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Amber

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Formula:
C10H16O + (H2S)
Approximate bulk formula.
Colour:
Yellow-orange-brown, pale lemon yellow, red, brown, nearly black; rarely blue or green
Hardness:
2 - 2½
A fossil tree resin.

In order to qualify as "amber" it is NOT sufficient for a tree resin merely to harden by losing its volatiles, the molecules have to polymerize, which can take millions of years (or at least 100,000 years). After polymerization, amber becomes significantly less soluble in common organic solvents, and so will not become sticky if wetted with alcohol, acetone or gasoline. Much of the material marketed as "amber" (especially that from Colombia and Madagascar) is far too young to be considered amber, and is in reality just dried tree resin.

The oldest amber recovered dates to the Upper Carboniferous period (320 million years ago).

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Amber.


Classification of Amber

9/C.01-10

9 : Organic Compounds
C : Resins and other compounds
01 : Bernstein series

Physical Properties of Amber

Colour:
Yellow-orange-brown, pale lemon yellow, red, brown, nearly black; rarely blue or green
Hardness:
2 - 2½ on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of Amber

Formula:
C10H16O + (H2S)

Approximate bulk formula.

Synonyms of Amber

Other Language Names for Amber

Asturian:Ámbar
Belarusian:Бурштын
Bosnian (Latin Script):Ćilibar
Catalan:Ambre
Czech:Jantar
Danish:Rav
Dutch:Barnsteen
Esperanto:Sukceno
Estonian:Merevaik
Finnish:Meripihka
French:Ambre
Galician:Ámbar
Hebrew:ענבר
Hungarian:Borostyán
Icelandic:Raf
Ido:Sucino
Italian:Ambra
Japanese:コハク
Korean:호박
Latin:Succinum
Latvian:Dzintars
Lithuanian:Gintaras
Low Saxon:Barnsteen
Norwegian (Bokmål):Rav
Persian:کهربا
Polish:Bursztyn
Portuguese:Âmbar
Romanian:Chihlimbar
Russian:Янтарь
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Ћилибар
Serbo-Croatian:Jantar
Simplified Chinese:琥珀
Slovak:Jantár
Slovenian:Jantar
Swedish:Bärnsten
Turkish:Kehribar
Ukrainian:Бурштин
Vietnamese:Hổ phách
Welsh:Ambr

Varieties of Amber

Almashite

A variety of amber low in oxygen.
Originally reported from Almas Valley, Piatra, Neamt Co., Romania.

Ambrosine

Amber containing much succinic acid.
Originally described from Charleston, Charleston Co., South Carolina, USA.

Bacalite

A white or yellow variety of amber (or quartz) from Baja California, Mexico.

Burmite

A generally deep red amber from Burma. An amber occurring in the upper Hukong Valley, Burma. Differs from ordinary amber in that it doesn't contain succinic acid.

Originally described from Maingkwan, Myitkyina-Mogaung District, Kachin State, Myanmar (Bu...

Delatynite

A variety of amber from the area near Delyatyn, Ukraine.

Duxite
Gedanite

A resin resembling amber but with little succinic acid.
Originally described from Gdansk (Danzig), Pomorskie, Poland.

Jaulingite

A fossil resin.
Originally reported from Jauling, St Veit an der Triesting, Bad Vöslau, Lower Austria, Austria.

Jelinite

A variety of amber from Ellsworth Co., Kansas, USA.

Kochenite

Originally reported from Kochen valley, Telfs, Inn valley, North Tyrol, Tyrol, Austria.

Munktenite

A Romanian amber

Muntenite

A Romanian amber.
Originally reported from Olanesti, Valcea Co., Romania.

Plaffeiite

Name for an upper paleozoic (Gurnigelflysch formation) amber from Switzerland (Höllibach near Plasselb, not far from Plaffeien, ca. 15 km SE of Fribourg).

Rosthornite

An ill-defined resin, resembling amber and jaulingite.
Originally reported from Sonnberg, Guttaring, Friesach - Hüttenberg area, Carinthia, Austria.

