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Humberstonite

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James Thomas Humberstone
Formula:
Na7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2O
Colour:
colorless
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.252
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named in honor of James Thomas Humberstone (8 July 1850, Dover, England, UK - 12 June 1939, Iquique, Chile) chemist, who invented the Shanks System, a method to make sodium carbonate. He started the Peru Nitrate Company to extract saltpetre in the Tarapacá Province. The town of Humberstone, Chile, named after him, became part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005.
This page provides mineralogical data about Humberstonite.


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Classification of HumberstoniteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1967
First Published:
1967
7.DG.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
G : With large and medium-sized cations; with NO3, CO3, B(OH)4, SiO4 or IO3
32.2.2.1

32 : COMPOUND SULFATES
2 : Hydrated Compound Sulfates
13.10

13 : Nitrates

Physical Properties of HumberstoniteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
colorless
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{0001}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.252 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.252 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of HumberstoniteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.474() nε = 1.436(2)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.038
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate

Chemical Properties of HumberstoniteHide

Formula:
Na7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2O
IMA Formula:
K3Na7Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2O

Crystallography of HumberstoniteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:
R3
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.905(3) Å, c = 24.394(9) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.237
Unit Cell V:
2,512.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3

Type Occurrence of HumberstoniteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
aggregates of thin, colorless, transparent,
hexagonal-shaped crystals, up to 0.30 mm across
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. (USNM 120898)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
playa salt deposits
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Ericksen, G.E., Fahey, J.J., Mrose, M.E. (1967) Humberstonite, Na7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2·6H2O: A new saline mineral from the Atacama Desert, Chile. Geological Society of America, Abstracts Annual Meetings: 1967: 59-59.

Synonyms of HumberstoniteHide

Other Language Names for HumberstoniteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Nitratine2 photos of Humberstonite associated with Nitratine on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DG.05DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2OMon. 2/m
7.DG.10Clinoungemachite(Na, K, Fe, SO4)Mon. 2/m
7.DG.10UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.DG.15BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.DG.15CharlesiteCa6(Al,Si)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH,O)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex.
7.DG.15SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DG.15ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex. 6 : P63
7.DG.15CarraraiteCa3(SO4)[Ge(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2OHex.
7.DG.15BuryatiteCa3(Si,Fe,Al)(SO4)[B(OH)4]O(OH)5 · 12H2O
7.DG.20RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2OOrth.
7.DG.20KorkinoiteCa4(SO4)2(CO3)2 · 9(H2O)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
7.DG.25TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2OOrth.
7.DG.30NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2OOrth.
7.DG.35Chessexite(Na,K)4Ca2(Mg,Zn)3Al8(SO4)10(SiO4)2 · 40H2OOrth.
7.DG.40CarlosruiziteK6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SeO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
7.DG.40FuenzalidaiteK6(Na,K)4Na6Mg10(SO4)12(IO3)12 · 12H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
7.DG.45Chelyabinskite(Ca,Mg)3(SO4,CO3)2[Si(OH)6] · 9H2O (?)Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

13.1NitratineNaNO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
13.2NiterKNO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmma
13.3GerhardtiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
13.4NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
13.5NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
13.6NitrobariteBa(NO3)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
13.7ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
13.8SveiteKAl7(NO3)4(OH)16Cl2 · 8H2OMon.
13.9DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2OMon. 2/m
13.11Mbobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.
13.12Hydrombobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 13-14H2OMon.
13.13Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.

Fluorescence of HumberstoniteHide

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in water and insoluble in acetone and ethyl alcohol.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HumberstoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Ericksen, G.E., Fahey, J.J., Mrose, M.E. (1967) Humberstonite, Na7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2·6H2O: A new saline mineral from the Atacama Desert, Chile. Geological Society of America, Abstracts Annual Meetings: 1967: 59-59.
Mrose, M.E., Fahey, J.J., Ericksen, G.E. (1970) Mineralogical studies of the nitrate deposits of Chile. III. Humberstonite, K3Na7Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2·6H2O, a new saline mineral. American Mineralogist: 55: 1518-1533.
Burns, P.C., Hawthorne, F.C. (1994) The crystal structure of humberstonite, a mixed sulfate-nitrate mineral. The Canadian Mineralogist: 32: 381-385.

Internet Links for HumberstoniteHide

Localities for HumberstoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Chile (TL)
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Santa Catalina
Geol.Soc.Amer., Progr. annual meeting (1967) p. 59
    • Morro Moreno
http://www.mineralatlas.com/mineral%20photos/H/humberstonitecp.htm
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Pedro de Valdivia
Pueyo, J. J., Chong, G. & Vega, M. (1998): Mineralogy and parental brine evolution in the Pedro de Valdivia nitrate deposit, Antofagasta, Chile. Revista Geologica de Chile 25, 3-15. (in Spanish)
      • Tocopilla District
samples analysed by Gerhard Mohn and Joy Desor
China
 
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Akesu Prefecture (Aksu Prefecture; Aqsu Prefecture)
Akihiko Okada, Sadayo Yabuki, and Congqiang Liu (1994): RIKEN Review 5, 3-4
    • Aral Co. (Ala'er Co.)
Akihiko Okada, Sadayo Yabuki, and Congqiang Liu (1994): RIKEN Review 5, 3-4
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55; Keqin Cai, Jianhua Gao, Dejun Zhao, and Youku Yu (1992): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 12(2), 143-151
Akihiko Okada, Sadayo Yabuki, and Congqiang Liu (1994): RIKEN Review 5, 3-4
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Swakopmund District
      • Okahandja Lineament Playas
Eckardt, F. D., & Drake, N. (2010). Introducing the Namib Desert Playas. In Sabkha Ecosystems (pp. 19-25). Springer Netherlands.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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