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Thorstein H. Hiortdahl
Yellow, yellowish-brown, green
5 - 5½
Specific Gravity:
3.25 - 3.31
Crystal System:
Named by W.C. Brögger in 1890 in honor of Thorstein Hallager Hiortdahl (4 MaY 1839, Bergen, Norway - 29 October 1925, Oslo, Norway), chemist, mineralogist, crystallographer, and politician.
Wöhlerite Group.

Hiortdahlite (approved) has been split in 1985 into two species - Hiortdahlite I (not approved as such) and Hiortdahlite II (never submitted to IMA). They are crystallographically close, both belonging to the Wöhlerite Group (Cuspidine Group).

The original hiortdahlite material is from Lille Arøya (Midtre Arøy; Øvre Arøy; Övre-Arö), Langesundsfjorden, Larvik, Vestfold, Norway.

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Classification of HiortdahliteHide

Renamed by the IMA
First Published:
Approval History:
Renamed by IMA: 1985
Approved special procedure IMA 1987

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
E : Si2O7 groups, with additional anions; cations in octahedral [6] and greater coordination

56 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
2 : Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
1 : Silicates with fluoride (not containing Al)

Physical Properties of HiortdahliteHide

Vitreous on crystal faces, greasy on fractures
Yellow, yellowish-brown, green
5 - 5½ on Mohs scale
Very brittle
Distinct on {110) and {1-10)
3.25 - 3.31 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.21-3.24 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HiortdahliteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.639 - 1.658 nβ = 1.643 - 1.664 nγ = 1.646 - 1.671
Measured: 80° , Calculated: 80° to 86°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.007 - 0.013
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v strong
X = nearly colorless, Y = bright yellow, Z = wine-yellow

Chemical Properties of HiortdahliteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of HiortdahliteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.95 Å, b = 10.31 Å, c = 7.29 Å
α = 90.32°, β = 109.03°, γ = 95.08°
a:b:c = 1.062 : 1 : 0.707
Unit Cell V:
774.45 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Polysynthetic twinning on {010} and {100}

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
3.28 (45)
3.00 (90)
2.87 (100)
2.03 (25)
1.84 (30)
1.80 (25)
1.70 (40)

Other Language Names for HiortdahliteHide

Relationship of Hiortdahlite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
Janhaugite(Na,Ca)3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(Ti,Zr,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
Låvenite(Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
MarianoiteNa2Ca4(Nb,Zr)2(Si2O7)2(O,F)4Mon. 2 : P21
NormanditeNaCa(Mn,Fe)(Ti,Nb,Zr)(Si2O7)OFMon. 2/m : P21/b
WöhleriteNaCa2(Zr,Nb)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2 : P21