Simetite

A variety of amber of Miocene age from Sicily. Contains less succinic acid than Baltic amber.

Common Associates

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Coal1 photo of Amber associated with Coal on mindat.org.

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Amber

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Flamini A., Graziani G., Grubessi O. (1974) Inclusi di solfuro di ferro nelle ambre baltiche. Periodico di Mineralogia: 331-338.
Anderson, K., Winans, R., Botto, R. (1992): The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere—II. Identification, classification and nomenclature of resinites. Organic Geochemistry 18 (6), 829–841.

Internet Links for Amber

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-188.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Amber specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Amber

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Victoria
    • Hepburn Shire
      • Creswick
Kirejtshuk, A. G., Merkl, O., & Kernegger, F. (2008). A new species of the genus Pentaphyllus Dejean, 1821 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Diaperinae) from the Baltic amber and checklist of the fossil Tenebrionidae. Zoosyst Ross, 17, 131-137.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Guttaring
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Saualpe
      • Görtschitz valley
        • Klein St Paul
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Wolfsberg
      • St Stefan
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Lower Austria
    • Industrieviertel
      • Berndorf
        • St Veit an der Triesting
V. R. v. Zepharovich: Sitzungsber. kais. Akad. Wiss. Wien 16:366 (1855)
    • Mostviertel
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Salzburg
    • Golling
http://www.ambertop.de/weltweit.html
http://www.bernstein.tips/bernstein-arten.php; http://www.zobodat.at/pdf/GmuGeoStud_2_0337-0342.pdf
    • Salzburg
      • Anthering - Muntigl area
On exhibit in the Museum "Haus der Natur", Salzburg.
  • Styria
    • Hieflau
      • Gams bei Hieflau
peter neschen collection
    • Köflach
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Koralpe
      • Wies
        • Eibiswald
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Jenbach
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
        • Kramsach
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
        • Telfs
A. Pichler: Jahrb. k. k. geol. Reichsanstalt (1868)
  • Upper Austria
Peter Neschen specimen
    • Kirchdorf an der Krems
      • Windischgarsten
- J.Schadler, in: Bernstein, in Steinkohle der Oberkreide mit wenig Schwefelkies und gelben Anflug von Realgar. (Handschriftliche Aufzeichnungen).
- H.Commenda, in: Übersicht der Gesteine und Mineralien Oberösterreichs. 1. Gesteine. Heimatgaue, Zeitschrift für oberösterreichische Geschichte, Landes - und Volkskunde 7, Heft 1, Linz 1926, Seite 41 – 65.
    • Steyr-Land
      • Weyer
- G.Geyer, in: Erläuterungen zur Geologischen Karte SW - Gruppe 12, Weyer. Kaiserlich & königliche Geologischen Reichsanstalt, Wien (1911).
    • Steyr
Peter Neschen Collection
- Gerhard Brandstetter, in: Mineralogische und paläontologische Notizen aus Oberösterreich. OÖ Geonachrichten, Beiträge zur Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie von Oberösterreich.15. Jahrgang (2000), Seite 16 – 22, 7 Abbbildungen. MFOÖ Mineralien - und Fossiliensammler Oberösterreichs mit ARGE Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie im Oberösterreichischen Landesmuseum.
Baltic Sea
Van King
Canada
 
www.alpinegems.net
  • British Columbia
    • Similkameen Mining Division
Mustoe, G. E. (1985). Eocene amber from the Pacific coast of North America. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 96(12), 1530-1536
Simandl, G.J. (2009): Nonmetallic minerals other than coal: Industrial minerals, gemstones and aggregate in British Columbia, Canada; British Columbia Geological Survey, Paper 2009‐2, pages.
  • Manitoba
George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
China
 
