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Howlite

This page kindly sponsored by Ronnie Van Dommelen
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About HowliteHide

01786800014946270393655.jpg
Henry How
Formula:
Ca2B5SiO9(OH)5
Colour:
White, colorless, brown
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous
Hardness:
3½ - 6½
Specific Gravity:
2.53 - 2.59
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
First described as silicoborocalcite by Henry How (11 July 1828, London, England - 28 September 1879, Windsor, Nova Scotia) chemist, geologist, and mineralogist. Professor of Natural History and Chemistry at King's College, Windsor, Nova Scotia, Canada. Renamed shortly afterwards to howlite by James Dwight Dana.
Usually compact earthy masses and very rarely in crystals. The earthy material gives a "hardness" of 3.5 but this is just the hardness of separating the grains. The crystals give a hardness of 6.5 (see: http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-226293.html)

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Howlite.


Classification of HowliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1868
6.CB.20

6 : BORATES
C : Triborates
B : Ino-triborates
25.3.5.1

25 : ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
3 : Triborates
17.5.12

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates

Pronounciation of HowliteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of HowliteHide

Sub-Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
White, colorless, brown
Streak:
White
Hardness:
3½ - 6½ on Mohs scale
Comment:
crystals 6.5; massive 3.5
Comment:
Even and smooth in porcelaneous types.
Density:
2.53 - 2.59 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.61 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HowliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.583 - 1.586 nβ = 1.596 - 1.598 nγ = 1.600
2V:
Measured: 60° to 90°, Calculated: 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.017
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of HowliteHide

Formula:
Ca2B5SiO9(OH)5
IMA Formula:
Ca2SiB5O9(OH)5
Common Impurities:
Na,K

Crystallography of HowliteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.82 Å, b = 9.351(1) Å, c = 8.608(2) Å
β = 104.84(2)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.371 : 1 : 0.921
Unit Cell V:
997.51 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Flattened prismatic with pointed terminations. Elongated on [010] or [001].

Compact nodular masses, internally dense and structureless. Chalk-like, earthy, scaly, slaty structured.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000202HowliteFinney J J, Kumbasar I, Konnert J A, Clark J R (1970) Crystal structure of the calcium silicoborate, howlite American Mineralogist 55 716-72819700293
0001197HowliteGriffen D T (1988) Howlite, Ca2SiB5O9(OH)5: Structure refinement and hydrogen bonding American Mineralogist 73 1138-114419880293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
In borate deposits. The common associates include those at Piskanya deposit (studenitsite is not a common species)

Type Occurrence of HowliteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Nodules embedded in anhydrite or gypsum.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Gypsum and anhydrite deposit.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of HowliteHide

Other Language Names for HowliteHide

Common AssociatesHide

ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
StudenitsiteNaCa2[B9O14(OH)4] · 2H2O
UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
VeatchiteSr2B11O16(OH)5 · H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
5 photos of Howlite associated with AnhydriteCaSO4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

6.CB.10ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
6.CB.15HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2OMon.
6.CB.25JarandoliteCa[B3O4(OH)3]Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.5.1ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8Orth.
17.5.2ReedmergneriteNaBSi3O8Tric.
17.5.3SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
17.5.4OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.6KalborsiteK6Al4BSi6O20(OH)4ClTet.
17.5.7BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.10DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2OOrth.
17.5.15KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.5.17SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5Trig. 3 : P31
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)Ca4Ce3+2Ti◻(B4Si4O22)(OH)2Mon.
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)Hex.
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2Trig. 3 : P3
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
17.5.27DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.28 FerridraviteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OHTric.
17.5.30Fluor-uvite-Uvite Series
17.5.31GarrelsiteBa3NaSi2B7O16(OH)4Mon.
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11Hex. 6/m : P6/m
17.5.33LeucospheniteBaNa4Ti2B2Si10O30Mon.
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.35TitantaramelliteBa4(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth.
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.38WawayandaiteCa6Mn2BBe9Si6O23(OH,Cl)15Mon.
17.5.39Werdingite(Mg,Fe)2Al14Si4B4O37Tric.
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.41AxiniteTric.
17.5.42TinzeniteCa2Mn2+4Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2Tric.
17.5.44SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OHTric. 1 : P1
17.5.48HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Ba,Pb,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al◻2(B4Si4O22) (OH)2Mon.

