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Hungchaoite

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Chang Hung-chao
Formula:
Mg(B4O7) · 9H2O
Colour:
colorless
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
1.706
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Name:
Named in honor of Chang Hung-chao (章鸿钊) (11 March 1877, Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, China - 6 September 1951, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China), geologist, mineralogist, and professor. He is considered one of the founders of modern Chinese geology and was a founder of the Chinese Geological Society.
This mineral has been reported from an undisclosed salt lake on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau (Zhu et al., 1964), a huge area that includes northern Tibet and northwestern Qinghai provinces. According to Yang (1991), Da Qaidam salt lake in Qinghai Province is the only occurrence of the mineral in that area.


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Classification of HungchaoiteHide

Approved
First Published:
1964
6.DA.20

6 : BORATES
D : Tetraborates
A : Neso-tetraborates
26.4.3.1

26 : HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
4 : Tetraborates
9.2.12

9 : Borates
2 : Borates of Be and Mg

Physical Properties of HungchaoiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
colorless
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Very Good
Density:
1.706 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of HungchaoiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.445 nβ = 1.485 nγ = 1.490
2V:
Measured: 15° , Calculated: 38°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.045
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
relatively strong

Chemical Properties of HungchaoiteHide

Formula:
Mg(B4O7) · 9H2O
IMA Formula:
MgB4O5(OH)4 · 7H2O

Crystallography of HungchaoiteHide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.81 Å, b = 10.64 Å, c = 7.88 Å
α = 103.38°, β = 108.58°, γ = 97.15°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.828 : 1 : 0.741
Unit Cell V:
665.24 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of HungchaoiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
saline lacustrine sediments
Reference:
Chun, I.H., Hsieh, H.T., Chien, T.C., Liu, L.P. (1964) Hungchaoite, a new hydrous magnesium borate. Acta Geologica Sinica: 44: 351-356.

Other Language Names for HungchaoiteHide

German:Hungchaoit
Simplified Chinese:章氏硼镁石
Spanish:Hungchaoita
Traditional Chinese:章氏硼鎂石

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

6.DA.10BoraxNa2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
6.DA.15TincalconiteNa2(B4O7) · 5H2OTrig. 3 2 : R3 2
6.DA.25FedorovskiteCa2Mg2B4O7(OH)6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbam
6.DA.25RoweiteCa2Mn2+2B4O7(OH)6Orth.
6.DA.30HydrochlorboriteCa4B8O15Cl2 · 21H2OMon.
6.DA.35UralboriteCa2[B3O3(OH)5 · OB(OH)3]Mon.
6.DA.40BorcariteCa4Mg(B4O6(OH)6)(CO3)2Tric.
6.DA.40NumanoiteCa4Cu(B4O6(OH)6)(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
6.DA.60Fontarnauite(Na,K)2(Sr,Ca) (SO4)[B5O8(OH)]·2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

9.2.1HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.2.2SuaniteMg2[B2O5]Mon.
9.2.3KotoiteMg3[BO3]2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.2.4SzaibélyiteMgBO2(OH)Mon.
9.2.5PreobrazhenskiteMg3B11O15(OH)9Orth.
9.2.6AksaiteMg[B6O7(OH)6] · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.2.7WightmaniteMg5(BO3)O(OH)5 · 2H2OMon.
9.2.8PinnoiteMg[B2O(OH)6]Tet. 4/m : P42/m
9.2.9KurnakoviteMgB3O3(OH)5 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.2.10HalurgiteMg2[B4O7]2 · 5H2OMon.
9.2.11InderiteMgB3O3(OH)5 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.2.13AdmontiteMgB6O10 · 7H2OMon.
9.2.14McallisteriteMg2[B6O7(OH)6]2 · 9H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
9.2.15RivadaviteNa6Mg[B6O7(OH)6]4 · 10H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.2.16KaliboriteKMg2H[B6O8(OH)5]2(H2O)4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.2.17IquiqueiteK3Na4Mg(CrO4)B24O39(OH) · 12H2OHex.

Fluorescence of HungchaoiteHide

nonfluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HungchaoiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Chun, I.H., Hsieh, H.T., Chien, T.C., Liu, L.P. (1964) Preliminary report on the occurrence of a new hydrous magnesium borate - hungchaoite, MgO·2B2O3·9H2O, in China. Scientia Sinica: 13: 525-527. (in Russian)
Chun, I.H., Hsieh, H.T., Chien, T.C., Liu, L.P. (1964) Hungchaoite, a new hydrous magnesium borate. Acta Geologica Sinica: 44: 351-356.
Fleischer, M., Mandarino, J.A., Strunz, H., Cech, F. (1965) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 50: 261-268.
International Mineralogical Association (1967) Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 131-136.
Tung Chi-ho (1974) X-ray powder photograph indexing and cell constant determination of hungtsaoite, a new mineral. Geochimica: 1974(3): 204-312 (in Chinese with English abstract). - American Mineralogist (1975), 50, 262 (abstract).
Wan, C., Ghose, S. (1977) Hungchaoite, Mg(H2O)5B4O5(OH)4: a hydrogen-bonded molecular complex. American Mineralogist: 62: 1135-1143.
Erd, R.C., McAllister, J.F., Eberlein, G.D. (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
Shaoxiu Yang (1991) Saline deposits and minerals of salt lakes in Qinghai-Xizang plateau. Journal of Lake Sciences: 3(1): 1-10 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Internet Links for HungchaoiteHide

Localities for HungchaoiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
China (TL)
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
Yihua Zhu, Xiande Xie, Laibao Liu, and Ziqiang Qian (1964): Scientia Sinica 13(3), 525-557 (in Russian); Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates: Handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 491 pp.; Zheng, M. P., Qi, W., & Yuan, H. R. (2005). Characteristics of salt lake boron deposits and magnesium borate deposits of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1123-1125). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Anatoly Kasatkin data
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
        • Ryan
Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and A.C. Vlisidis (1970) Wardsmithite 5CaO • MgO •12B2O3 •30H2O, a new borate mineral from the Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 55: 349-357; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375; www.mineralsocal.org.
        • Twenty Mule Team Canyon
American Mineralogist (1979): 64(3-4): 369-375.; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 239.
Am Min 64:3-4 pp 369-375
Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 239.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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