  • Henan Province
    • Nanyang Prefecture
Huishu Wang (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(4), 338-344
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Fushun Prefecture
      • Wanghua District
http://www.smartminerals.com/cina2004/art_China_localities.htm
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Ústí Region
      • Bílina (Bilin)
Petr Fuchs specimen
      • Kadaň (Kaaden)
        • Tušimice
Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
      • Most
Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
Petr Fuchs
Denmark
http://www.ravsiden.dk/ ; Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
  • Capital Region
- Langenheim J. H. (1969): Amber. A botanical inquiry. Science, 163, 1157-1169. - Larsson S.G. (1978): Baltic Amber - a Palaeobiological Study. Entomograph Volume 1. Scandinavian Science Press Ltd., Klampenborg - Denmark, 192 pp.
Dominican Republic
 
  • Hato Mayor Province
http://www.gplatt.demon.co.uk/dominica.htm
  • Sánchez Ramírez Province
    • Cotuí
http://www.gplatt.demon.co.uk/dominica.htm
  • Santiago Province
http://www.gplatt.demon.co.uk/dominica.htm
Raúl Joreg Tauber Larry
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Ethiopia
 
  • Amhara Region
    • Semien Shewa
      • Mida (Midda)
www.ambergallery.it
France
 
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
NÉRAUDEAU D., PERRICHOT V., DEJAX J., MASURE E., NEL A., PHILIPPE M., MOREAU P., GUILLOCHEAU F. & GUYOT T. 2002. — Un nouveau gisement à ambre insectifère et à végétaux (Albien terminal probable) : Archingeay (Charente-Maritime, France). Geobios 35: 233-240.
  • Pays de la Loire
    • Vendée
Vincent Perrichot 2014, Paleontoretaceous Vendean amber (northwestern France)
Germany
 
  • Berlin
    • Spandau
Michael Meder collection
  • Brandenburg
    • Bad Freienwalde
Andreas Gerstenberg collection
    • Eberswalde-Finow
      • Ruhlsdorf
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    • Königs Wusterhausen
      • Niederlehme
Andreas Gerstenberg collection
    • Rüdersdorf
Jahn, S. (2013): Der Kalksteinbruch Rüdersdorf bei Berlin. Mineralien-Welt 24 (3), 44-88.
  • Mecklenburg-West Pomerania
    • Wolgast
      • Usedom Island
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Bitterfeld
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
  • Schleswig-Holstein
    • Eiderstedt Peninsula
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    • Schwarzenbek
      • Groß Pampau
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    • Sylt Island
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
Andreas Gerstenberg collection
Hungary
 
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Bakony Mts
Zechmeister, L. (1926): Adatok az ajkait, egy hazai fosszilis gyanta ismeretéhez. Mathematikai és Természettudományi Értesítő, 43, 332-341.
India
 
  • Gujarat
    • Anand District
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-11618809
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-11618809
Indonesia
 
  • Sumatra (Sumatera)
Richard Gunter Collection
Israel
 
  • Golan Heights
George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
  • Negev
George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
  • Northern District (HaZafon District)
George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
Italy
 