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Thorianite2 photos of Hiortdahlite associated with Thorianite on
Fluorapatite1 photo of Hiortdahlite associated with Fluorapatite on
Aegirine1 photo of Hiortdahlite associated with Aegirine on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.BE.05HennomartiniteSrMn3+2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
9.BE.05LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
9.BE.05NoelbensoniteBaMn3+2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
9.BE.05ItoigawaiteSrAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
9.BE.07IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.BE.07ManganilvaiteCaFe2+Fe3+Mn2+(Si2O7)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.10SuoluniteCa2(H2Si2O7) · H2OOrth.
9.BE.12JaffeiteCa6(Si2O7)(OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
9.BE.17CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.17Janhaugite(Na,Ca)3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(Ti,Zr,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.BE.17Låvenite(Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.17NormanditeNaCa(Mn,Fe)(Ti,Nb,Zr)(Si2O7)OFMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.17WöhleriteNaCa2(Zr,Nb)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2 : P21
9.BE.17Hiortdahlite INa4Ca8Zr2(Nb,Mn,Ti,Fe,Mg,Al)2(Si2O7)4O3F5
9.BE.17MarianoiteNa2Ca4(Nb,Zr)2(Si2O7)2(O,F)4Mon. 2 : P21
9.BE.20Mosandrite-(Ce)(Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.20Nacareniobsite-(Ce)NbNa3Ca3(Ce,REE )(Si2O7)2OF3Mon.
9.BE.22GötzeniteNaCa6Ti(Si2O7)2OF3Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.22Hainite-(Y)Na2Ca4(Y,REE)Ti(Si2O7)2OF3Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.22RosenbuschiteNa6Ca6Zr3Ti(Si2O7)4O2F6Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.22KochiteNa3Ca2MnZrTi(Si2O7)2OF3Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.23DovyreniteCa6Zr(Si2O7)2(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.BE.25EricssoniteBaMn2+2Fe3+(Si2O7)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.25NabalamprophylliteNa3(Ba,Na)2Ti3(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m
9.BE.25GrenmariteNa4MnZr3(Si2O7)2O2F2Mon. 2/m : P2/b
9.BE.25SchülleriteBa2Na(Mn,Ca)(Fe3+,Mg,Fe2+)2Ti2(Si2O7)2(O,F)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.25LileyiteBa2(Na,Fe,Ca)3MgTi2(Si2O7)2O2F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.27MurmaniteNa2Ti2(Si2O7)O2 · 2H2OTric.
9.BE.30EpistoliteNa2(Nb,Ti)2(Si2O7)O2 · nH2OTric.
9.BE.37SoboleviteNa13Ca2Mn2Ti3(Si2O7)2(PO4)4O3F3Mon. m : Pb
9.BE.40InneliteNa2CaBa4Ti3(Si2O7)2(SO4)2O4Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.42YoshimuraiteBa2Mn2Ti(Si2O7)(PO4)O(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.47PolyphiteNa5(Na4Ca2)Ti2(Si2O7)(PO4)3O2F2Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.50BornemaniteNa6BaTi2Nb(Si2O7)2(PO4)O2(OH)F Tric. 1 : P1
9.BE.50ShkatulkaliteNa10Mn2+Ti3Nb3(Si2O7)6(OH)2F · 12H2OMon.
9.BE.55HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2Tric. 1
9.BE.55Bykovaite(Ba,Na,K)2(Na,Ti,Mn)4(Ti,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(H2O,F,OH)2 · 3.5H2OMon. 2/m
9.BE.55Nechelyustovite(Ba,Sr,K)2(Na,Ti,Mn)4(Ti,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(O,H2O,F)2 · 4.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.60Delindeite(Na,K)2(Ba,Ca)2(Ti,Fe,Al)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 · 2H2OMon.
9.BE.65BusseniteNa2Ba2Fe2+Ti(Si2O7)(CO3)(OH)3FTric. 1 : P1
9.BE.67JinshajiangiteBaNaFe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2FMon. 2/m
9.BE.67PerraultiteBaNaMn2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2FMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.70Karnasurtite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Th)(Ti,Nb)(Al,Fe)(Si2O7)(OH)4 · 3H2O
