 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.68(30)
2.70(100)
2.52(70)
2.21(20)
1.84(40)
1.69(50)
1.49(30)
1.45(30)

Synonyms of HematiteHide

Other Language Names for HematiteHide

Varieties of HematiteHide

AlumohematiteAluminian Hematite
CrucilitePseudomorphs of Hematite and/or Goethite after Arsenopyrite, named for cruciform shape of crystals.
Originally described from Clonmel, Co. Waterford, Ireland.
Iron RoseA term used to describe rounded aggregates of tabular crystals. In these formations, the arrangement of the crystals somewhat reminds of the leaves in a rose blossom, hence the name.
Kidney OreA reniform (kidney-shaped) or botryoidal variety of hematite. The internal structure of the kidney-shaped nodules is usually concentric and radiating.
MartiteThe name given for hematite pseudomorphs after magnetite, formed under conditions of increasing oxygen fugacity.

Originally described from Itabira, Minas Gerais, Southeast Region, Brazil.
Rainbow HematiteAn iridescent variety of hematite, its colour play caused by a very thin coating of nanoparticles of an unidentified aluminium phosphate (Nadin, 2007).
Red OchreEarthy, reddish variety of hematite.
Used as a natural red pigment.
SpeculariteA variety of hematite characterized by aggregates of silvery, metallic, specular ("mirror-like") hematite flakes or tabular, anhedral crystals.

Relationship of Hematite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
CorundumAl2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
EskolaiteCr2O3Trig.
KarelianiteV3+2O3Trig.
TistariteTi3+2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz2,051 photos of Hematite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Calcite1,213 photos of Hematite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Rutile843 photos of Hematite associated with Rutile on mindat.org.
Amethyst405 photos of Hematite associated with Amethyst on mindat.org.
Pyrite276 photos of Hematite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Smoky Quartz250 photos of Hematite associated with Smoky Quartz on mindat.org.
Goethite245 photos of Hematite associated with Goethite on mindat.org.
Fluorite202 photos of Hematite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Magnetite196 photos of Hematite associated with Magnetite on mindat.org.
Dolomite173 photos of Hematite associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05EskolaiteCr2O3Trig.
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05KarelianiteV3+2O3Trig.
4.CB.05MelanostibiteMn2+(Sb5+,Fe3+)O3Trig.
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05Akimotoite(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3Trig.
4.CB.05AuroantimonateAuSbO3
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSbAu+2Sb3+O2(OH)
4.CB.05TistariteTi3+2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
4.CB.10BixbyiteMn3+2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.25PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9Hex.
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.30BerdesinskiiteV3+2TiO5Mon.
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV3+2V4+O5Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.CB.35Olkhonskite(Cr,V)2Ti3O9Mon.
4.CB.35SchreyeriteV3+2Ti3O9Mon.
4.CB.40KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8Hex.
4.CB.40Nolanite(V3+,Fe3+,Fe2+,Ti)10O14(OH)2Hex.
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2Hex. 6 : P63
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3Mon. 2/m
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.50SenarmontiteSb2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pccn
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.65SphaerobismoiteBi2O3Tet.
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20Iso. 2 3 : I2 3
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteV3+Ti2O5(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.80TietaiyangiteFe3+4Fe2+TiO9Hex.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

4.3.1.1CorundumAl2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.3.1.3EskolaiteCr2O3Trig.
4.3.1.4KarelianiteV3+2O3Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.20.1WüstiteFeOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.20.2MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.3MaghemiteFe3+2O3Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
7.20.5Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.20.6Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2OMon. 2/m
7.20.7FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)Hex.
7.20.8Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
7.20.9FerrihydriteFe3+10O14(OH)2Trig.
7.20.10Amakinite(Fe2+,Mg)(OH)2Trig.
7.20.11MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.12MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.20.13SrebrodolskiteCa2Fe3+2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.20.14HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.20.15BrownmilleriteCa2(Al,Fe3+)2O5Orth. mm2

Fluorescence of HematiteHide

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
A major ore of iron.

Hematite in petrologyHide

References for HematiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Agricola (1546) 565, 468.
Biäsch (1929) Zs. Kr.: 70: 1.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 527-534.
Blake, R.L., Hessevick, R.E., Zoltai, T., and Finger, L.W. (1966) Refinement of the hematite structure. American Mineralogist: 51: 123-129.
Mao, H.K., Virgo, D., and Bell, P.M. (1977) High-pressure 57Fe Mössbauer data on the phase and magnetic transitions of magnesioferrite (MgFe2O4), magnetite (Fe3O4), and hematite (Fe2O3). Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book: 76: 522-525.
Fleet, M.E. and Arima, M. (1985) Oriented hematite inclusions in sillimanite. American Mineralogist: 70: 1232-1237.
Rossman, G. R. (1996) Why hematite is red: Correlation of optical absorption intensities and magnetic moments of Fe3+ minerals. Mineral Spectroscopy: A tribute to Roger G. Burns, Special Publication, (5) pp 23-27.
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, C.W.H., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., and Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 217.
Andrault, D. and Bolfan-Casanova, N. (2001) High-pressure phase transformation in the MgFe2O4 and Fe2O3-MgSiO3 systems. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 28: 211-217.
Rozenberg, G.K., Dubrovinsky, L.S., Pasternak, M.P., Naaman, O., LeBihan, T., and Ahuja, R. (2002) High-pressure structural studies of hematite (Fe2O3). Physical Review B: 65: 064112.
Shim, S-H. and Duffy, T.S. (2002) Raman spectroscopy of Fe2O3 to 62GPa. American Mineralogist: 87: 318-326.
Cornell, R.M. and Schwertmann, U. (2003) The iron oxides. Structure, properties, reactions, occurrences and uses. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.
Das, S. and Hendry, M.J. (2011) Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify iron minerals commonly found in mine wastes. Chemical Geology: 290: 101-108.
Africano, F., Van Rompaey, G., Bernard, A., and Le Guern, F. (2002) Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satsuma-Iwojima volcano. Earth Planets Space: 54: 275-286.