  • Calabria
    • Reggio Calabria Province
Mantovani P. (1877): Ligniti nella provincia di Reggio Calabria. Boll. R. Com. Geol. d'Italia, 8, 376-377; Jervis G. (1881): I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 3: Regioni delle Isole. Sardegna e Sicilia. Addenda ai precedenti volumi. Loescher, Torino, XXII+539 pp.
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Bologna Province
      • Loiano (Lojano)
Bombicci, L. (1873): Descrizione della mineralogia generale della provincia di Bologna. Prima parte. Memorie della R. Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna, serie 3, 4, 59-139.
      • Monterenzio
Bombicci, L. (1873): Descrizione della mineralogia generale della provincia di Bologna. Prima parte. Memorie della R. Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna, serie 3, 4, 59-139.
    • Forlì-Cesena Province
Bombicci, L. (1894): Descrizione degli esemplari di solfo nativo cristallizzato delle solfare di Romagna raccolti e classificati dall'autore nel Museo mineralogico della R. Università di Bologna. Memorie della R. Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna, serie 5, 4, 737-816.
    • Modena Province
      • Secchia Valley
        • Prignano sulla Secchia
Roberto Bosi finding; http://www.academia.edu/991620/northern_Italy_ARCHAEOLOGICAL_AMBERS_FROM_NORTHERN_ITALY_AN_FTIR-DRIFT_STUDY_OF_PROVENANCE_BY_COMPARISON_WITH_THE_GEOLOGICAL_AMBER_DATABASE http://www.mineralimodenesi.it/Schede/Castelvecchio.htm
    • Parma Province
      • Taro Valley
        • Ceno Valley
          • Varano de' Melegari
Adorni, F., Battilocchi, G., Bersani, D. & Calderini, V. (2010). Le septarie dell'Appennino Parmense. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 222-241.
  • Friuli-Venezia Giulia
    • Pordenone Province
      • Frisanco
- Rimoli G., Dreon A.L. (1998): Notizie mineralogiche dell’area del pordenonese con particolare riguardo ai minerali della Val Cellina e della Val Colvera. Bollettino Società Naturalisti “Silvia Zenari”, 22, 45-62. - Ragazzi E., Avanzini M., Dieni I., Roghi G., Stefani C. (2012): New amber findings in Northeastern Italy: suggestions for an integrated view on fossil resin raison d’être. In: Bianchi V., Gattolin G., Rigo M. (eds.): Note brevi e riassunti. X Congresso GEOSED “Associazione Italiana per la Geologia del sedimentario”, Feltre, 2-6 Luglio 2012. Rendiconti Online della Società Geologica Italiana, 20, 71-75. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
    • Udine Province
- Roghi G., Gianolla P., Ragazzi E. (2002): Paleobotanical features of Upper Triassic amber in the Southern Alps (Italy). Abstract, 6th European Paleobotany-Palynology Conference, Athens, unpaged. - Preto N., Roghi G., Gianolla P. (2005): Carnian stratigraphy of the Dogna area (Julian Alps, northern Italy): tessera of a complex palaeogeography. Boll. Soc. Geol. Ital., 124, 269-279. - Roghi G., Ragazzi E., Gianolla P. (2006): Triassic Amber of the Southern Alps (Italy). Palaios, 21, 143-154.
      • San Pietro al Natisone
        • Vernasso
- Roghi G., Ragazzi E., Fedele P. (2004): L’ambra Cretacea delle Dolomiti e delle Prealpi Giulie. Giornate di Paleontologia 2004, Bolzano, 21-23 Maggio, Abstracts Book, 52. - Trevisani E. (ed.) (2007): Ambra. Il fascino di una gemma tra mito, scienza e vanità. Minerva Edizioni, Bologna, 128 pp. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
  • Liguria
    • Imperia Province
      • Ventimiglia
Issel A. (1892): Liguria geologica e preistorica. A. Donath Editore, Genova, Vol. 1, 440 pp.; Antofilli M., Borgo E., Palenzona A. (1985): I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. II Edizione. SAGEP Editrice, Genova, 296 pp.
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Catania
(See "simetite" references)
    • Enna Province
Jervis G. (1881): I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 3: Regioni delle Isole. Sardegna e Sicilia. Addenda ai precedenti volumi. Loescher, Torino, XXII+539 pp.
Jervis G. (1881): I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 3: Regioni delle Isole. Sardegna e Sicilia. Addenda ai precedenti volumi. Loescher, Torino, XXII+539 pp.
- Ferrara F. (1805): Sopra l’Ambra Siciliana. In: Memorie sopra il Lago Naftia nella Sicilia Meridionale, sopra l'Ambra Siciliana, sopra il Mele Ibleo e la città d'Ibla Megara, sopra Nasso e Callipoli. Reale Stamperia, Palermo, 73-159. - Jervis G. (1881): I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 3: Regioni delle Isole. Sardegna e Sicilia. Addenda ai precedenti volumi. Loescher, Torino, XXII+539 pp.
    • Ragusa Province
Giardina G., Passerino G. (1998): Ambra in Provincia di Ragusa. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 22, 2, 50.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
      • Adige Valley (Etsch Valley)
        • Aldino (Aldein)
          • Redagno (Radein)
- Maffi D., Maffi S. (1992): Le più antiche ambre delle Alpi. Paleocronache, 1-1992, 39-48. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
      • Badia Valley (Gader Valley)
        • Badia (Abtei)
          • San Leonardo (San Linêrt; Sankt Leonhard)
- Koken E. (1913): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Schichten von Heiligenkreuz (Abteital, Südtirol). Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 16, 4, 1-43. - Gianolla P., Roghi G., Ragazzi E. (1998): Upper Triassic amber in the Dolomites (Northern Italy). A paleoclimatic indicator? Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 104, 381-390. - Ragazzi E., Fedele P., Gianolla P., Roghi G. (2003): L’ambra triassica delle Dolomiti. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 27, 1, 21-22.
    • Trento Province
      • Riva del Garda
Stoppani A. (1886): L’ambra nella storia e nella geologia con speciale riguardo agli antichi popoli d’Italia nei loro rapporti colle origini e collo svolgimento della civiltà in Europa. Fratelli Dumolard Editori, Milano, xxi+277 pp. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