Other InformationHide

IR Spectrum:
Piskanya material [cm-1]: 3460, 3492, 3404, 3212, 1455, 1435, 1410, 1379w, 1359, 1324, 1223, 1163, 1136, 1104, 1055sh, 1014s, 959s, 915s, 906s, 875, 831s, 761, 775, 750w, 707w, 682, 617, 595, 563w, 551w, 527, 511w, 466, 451
Notes:
Readily soluble in dilute acids. Gelatinous silica results from the reaction upon evaporation.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HowliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
How, H. (1868) Contributions to the mineralogy of Nova Scotia. III. Borates and other minerals in anhydrite and gypsum. Silicoborocalcite, a new mineral. Philosophical Magazine: 35, (4th Ser.), 32-41, 218.
Dana, J.D., Brush, G.J. (1868) 601. Howlite. in A System of Mineralogy (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y. (598).
How, H. (1871) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 41: 270. (as Winkworthite).
Penfield, S.L., Sperry, E.S. (1887) On the chemical composition of howlite, with a note on the Gooch method for the determination of boracic acid. American Journal of Science: 134: 220-223.
Giles, W.B. (1903) Bakerite (a new borosilicate of calcium) and howlite from California. Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 353.
Eakle, A.S. (1911) Neocolemanite, a variety of colemanite, and howlite from Lang, Los Angeles County, California. University of California Geology Department, Bulletin 6: 179.
Murdoch, J. (1957) Crystallography and X-ray measurements of howlite from California: American Mineralogist: 42: 521-524.
Finney, J.J., Kumbasar, I., Konnert, J.A., Clark, J.R. (1970) Crystal structure of the calcium silicoborate, howlite. American Mineralogist: 55: 716-728.
Griffen, D.T. (1988) Howlite, Ca2SiB5O9(OH)5: structure refinement and hydrogen bonding. American Mineralogist: 73: 1138-1144.
Papezik, V.S., Fong, C.C.K. (1975) Howlite and ulexite from the Carboniferous gypsum and anhydrite beds in western Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 370-376.
Papezik, V.S., Fong, C.C.K (1976) Howlite and ulexite from carboniferous gypsum and anhydrite beds in western Newfoundland — addendum. Canadian Mineralogist: 14: 393-393.
Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).
Joyce, D.K. Gait, R.I., Sturman, B.D. (1993) Howlite from Iona, Nova Scotia Short paper presented at the Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Rochester, New York, 1993.
Ramik, R.A. (2005) Lost and Found: one of Canada's earliest type mineral localities. The 32nd Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Program and abstracts, Rochester, New York, April 14-17, 2005.
Grice, J.D., Gault, R.A., Van Velthuizen, J. (2005) Borate minerals of the Penobsquis and Millstream deposits, southern New Brunswick, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1469-1487.
Chukanov, N.V. (2014) Infrared spectra of mineral species: Extended library. Springer (Springer Geochemistry/Mineralogy), vol. 1, Dordrecht, 1726 pp.
How H (1868) II. Contributions to the mineralogy of Nova Scotia. III. Borates and other minerals in anhydrite and gypsum. Silicoborocalcite, a new mineral. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 35, 32-41

Internet Links for HowliteHide

Localities for HowliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí
    • Nor Lípez Province
Bentz, J. (2017). Analysis of Clay Minerals in the Mudflats of Sulfate-Rich Saline Lakes (Doctoral dissertation Queens University Canada).
Canada
 
