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Named in 1877 by Gideon Emmet Moore from the Greek έταίρος, "companion", in allusion to the original association with chalcophanite at the type locality.
See also the poorly characterised hydrohetaerolite.

Often associated with chalcophanite.

Classification of Hetaerolite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations

2 : AB2X4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
5 : Oxides of Zn, Cd and Hg

Physical Properties of Hetaerolite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Dark brown
Hardness (Mohs):
5.18 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.23 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Hetaerolite

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.340 nε = 2.140
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.200
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of Hetaerolite

IMA Formula:
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Hetaerolite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.72 Å, c = 9.24 Å
a:c = 1 : 1.615
Unit Cell Volume:
V 302.32 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
3.040 (80)
2.707 (90)
2.855 (50)
2.462 (100)
2.019 (40)
1.5634 (50)
1.5209 (70)

Type Occurrence of Hetaerolite

Relationship of Hetaerolite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2O
7.5.8ChalcophaniteZnMn34+O7 · 3H2O
7.5.9WoodruffiteZn2Mn54+O12 · 4H2O

Other Names for Hetaerolite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hetaerolite

Reference List:
Moore (1877), American Journal of Science: 14: 423.

Palache, C. (1935), The Mineals of Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey, USGS Professional Paper 180: 48.

Frondel and Heinrich (1942), American Mineralogist: 27: 48.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 715-718.

American Mineralogist (1973): 58: 1067.

Internet Links for Hetaerolite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.
The following Hetaerolite specimens are currently listed for sale on