      • Trento
- Ragazzi E., Avanzini M., Dieni I., Roghi G., Stefani C. (2012): New amber findings in Northeastern Italy: suggestions for an integrated view on fossil resin raison d’être. In: Bianchi V., Gattolin G., Rigo M. (eds.): Note brevi e riassunti. X Congresso GEOSED “Associazione Italiana per la Geologia del sedimentario”, Feltre, 2-6 Luglio 2012. Rendiconti Online della Società Geologica Italiana, 20, 71-75. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
  • Veneto
    • Belluno Province
      • Belluno
        • Borgo Prà
- Trevisani E., Ragazzi E., Roghi G. (2011): First report of amber from the Early Eocene Belluno Flysch (Southern Alps, Northern Italy). Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 50, 1, 23-28. - Ragazzi E., Avanzini M., Dieni I., Roghi G., Stefani C. (2012): New amber findings in Northeastern Italy: suggestions for an integrated view on fossil resin raison d’être. In: Bianchi V., Gattolin G., Rigo M. (eds.): Note brevi e riassunti. X Congresso GEOSED “Associazione Italiana per la Geologia del sedimentario”, Feltre, 2-6 Luglio 2012. Rendiconti Online della Società Geologica Italiana, 20, 71-75. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32
      • Cortina d'Ampezzo
- Gianolla P., Roghi G., Ragazzi E. (1998): Upper Triassic amber in the Dolomites (Northern Italy). A paleoclimatic indicator? Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 104, 381-390. - Roghi G., Gianolla P., Ragazzi E. (2002): Paleobotanical features of Upper Triassic amber in the Southern Alps (Italy). Abstract, 6th European Paleobotany-Palynology Conference, Athens, unpaged. - Ragazzi E., Fedele P., Gianolla P., Roghi G. (2003): L’ambra triassica delle Dolomiti. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 27, 1, 21-22. - Roghi G., Ragazzi E., Gianolla P. (2006): Triassic amber of the Southern Alps (Italy). Palaios, 21, 2, 143-154.
- Koken E. (1913): Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Schichten von Heiligenkreuz (Abteital, Südtirol). Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt, 16, 4, 1-43. - Gianolla P., Roghi G., Ragazzi E. (1998): Upper Triassic amber in the Dolomites (Northern Italy). A paleoclimatic indicator? Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 104, 381-390. - Ragazzi E., Fedele P., Gianolla P., Roghi G. (2003): L’ambra triassica delle Dolomiti. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 27, 1, 21-22.
      • Cortina d’Ampezzo
- Roghi G., Ragazzi E., Fedele P. (2004): L’ambra Cretacea delle Dolomiti e delle Prealpi Giulie. Giornate di Paleontologia 2004, Bolzano, 21-23 Maggio, Abstracts Book, 52. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
      • Feltre
- Ragazzi E., Avanzini M., Dieni I., Roghi G., Stefani C. (2012): New amber findings in Northeastern Italy: suggestions for an integrated view on fossil resin raison d’être. In: Bianchi V., Gattolin G., Rigo M. (eds.): Note brevi e riassunti. X Congresso GEOSED “Associazione Italiana per la Geologia del sedimentario”, Feltre, 2-6 Luglio 2012. Rendiconti Online della Società Geologica Italiana, 20, 71-75. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
- Ragazzi E., Roghi G. (2003): Prima segnalazione di ambra nei sedimenti oligocenici di Salcedo (Vicenza) e di Sedico (Belluno). Studi e Ricerche, Associazione Amici del Museo Civico “G. Zannato”- Museo Civico “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore, 10, 19-22. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
    • Verona Province
      • Grezzana
- Neri M., Roghi G., Ragazzi E., Papazzoni C.A. (2013): Segnalazione di ambra giurassica a Bellori (VR), Calcari Grigi, Giurassico inferiore. Giornate di Paleontologia, Perugia 23-25 maggio 2013, Volume dei Riassunti, 51. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
      • Vestenanuova
- Trevisani E., Papazzoni C.A., Ragazzi E., Roghi G. (2005): Early Eocene amber from the “Pesciara di Bolca” (Lessini Mountains, Northern Italy). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 223, 3-4, 260-274. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
    • Vicenza Province
      • Monte di Malo
- Boscardin M., Violati Tescari O. (1996): Gemme del Vicentino. Comune di Montecchio Maggiore, Museo Civico “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore, 114 pp. - Trevisani E., Papazzoni C.A., Ragazzi E., Roghi G. (2005): Early Eocene amber from the “Pesciara di Bolca” (Lessini Mountains, Northern Italy). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 223, 3-4, 260-274. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
      • Salcedo
- Ragazzi E., Roghi G. (2003): Prima segnalazione di ambra nei sedimenti oligocenici di Salcedo (Vicenza) e di Sedico (Belluno). Studi e Ricerche, Associazione Amici del Museo Civico “G. Zannato”- Museo Civico “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore, 10, 19-22. - Trevisani E., Ragazzi E. (2013): L’ambra nelle Alpi Meridionali: stato delle conoscenze. Quaderni del Museo di Storia Naturale di Ferrara, 1, 25-32.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Sorachi Province
      • Mikasa City
        • Ponbetsu
Alfredo Petrov specimen
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto Region
      • Chiba Prefecture
Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo; Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
      • Ibaraki Prefecture
        • Kita-Ibaraki City
Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
      • Tokyo Metropolis
        • Hachioji City
Alfredo Petrov specimen
    • Kinki region
      • Hyogo Prefecture
        • Kobe city
          • Kita-ku
Ou'e Rikosya specimens
    • Tohoku Region
      • Iwate Prefecture
Kuji Amber Museum; American Museum of Natural History (New York); Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
Kuji Amber Museum; American Museum of Natural History (New York); Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
Jordan
 