  • New Brunswick
    • Kings Co.
      • Cardwell Parish
        • Penobsquis
Roulston, B.V., Waugh, D.C.E. (1981) A borate mineral assemblage from Penobsquis and Salt Springs evaporite deposits of southern New Brunswick. The Canadian Mineralogist: 19: 291-301.
      • Hammond Parish
        • Salt Springs evaporite deposit
BURNS, P.C., HAWTHORNE, F.C. & STIRLING, J.A.R. (1992): Trembathite, (Mg,Fe)3B7O13Cl, a new borate mineral from the Salt Springs potash deposit, Sussex, New Brunswick. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 445-448.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
Papezik, V.S., Fong, C.C.K. (1975) Howlite and Ulexite from the Carboniferous Gypsum and Anhydrite Beds in Western Newfoundland. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 370-376.
Papezik, V.S., Fong, C.C.K. (1975) Howlite and Ulexite from Carboniferous Gypsum and Anhydrite Beds in Western Newfoundland. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 370-376.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Colchester Co.
Ronnie Van Dommelen collection
    • Hants Co.
Papezik, V.S., Fong, C.C.K. (1975) Howlite and Ulexite from Carboniferous Gypsum and Anhydrite Beds in Western Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 370-376.
      • Windsor
How, H. (1868) Contributions to the mineralogy of Nova Scotia. III. Borates and other minerals in anhydrite and gypsum. Silicoborocalcite, a new mineral. Philosophical Magazine 35, (4th Ser.): 32-41: 218. Dana, J.D. (1868) The System of Mineralogy (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y.: 598. Ramik, R.A. (2007) Lost and found: One of Canada’s earliest type mineral localities. Abstracts from the 32rd Rochester Mineralogical Symposium. Rocks & Minerals: 82: 244.
    • Victoria Co.
      • Dingwall
Papezik, V.S., Fong, C.C.K. (1975) Howlite and Ulexite from Carboniferous Gypsum and Anhydrite Beds in Western Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 370-376.
      • Iona
Joyce, D.K. Gait, R.I. and Sturman, B.D. (1993) Howlite from Iona, Nova Scotia Short paper presented at the Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Rochester, New York, 1993
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Diepholz District
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001, 23
  • Thuringia
    • Nordhausen District
      • Harztor
        • Niedersachswerfen
Siemroth, J. (2008): Das Vorkommen von Boratmineralien im Werra-Anhydrit des Steinbruchs Kohnstein bei Niedersachswerfen am Südharz, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 59, 353-366
Mexico
 
  • Sonora
    • Magdalena Municipality
      • Aguja
Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates - Handbook of Deposits, Processing, Properties and Use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 475 pp.; Miranda-Gasca, M. A., Gomez-Caballero, J. A., & Eastoe, C. J. (1998). Borate deposits of northern Sonora, Mexico; stratigraphy, tectonics, stable isotopes, and fluid inclusions. Economic Geology, 93(4), 510-523.
Verley, C. G., & Vidal, M. F. (2011) Preliminary Resource Estimate for the El Cajon Borate Deposit Magdalena Basin Project, Sonora, Mexico. Pursuant to National Instrument 43-101 of the Canadian Securities Administrators
Verley, C. G., & Vidal, M. F. (2011) Preliminary Resource Estimate for the El Cajon Borate Deposit Magdalena Basin Project, Sonora, Mexico. Pursuant to National Instrument 43-101 of the Canadian Securities Administrators
Verley, C. G., & Vidal, M. F. (2011) Preliminary Resource Estimate for the El Cajon Borate Deposit Magdalena Basin Project, Sonora, Mexico. Pursuant to National Instrument 43-101 of the Canadian Securities Administrators
    • Mazatan Municipality
Miranda-Gasca, M. A., Gomez-Caballero, J. A., & Eastoe, C. J. (1998). Borate deposits of northern Sonora, Mexico; stratigraphy, tectonics, stable isotopes, and fluid inclusions. Economic Geology, 93(4), 510-523.
    • Tubutama Municipality
      • La Salada
Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates - Handbook of Deposits, Processing, Properties and Use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 475 pp.
Serbia
 
  • Central Serbia
    • Raška District
      • Raška
        • Jarandol Basin
          • Baljevac na Ibru
            • Bella Stena (Bela Stena)
Econ Geol (1992) 87:2169-2174
Econ Geol (1992) 87:2169-2174
S. V. Malinko et al.: New Data on Minerals 39:26-31 (2004); Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 13, pp. 370-376 (1975)
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava District
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
Turkey
 