Localities for Hetaerolite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob (Steve Sorrell) and refs therein
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Station)
          • Mount Fitton homestead
Australian Mineralogist (5), 5-8. (1990)
      • South Flinders Ranges
        • Bunkers Range
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Waratah district
        • Magnet
Peter Elliot pers comm
  • Liège Province
    • Verviers
      • Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district
        • Plombières (Blieberg; Bleiberg; Bleyberg)
Dobrev, S., Vassileva, M., & Kolkovski, B. (2004). Hetaerolite from Madjarovo Au-base-metal deposit, Eastern Rhodopes. In Annual Scientific Conference of the Bulgarian Geological Society “Geology 2004 (pp. 16-17).
  • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
    • Rhodope Mts
Dobrev, S., Vassileva, M., & Kolkovski, B. (2004). Hetaerolite from Madjarovo Au-base-metal deposit, Eastern Rhodopes. In Annual Scientific Conference of the Bulgarian Geological Society “Geology 2004 (pp. 16-17).
  • Smolyan Oblast
    • Rhodope Mts
      • Madan ore field
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Annual Report No. 13, 43-45.
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Sierra Gorda District
        • Caracoles
samples analysed by Gerhard Mohn and Joy Desor
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Eifel
      • Mechernich
Blass, G., Graf , HW., (1994): Neufunde von Bekannten Fundorten (IX), MW 1/1994
    • Siegerland
      • Müsen
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
No reference listed
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German); Fritz Schreiber collection (SXRD-analysed by Uwe Kolitsch)
        • Sounion Area
          • Agia Varvara Mines (St Barbara Mines)
Lapis, 24, 7/8, (1999)
  • Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province)
    • Nain County (Nayin County)
      • Anarak District
Bariand, P. 1963. Contribution à la minéralogie de l’lran. Bulletin de la Société Française de minéralogie et de cristallographie, 86: 17-64. [Locality description in brief and mineralogical list with photographs] Bariand, P. 2003. Un apercu général sur la Minéralogie de I'Iran. Le Règne Minéral, 54: 41-51.
  • Yazd Province
    • Bafq (Bafgh)
Reicher, J., Borg, G., and Rashid, B. (2003): Iranian Journal of Crystallography and Mineralogy 11(2), 209-217
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Domusnovas
        • Oridda
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    • Sassari Province
      • Alghero
        • Calabona area
Fiori, S., Gorga, R., (1995), Hetaerolite e calcofanite di Monte Argentiera nella zona mineraria di Calabona - Vessus (Sardegna nordoccidentale), Il Cercapietre, notiziario del Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, N°22, pp.17- 21.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Monte Argentario
Biagioni C., Cerri M., Bernocchi M., Betti C., Del Chiaro L., Mangoni G., Bazzoni C. (2016): Monte Argentario. I minerali del giacimento ferro-manganesifero. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 40, 1 (1-2016), 8-20.
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Cerri, M., Pistolesi, M., Rapaccini, S. & Santucci, A. (2013). Temperino e Lanzi. Le paragenesi secondarie dello skarn. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2013, 40-55.
  • Hokkaido
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated by the Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
      • Santa Eulalia District
        • East Camp
Megaw, P.K.M., 1990b, Geology and geochemistry of the Santa Eulalia mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico.: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, 549 p
  • Guerrero
    • Mun. de Taxco
      • Taxco de Alarcón (Taxco; Tasco)
Yta, M., Mundo, N. F., Gutiérrez, C. D., Tovar, R. M., Almazán, A. D., & Mendoza, O. T. (2005). Mineralogy and geochemistry of sulfide-bearing tailings from silver mines in the Taxco, Mexico area to evaluate their potential environmental impact. Geofísica internacional, 44(1), 49-64.
  • Erongo Region
    • Swakopmund District
      • Arandis
        • Rössing Mountains Area
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 336 pp. (in English)
  • Karas Region
    • Lüderitz District
      • Rosh Pinah
Borg, G., Karner, K., Buxton, M., Armstrong, R., Schalk van der Merwe, W. (2003): Geology of the Skorpion supergene zinc deposit, southern Namibia. Economic Geology, 98, 749-771.; Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 396 pp. (in English)
  • Oppland
    • Lunner
      • Grua
        • Grua Mining District
Folvik, H. O. (2008): Nytt om mineraler. Tre nye mineraler fra Skjerpemyr, Grua. STEIN 35 (1): 16
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
South Africa
  • North West Province
    • Ngaka Modiri Molema District
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, pg 214; Econ Geol (1990) 85:1172-1185
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Cuevas del Almanzora (Cuevas de Vera)
        • Sierra Almagrera
Calvo, M. (2009): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Martigny
MEISSER, N. et PERSEIL, E.A. (1993): Présence de woodruffite, (Zn, Mn+2)Mn3+4O7 . 1-2 H2O, d'hetaerolite, ZnMn2O4, et d'hydrohetaerolite, HZnMn2-xO4, dans un skarn du Mont Chemin (Valais, Suisse). Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 73, 11-19.
Meisser, N. & Perseil, E. A. (1993): Occurrence of woodruffite, (Zn,Mn+2)Mn3+4O7.1-2H2O, hetaerolite, ZnMn2O4, and hydrohetaerolite, HZnMn2-xO4, of supergene origin in a skarn of Mount Chemin (Valais, Switzerland). Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 73, 11-19. ; Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 213.
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Lizard Peninsula
        • Grade-Ruan
          • Kennack
            • Kennack Cove (Kennack Sands)
Bevins, R.E., Symes, R.F., Hor´ak, J.M., and Holyer, V. (1987): Mineralogical Magazine 51, 172–173
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
[Mineralogical Record Vol 12 No.5 pp307]
            • Calumet and Arizona group of claims (Calumet and Arizona Mining Company group of claims)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 249; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 39.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 249; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 39.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 249, 274.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 249; Wilson, W.E. (1987b), What's new in minerals? The 79 Mine aurichalcite story, Min.Rec.: 18: 299-301.
      • Tombstone Hills
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 39.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 249; Butler, B.S., et al (1938b), Geology and ore deposits of the Tombstone district, AZ, AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 143; Rasor, C.A. (1939), Manganese mineralization at Tombstone, AZ, Econ.Geol.: 34: 790-803; Hewett, D.F. & M. Fleischer (1960), Deposits of the manganese oxides, Econ.Geol.: 55: 1-55.
    • Gila Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mts
        • Banner District
          • Hayden area
            • Chilito
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 249; Keith, S.B. (1972), Mineralogy and paragenesis of the 79 mine lead-zinc-copper deposit, Min.Rec.: 3: 247-264.
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Painted Rock Mts
        • Painted Rock District
          • Theba
Bruce Murphy Collection
    • Pinal Co.
      • Pinal Mts
        • Pioneer District
          • Superior
Anthony, J. W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 250, 339; Dean, et al (1952), Concentration of oxide manganese ores from vicinity of Winkleman, Pinal Co., AZ, US Bur Mines Rept. Inv. 4848.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Bradshaw Mts (Bradshaw Range)
        • Peck District
Brian Beck Collected, Attard Minerals XRF and Microprobe
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
        • Malpais Mesa
Kampf, A. R., Mills, S. J., & Nash, B. P. (2016). PREPUBLICATION: Pauladamsite, Cu4 (SeO3)(SO4)(OH) 4· 2H2O, a new mineral from the Santa Rosa mine, Darwin district, California, USA. Mineralogical Magazine.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Barstow District
        • Barstow
          • Lead Mountain [2]
Dr Robert Housley using SEM-EDS
      • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
        • Clark Mountain District (Clark District)
          • Mohawk Hill
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 168; Mineralien Welt 1/93: 44.
      • San Bernardino Mts
        • Bear Valley District
          • Fawnskin (Grout)
Leavens & Patton: Axis 4 (1)13p (2008)
  • Colorado
    • Lake Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Michigan
    • Iron Co.
Shawn Carlson (2010) Mineral News, 26, #11, 1-2 & 9-10.
  • Montana
    • Granite Co.
      • Philipsburg District (Flint Creek District)
Geology and Ore Deposits of the Philipsburg District, Granite Co., Montana; William C. Prinz, 1967
        • Durango & Moorlight Group (Durango & Moonlight Group)
Geology and Ore Deposits of the Philipsburg District, Granite Co., Montana; William C. Prinz, 1967
        • Scratch Awl Mine (Scratch All Mine; Silver Prince; Cliff; Salmon; Blackmail Mine)
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
Geology and Ore Deposits of the Philipsburg District, Granite Co., Montana; William C. Prinz, 1967
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Candelaria District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
      • Muncy Creek District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Palache(1935):49; Dunn(1995):Pt4:598-599.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Frondel, C. & Heinrich, E.W.: Am.Min.:27:48-56 (1942); Frondel, C. & Klein, C., Jr.: Am.Min.:50:1670-1680 (1965); Dunn(1995):Pt4:598-599.
C. Lemanski, Jr.
  • New Mexico
    • Doña Ana Co.
      • Organ Mts
        • Organ District
Don & Cookie Saathoff
    • Eddy Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Santa Fe Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
Min Rec 20:1 p63
    • Socorro Co.
M Massis collection
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Utah
    • Utah Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
        • East Tintic District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROFESSIONAL PAPER 1024,
  • Al Jawf Governorate
Santoro, L. (2015). The Jabali, Hakkari and Reef Ridge nonsulfide Zn (Pb) deposits: an evaluation by QEMSCAN® technology, and comparison to other analytical methods. PhD thesis, Università Degli Studi Di Napoli “Federico II”
  • Mashonaland West
    • Kadoma District
Vetter, U., Weck, H.-D., Weale, T., Klosa, D., Wittich, C. and Hoffmann, K. (1999): A provisional inventory of the Sanyati oxide-zone minerals, Zimbabwe. Z. Angew. Geol. 45, 15-21.
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