  • Jerash
Dill, H. G., Kus, J., Abed, A. M., Sachsenhofer, R. F., & Abul Khair, H. (2009). Diagenetic and epigenetic alteration of Cretaceous to Paleogene organic-rich sedimentary successions in northwestern Jordan, typical of the western margin of the Arabian Plate. GeoArabia, 14(2), 101-140.
George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
Kazakhstan
 
  • Southern Kazakhstan Province (Ongtüstik Qazaqstan Oblysy; Yuzhno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
Soriano, C. (2009). First record of the family Belidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) in amber. New genus and species from the uppermost Albian amber of France. Geodiversitas, 31(1), 99-104.
Latvia
 
  • Kurzeme Region
Dreimanis A., Liepiņš P. 1942. Latvijas minerāli un ieži. Rīga, Universitātes apgāds, 312 lpp.
Lebanon
 
  • South governate
George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
George O. Poinar (1992) Life in Amber. (Stanford University Press)
Lithuania
 
  • Klaipėda County
    • Neringa municipality
      • Neringa
        • Curonian Spit
GEOCHRONOMETRIA 33 (2009), pp 33-36
GEOCHRONOMETRIA 33 (2009), pp 33-36
  • Telšiai County
    • Varniai
Ellen Chivers Davies (1937) A wayfarer in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Malaysia
 
  • Borneo
    • Sarawak
Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
Mexico
 