  • Balikesir Province
    • Bigadiç District
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
      • Faraşköy (Faraş)
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; Helvaci, C., & Alaca, O. (1991). Geology and mineralogy of the Bigadiç borate deposits and vicinity. Mineral Res. Expl. Bull, 113, 31-63.
    • Susurluk District
      • Sultançayırı (Sultan Tschair)
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.; Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
UK
 
  • England
    • North Yorkshire
      • Scarborough
Smith, F.W., Dearlove, J.P.L., Kemp, S.J., Bell, C.P., Milne, C.J. and Pottas, T.L. (2014) Potash – Recent exploration developments in North Yorkshire. Pp. 45-50 in Hunger, E., Brown, T. J. and Lucas, G. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 17th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG Conferences Ltd. 202pp
Smith, F.W., Dearlove, J.P.L., Kemp, S.J., Bell, C.P., Milne, C.J. and Pottas, T.L. (2014) Potash – Recent exploration developments in North Yorkshire. Pp. 45-50 in Hunger, E., Brown, T. J. and Lucas, G. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 17th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG Conferences Ltd. 202pp
Smith, F.W., Dearlove, J.P.L., Kemp, S.J., Bell, C.P., Milne, C.J. and Pottas, T.L. (2014) Potash – Recent exploration developments in North Yorkshire. Pp. 45-50 in Hunger, E., Brown, T. J. and Lucas, G. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 17th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG Conferences Ltd. 202pp
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Amargosa Range
        • Black Mountains
          • Zabriskie Point
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 362.
      • Furnace Creek Mining District (Furnace Creek Borate Mining District)
        • Ryan
Mineralogical Record: 27: 35-40.
    • Kern Co.
www.mineralsocal.org
Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1946), Geology of the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 332; Dibblee, T.W., Jr. (1967a) Areal geology of western Mojave Desert, California. USGS Professional Paper 522: 126-127; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9&10): 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 510.
Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1946), Geology of the Kramer borate district, Kern County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 332; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 220.
    • Los Angeles Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 362.
        • Tick Canyon
          • Tick Canyon Borate deposit
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 348; Rocks & Minerals: 11: 156.; Kramer, H.C. & R.D. Allen (1956), A restudy of bakerite, priceite, and veatchite, American Mineralogist: 41: 689-700; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1911), Neocolemanite, a variety of colemanite, and howlite from Lang, Los Angeles County, California: University of California, Department of Geological Science Bulletin: 6: 187; Foshag, William Frederick (1921), The origin of the colemanite deposits of California: Economic Geology: 16: 204; Allen, Robert D. (1957): 199; Masimer, G.E. (1966) Tick Canyon revisited. Gems and Minerals: 347: 20-23; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95, 154, 220; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 510.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
        • Calico District (Daggett District; Calico-Daggett area)
          • Calico
Murdoch, J., Webb, R. (1966) Minerals of California. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 189.
              • Borate (Borate Camp)
Giles, W.B. (1903), Bakerite (a new borosilicate of calcium) and howlite from California: Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 353-355; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 95.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 362.
      • East Kramer Mining District
        • East Kramer Borate area (East Kramer Colemanite area)
          • Kramer Junction (Beecher's Corners; Beechers Corners; Four Corners)
Dibblee, Jr., T.W. (1967a) Areal geology of western Mojave Desert, California. USGS Professional Paper 522: 142-146; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 510.
          • Saddleback Mountain
Dibblee, Jr., T.W. (1967a) Areal geology of western Mojave Desert, California. USGS Professional Paper 522: 142-146; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 510.
    • Ventura Co.
      • San Emigdio Mountains
        • Ventura County Borate Mining District (Stauffer Mining District)
          • Lake of the Woods area
            • Lockwood Valley
Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1914c), Borate deposits in Ventura County, California: USGS Bulletin 540: 442; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 220; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 511.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Muddy Mountains
        • Muddy Mountains Mining District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 352.
 
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