9.BE.70Polyakovite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)4(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr3+,Fe3+)2(Ti,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.70RengeiteSr4ZrTi4(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.70MatsubaraiteSr4Ti5(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.70Dingdaohengite-(Ce)(Ce,La)4Fe2+(Ti,Fe2+,Mg,Fe2+)2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.70Maoniupingite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,◻)(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Nb)4(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.70Perrierite-(La)(La,Ce,Ca)4(Fe,Mn2+,Mg)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.70UKI-2008-(SiO:SrTiZr)Sr4ZrTi4(Si2O7)2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.BE.70Hezuolinite(Sr,REE)4Zr(Ti,Fe3+)4(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.BE.80KentrolitePb2Mn3+2(Si2O7)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
9.BE.87Stavelotite-(La)(La,Nd,Ca)3Mn2+3Cu(Mn3+,Fe3+,Mn4+)26(Si2O7)6O30Trig. 3 : P31
9.BE.90Biraite-(Ce)Ce2Fe2+(Si2O7)(CO3)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.BE.92Cervandonite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La)(Fe3+,Fe2+,Ti,Al)3O2(Si2O7)(As3+O3)(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.BE.95BatisiviteBaV3+8Ti6(Si2O7)O22Tric. 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Ti)(Si2O7)O2Mon.,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/båvenite(Na,Ca)2(Mn2+,Fe2+)(Zr,Ti)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/böhleriteNaCa2(Zr,Nb)(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2 : P21,Nb)4(Si2O7)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 1 : P1,REE)Ti(Si2O7)2OF3Tric. 1 : P1,Ca)3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(Ti,Zr,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m · 8H2OTric.,Mn)Nb2[O3|Si2O7] · 3.5H2OOrth.,Ca,H)2Nb2Si2O10(OH,F)2 · H2OOrth. · H2OOrth. · nH2OTet.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.1.4Fluorapophyllite-(Na)NaCa4(Si8O20)F · 8H2OOrth.
17.1.5Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mnc
17.1.6Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2OTet.
17.1.8LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6FOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
17.1.9NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.1.10Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.11Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.1.12ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.14Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
17.1.15CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.16BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2OTric.
17.1.17ZeophylliteCa13Si10O28(OH)2F8 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
17.1.18Rowlandite-(Y)(Y,Ce)4Fe2+(Si2O7)2F2 (?)Tric.
17.1.21Mosandrite-(Ce)(Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.25Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O
17.1.27JinshajiangiteBaNaFe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2FMon. 2/m
17.1.28RosenbuschiteNa6Ca6Zr3Ti(Si2O7)4O2F6Tric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HiortdahliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brögger, W.C. (1890) Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der Südnorwegischen Augit- und Nephelinsyenite. 44. Hiortdahlit. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie: 16: 367-377.
Brøgger, W.C. (1890) Vorläufige Mittheilung über den „Hiortdahlit”, ein neues Mineral von Arö, Norwegen. Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskabena: 31: 232-239.
Aarden, H.M., Gittins, J. (1974) Hiortdahlite from Kipawa River, Villedieu Township Temiscaming County, Québec, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist: 12: 241-247.
Eggleton, R.A., Halford, G.E., Beams, S.D. (1979) Hiortdahlite from Jingera, New South Wales, Journal of the Geological Society of Australia: 26: 81-85.
Merlino, S., Perchiazzi, N. (1985) The crystal structure of hiortdahlite I. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 34: 297-310.
Merlino, S., Perchiazzi, N. (1987) The crystal structure of hiortdahlite II. Mineralogy and Petrology: 37: 25-35.
Merlino, S., Perchiazzi, N. (1988) Modular mineralogy of the cuspidine group of minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist: 26: 933-943.
Bellezza, M., Merlino, S., Perchiazzi, N. (2012) Distinct domains in "guarinite" from Monte Somma, Italy: Crystal structures and crystal chemistry. The Canadian Mineralogist: 50: 531-548.
Biagioni, C., Merlino, S., Parodi, G.C., Perchiazzi, N. (2012) Crystal chemistry of minerals of the wöhlerite group from the Los Archipelago, Guinea. The Canadian Mineralogist: 50: 593-609.