  • Chiapas
    • Mun. de San Cristobal de Las Casas
      • San Cristobal de Las Casas
Bryant, D. D. (1983). A recently discovered amber source near Totolapa, Chiapas, Mexico. American Antiquity, 354-357.
    • Mun. de Totolapa
Bryant, D. D. (1983). A recently discovered amber source near Totolapa, Chiapas, Mexico. American Antiquity, 354-357.
Myanmar
Szwedo, J. (2002). Amber and amber inclusions of planthoppers, leafhoppers and their relatives (Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha et Clypaeorrhyncha). Zikaden. Leafhoppers, planthoppers and cicadas (Insecta: Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Denisia, 4, 37-56.
  • Kachin State
    • Myitkyina District
Cruickshank, R. D., & Ko, K. (2003). Geology of an amber locality in the Hukawng Valley, northern Myanmar. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21(5), 441-455.
      • Tanai Township (Tanaing Township)
Cruickshank, R. D., & Ko, K. (2003). Geology of an amber locality in the Hukawng Valley, northern Myanmar. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21(5), 441-455.
        • Tanai
numerous well-labelled specimens on sale at Kyoto show, 2010
Netherlands
 
Gerard van der Veldt collection.
Peru
 
  • Amazonas Department
J. Hyrsl (2012) Gemstones of Peru, p. 33
Poland
 
  • Pomorskie
Flamini A., Graziani G., Grubessi O. (1974) - Inclusi di solfuro di ferro nelle ambre baltiche. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 331-338 [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Portugal
 
Rui Nunes collection
Rui Nunes
      • Estoril
rui nunes collection
Romania
 
  • Neamt Co.
    • Piatra
Heys Mineral Index 3rd ed.
  • Vâlcea Co.
Heys Mineral Index 3rd ed.
Russia
 
  • Central Region
    • Moscow Oblast' (Moskovskaya Oblast')
Pekin, A. (2011) Minerals of Moscow. Russian Journal of General Chemistry. Jun2011, Vol. 81 Issue 6, p1381-1391.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
      • Sakhalin Island
        • Dolinsky district
          • Starodubskoye
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • North-Western Region
    • Kaliningradskaya Oblast'
      • Yantarny (Jantarny; Palmnicken)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Princeton Museum Record ID 2359
Slovakia
 
  • Prešov Region
    • Poprad Co.
      • Tatranská Javorina
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
Spain
 
  • Aragón
    • Teruel
Penalver, E., Delclos, X., & Soriano, C. (2007). A new rich amber outcrop with palaeobiological inclusions in the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Cretaceous Research, 28(5), 791-802.
Penalver, E., Delclos, X., & Soriano, C. (2007). A new rich amber outcrop with palaeobiological inclusions in the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Cretaceous Research, 28(5), 791-802.
  • Cantabria
    • Reocín
Collect. José Rafael González López
  • Madrid
    • Soto del Real
http://www.foro-minerales.com/forum/viewtopic.php?p=133072#133072
  • Valencian Community
    • Alicante
      • Agost
Juan Miguel Casanova
      • Alicante Co.
        • Serreta Llarga
Casanova Honrubia, Juan Miguel & Canseco Caballé, Manuel, 2002, Minerales de la Comunidad Valenciana : 237 p. Ed. Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo. Alicante
Sweden
 
  • Skåne
    • Svedala
eg NRM 19010038
    • Vellinge
The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Bergskollegiums collection # 18572969, 18572970
Switzerland
 
  • Fribourg (Freiburg)
    • Oberschrot
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 491
Syria
Williamson, 1932. Book of Amber
Turkey
 
various photographs
UK
 
  • England
    • Dorset
Kirejtshuk, A. G., Merkl, O., & Kernegger, F. (2008). A new species of the genus Pentaphyllus Dejean, 1821 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Diaperinae) from the Baltic amber and checklist of the fossil Tenebrionidae. Zoosyst Ross, 17, 131-137.
    • Greater London
Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
    • Isle of Wight
      • Freshwater
Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
Ukraine
 
  • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
Natural History Museum Vienna collection
USA
 