Internet Links for HematiteHide

Significant localities for HematiteHide

Showing 29 significant localities out of 16,092 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Tucumán
    • Tafí del Valle Department
[var: Martite] Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry´s collection.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Radstädter Tauern
      • Großarl valley
        • Hüttschlag
[var: Specularite] A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
Chile
 
  • Coquimbo Region
    • Limarí Province
      • Monte Patria
[var: Specularite] Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Pontgibaud
        • Saint-Ours-les-Roches
Mboungou-Kongo J.B. (2002), L'hématite spéculaire du puy de Tunisset, Chaîne des Puys (Puy de Dôme), Le Régne Minéral, n°46, pp: 51-55
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Ste Marie-aux-Mines (Markirch)
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
Favreau G., Meisser N., Chiappero P.J. (2004), Saint-Maime (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence): un exemple de pyrométamorphisme en région provençale, n°3, pp: 59-92
Ireland
 
  • Co. Cork
    • Mizen Peninsula
      • Ballydehob
        • Audley Mines
[var: Specularite] Barry Flannery (Personal Collection)
Italy
 
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Varaita Valley
        • Bellino
          • Varaita di Rui Valley
Piccoli, G.C. (2002): I minerali delle Alpi Marittime e Cozie. Provincia di Cuneo. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 362 pp.; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Rio Marina
          • Rio Mine (Rio Marina Mine)
E. Grill (1911) - Osservazioni cristallografiche sull’ematite dell’Elba - R. Ist. Studi Sup. Prat. e Perf. Firenze.
Orlandi, P., & Pezzotta, A., 1997. I minerali dell'Isola d'Elba. I minerali dei Giacimenti metalliferi dell'Elba orientale e delle Pegmatiti del Monte Capanne. Ed. Novecento Grafico, Bergamo, 245 pp.; Benvenuti, N., Dini, A., D’Orazio, M., Chiarantini, L., Corretti, A., Costagliola, P. (2013): The tungsten and tin signature of iron ores from Elba Island (Italy): a tool for provenance studies of iron production in the Mediterranean Region. Archaeometry, 55, 3, 479–506.
    • Lucca Province
      • Apuan Alps
        • Minucciano
          • Gorfigliano
Orlandi P., Dini A., Gemignani E., Pierotti L., Quilici U., Romani U., 2002. Paragenesi alpine nelle Alpi Apuane: I minerali delle vene di quarzo della Valle dell'Acqua Bianca, Gorfigliano (LU) Riv. Mineral. It., 26, 4: 216-223
        • Pietrasanta
Dini A., Bramanti A., Mancini S., Orlandi P. (1997) - La lazulite del Monte Folgorito (Alpi Apuane), Pietrasanta, Lucca - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, Fasc. 2, 1997
        • Vagli di Sotto
Biagioni C., 2004. Le mineralizzazioni manganesifere dei Diaspri Auctt. di Vagli (Alpi Apuane, Lucca). Tesina di laurea inedita, Università di Pisa.
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
        • Bou Azzer District (Bou Azer District)
          • Ightem
Favreau, G. and Dietrich, J. E. (2006). Die Mineralien von Bou Azzer. Lapis 31(7/8), 27-68
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Kragerø
      • Kragerø Archipelago
        • Langøy
          • Langøy Fe Mines
Vogt (1892b, pp. 119-121); Neumann (1985, p. 63); S. Flaata (1990).
Spain
 
  • Aragón
    • Zaragoza
      • Tierga
- Calvo, M. (2008). Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza, 463 pags.
  • Asturias
[var: Iron Rose] Fuertes Acevedo, M. (1884): Mineralogía asturiana. Catálogo descriptivo de las sustancias así metálicas como lapídeas de la provincia de Asturias. Imprenta del Hospicio Provincial. 224 pp. Calvo, M. (2009): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp
      • El LLagú
        • Castro Cegallú-El Bravo
Fuertes Acevedo, M. (1884): Mineralogía asturiana. Catálogo descriptivo de las sustancias así metálicas como lapídeas de la provincia de Asturias. Imprenta del Hospicio Provincial. 224 pp.
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Vorderrhein Valley
      • Tujetsch (Tavetsch)
        • Curnera Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 207.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cumbria
      • Eastern Fells
        • Shap
No reference listed
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • La Paz Co.
      • Buckskin Mts
        • Santa Maria District (Planet District; Swansea District; Bill Williams District)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 195, 246.
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Vulture Mts
[var: Specularite] self-collected by C. Lemanski, Jr.
  • Connecticut
    • Hartford Co.
      • East Granby
P. Cristofono collection
    • New Haven Co.
      • East Haven
Powell, Richard C. and Wolfgang Vogt. (1987), Cinque Quarry, A Suburban Site in Connecticut Makes Collecting a Cinch. Rock and Gem: (6): 36-39.
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • North Smithfield
Michael W. Kieron collection
Mineral and/or Locality  
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