Internet Links for HiortdahliteHide

Localities for HiortdahliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Rio de Janeiro
    • Itatiaia
elluso, L., Guarino, V., Lustrino, M., Morra, V., De' Gennaro, R. (2016): The REE- and HFSE-bearing phases in the Itatiaia Alkaline Complex (Brazil), and geochemical evolution of feldspar-rich felsic melts. Mineralogical Magazine: 80: (in press); (2016); elluso, L., Guarino, V., Lustrino, M., Morra, V., De' Gennaro, R. (2016): The REE- and HFSE-bearing phases in the Itatiaia Alkaline Complex (Brazil), and geochemical evolution of feldspar-rich felsic melts. Mineralogical Magazine: 80: (in press); (2016); elluso, L., Guarino, V., Lustrino, M., Morra, V., De' Gennaro, R. (2016): The REE- and HFSE-bearing phases in the Itatiaia Alkaline Complex (Brazil), and geochemical evolution of feldspar-rich felsic melts. Mineralogical Magazine: 80: (in press); (2016)
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Témiscamingue RCM
        • Les Lacs-du-Témiscamingue
Aarden, H. M., & Gittins, J., 1974. Hiortdahlite from Kipawa river, Villedieu township, Temiscaming County, Québec, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 12: 241-247. ; Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 34, pp.435-451 (1996)
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
HORVÁTH, L. & PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2000) I minerali di Mont-Saint-Hilaire (Québec, Canada) Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, XXIV, 140-202 (in Italian with English summary).
  • Québec & Newfoundland and Labrador
Miller (1996), Canadian Mineralogist: 34:349-371; Salvi & Williams-Jones (1995); Am.Min.: 80:1031-1040; Miller (1990), Newfoundland Dept. of Mines & Energy Geol. Sur. Report 90-1: 171-182.; BIRKETT, T.C., MILLER, R.R., ROBERTS, A.C., & MARIANO, A.N. (1992) Zirconium bearing minerals from the Strange Lake intrusive complex, Quebec Labrador. Canadian Mineralogist, 30, 191-205.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Laach lake volcanic complex
        • Kruft
Hentschel, G., Neue Mineralfunde aus quartären Vulkanvorkommen der Eifel, Mainzer Geowis. Mitt. 15, 215-218, 1986
        • Mendig
          • Niedermendig
Hentschel, G., Neue Mineralfunde aus quartären Vulkanvorkommen der Eifel, Mainzer Geowis. Mitt. 15, 215-218, 1986
Hentschel, G., Neue Mineralfunde aus quartären Vulkanvorkommen der Eifel, Mainzer Geowis. Mitt. 15, 215-218, 1986
            • Wingertsberg
Hentschel, G., Neue Mineralfunde aus quartären Vulkanvorkommen der Eifel, Mainzer Geowis. Mitt. 15, 215-218, 1986
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
  • Qeqqata
    • Kangerlussuaq Fjord (Søndre Strømfjord)
      • Amdrup Firth
Perchiazzi, N. et al. ( 2000): The crystal structure of Normandite and its crystal-chemical relationship with Lavenite, Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 38, 641 - 648
Lacroix, A. (1924). Nouvelles observations sur les syénites néphéliniques des Iles de Los (Guinée). C. r. hedb. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris, 178, 1109-1114. ; Biagioni, C., Merlino, S., Parodi, G. C., & Perchiazzi, N. (2012). Crystal Chemistry of Minerals of the Wöhlerite Group from the Los Archipelago, Guinea. The Canadian Mineralogist, 50(3), 593-609.
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
[Lapis 1994:5 p.13-23,58]
          • Ercolano
            • San Vito
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
    • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
      • Naples Province
Melluso, L., Morra, V., Guarino, V., de’Gennaro, R., Franciosi, L., & Grifa, C. (2014). The crystallization of shoshonitic to peralkaline trachyphonolitic magmas in a H 2 O–Cl–F-rich environment at Ischia (Italy), with implications for the feeder system of the Campania Plain volcanoes. Lithos, 210, 242-259
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
        • Biancavilla
Di Franco, S. (1942): Mineralogia Etnea. Atti dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, Serie IV, 5, 175 pp.
  • Umbria
    • Terni Province
      • San Venanzo
V. V. Sharygin et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 1199-1212.
  • Béni Mellal-Khénifra Region
    • Khénifra Province
      • Tamazeght Mountain Range
Robles, E., Fontan, F., Monchoux, P., Soerensen, H. (2001): Hiortdahlite II from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, South Greenland, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin, 190, 131-137
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Langesundsfjorden
        • Arøyskjærene (Arøy skerries)
Andersen, T., Erambert, M., Larsen, A. O., & Selbekk, R. S. (2010). Petrology of nepheline syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Rift, Norway: zirconium silicate mineral assemblages as indicators of alkalinity and volatile fugacity in mildly agpaitic magma. Journal of Petrology, 51(11), 2303-2325.
        • Barkevik area
Peter Andresen collection.
Andersen, T., Erambert, M., Larsen, A. O. and Selbekk, R. S. (2010): Petrology of nepheline syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Rift, Norway: Zirconium silicate mineral assemblages as indicators of alkalinity and volatile fugacity in mildly agpaitic magma. J. Petrology 51, 2303-2325.
      • Tvedalen
Peter Andresen collection.
        • Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry)
Peter Andresen collection.
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Tuva Republic
      • Sangilen Upland
Kapustin, Y. L., & Bykova, A. V. (1965). First find of hiortdahlite in the USSR. Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR, 161, 121-124.
  • Småland
    • Jönköping
      • Gränna
Adamson, O. J. (1944): The Petrology of the Norra Kärr District. An occurrence of alkaline Rocks in Southern Sweden. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 66: 112-255; Thulin, H. (1996): Norra Kärr. Litiofilen 13: 17-51
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