  • Alabama
    • Greene Co.
Ransom, Jay Ellis (1974) Gems and Minerals of America pg.197
  • Alaska
    • Aleutians East Borough
Kunz, 1898. Gems & Precious Stones of N. America, p.202.
    • Matanuska-Susitna Borough
Dempsky, M. R. (2010, March). Amber Inclusions in the Paleocene/Eocene Chickaloon Formation, Matanuska Valley, Alaska. In Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, (Vol. 42, No. 1, p. 186).
    • Northwest Arctic Borough
      • Fairhaven District
Rocks & Min.: 20:481.
  • Arkansas
    • Hot Spring Co.
      • Perla
Rocks & Min.: 63:110.
  • California
    • Ventura Co.
      • Simi Valley
Murdoch, Joseph (1934), Amber in California: Journal of Geology: 42: 309-310; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 63.
  • Colorado
    • Teller Co.
      • Florissant Area
Kirejtshuk, A. G., Merkl, O., & Kernegger, F. (2008). A new species of the genus Pentaphyllus Dejean, 1821 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Diaperinae) from the Baltic amber and checklist of the fossil Tenebrionidae. Zoosyst Ross, 17, 131-137.
World of Amber
  • Kansas
www.emporia.edu/earthsci/amber/geograph.htm
C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry lost Mindat data).
  • Maryland
    • Anne Arundel Co.
      • Arnold
        • Magothy River
Kunz,1892. Gems & Precious Stones of N. America, p.199.; D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
  • Massachusetts
    • Dukes Co.
      • Martha's Vineyard
        • Aquinnah
Robinson, Samuel (1825): A Catalogue of American Minerals, with Their Localities, p.49.; D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
    • Nantucket Co.
Robinson, Samuel (1825): A Catalogue of American Minerals, with Their Localities, p. 62. ; D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
  • Mississippi
    • Tallahatchie Co.
Robert C. Beste, PG (2005) A Location Guide for Rock Hounds in the United States. 3rd ed. Hobbit Press, St. Louis. 149p.
    • Tishomingo Co.
Lowe, EN (1919) Mississippi its geology, geography, soils and resources. Mississippi State Geological Survey, Bulletin 14
  • New Jersey
    • Burlington Co.
      • Southampton Township
Kunz,1892. Gems & Precious Stones of N. America, p.200.
    • Camden Co.
D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
    • Gloucester Co.
      • South Harrison Township
        • Harrisonville
Kunz,1892. Gems & Precious Stones of N. America, p.201.
    • Mercer Co.
      • Hamilton Township
A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser(1978).; D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
    • Middlesex Co.
      • New Brunswick
The Minerals of NYC & Its Environs, NY Min. Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 68.
A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser(1978).
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 5, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 92.
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 5, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 92.
    • Monmouth Co.
      • Belmar (Belmar Borough)
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 5, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 91; A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser(1978).
    • Salem Co.
D. M. Schlegal (1959) Gem Stones of the United States. USGS Bulletin 1042G
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 84.
    • New York City
      • Staten Island (Richmond Co.)
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 59.; Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483
  • North Carolina
    • Beaufort Co.
      • North Carolina Phosphate District
        • Aurora
Sinkankas, J. (1976) Gemstones of North America, Vol. 2, p 351.
World of Amber
Genth, F.A.,1891,The Minerals Of North Carolina:USGS Bulletion No.74
World of Amber
  • Rhode Island
    • Washington Co.
      • New Shoreham
        • Block Island
  • South Carolina
    • Charleston Co.
  • Tennessee
    • Hardin Co.
Zeitner ,1968. Appalachian Mineral & Gem Trails
  • Texas
    • Brewster Co.
      • Alpine
http://www.omsinc.org/archives/Ore-cutts_Jan04.pdf
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
    • Maverick Co.
BEG Rept Invest 42
  • Washington
    • Chelan Co.
      • Wenatchee District
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.40
    • King Co.
      • Issaquah
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.41; Mustoe, G. E. (1985). Eocene amber from the Pacific coast of North America. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 96(12), 1530-1536
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:383
    • Carbon Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:384
    • Teton Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:390
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