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Hydrocalumite

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Formula:
Ca4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2O
may be multiple species
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless to light green
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
3
Name:
In allusion to the composition, containing water (HYDRO-), CALcium, and ALUMinium.
The range of composition currently ascribed to hydrocalumite may represent more than one species (Mills et al., 2012).
Several hydrocalumite-related species have been described as synthetic compounds ('AFm phases' in cement mineralogy).


Classification of Hydrocalumite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.FL.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
L : Hydroxides with H2O +- (OH); sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
6.4.4.1

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
4 : Miscellaneous
7.4.14

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
4 : Oxides of Be, Mg and the alkaline earths

Physical Properties of Hydrocalumite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless to light green
Hardness (Mohs):
3
Cleavage:
Perfect
{001}; a poor cleavage inclined at about 60° to {100}.
Density:
2.15 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.15 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Hydrocalumite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.535 nβ = 1.553 nγ = 1.557
2V:
Measured: 24° , Calculated: 50°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r > v weak

Chemical Properties of Hydrocalumite

Formula:
Ca4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2O

may be multiple species
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Hydrocalumite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2 - Sphenoidal
Space Group:
P21
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.6 Å, b = 11.4 Å, c = 16.84 Å
β = 111°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.842 : 1 : 1.477
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,720.56 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Massive; tabular, pseudohexagonal crystals.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.92 (vvs)
3.99 (vs)
2.87 (s)
2.46 (s)
1.657 (ms)
2.70 (m)
2.24 (m)

Type Occurrence of Hydrocalumite

Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Relationship of Hydrocalumite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
KuzeliteCa4Al2(OH)12[SO4] · 6H2O
4.FL.TrébeurdeniteFe22+Fe43+O2(OH)10CO3·3H2O
4.FL.05WoodalliteMg6Cr2(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
4.FL.05IowaiteMg6Fe23+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
4.FL.05JamboriteM2+1−xMx3+(OH)2−x(SO4)x·nH2O
4.FL.05MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2O
4.FL.05MuskoxiteMg7Fe4O13 · 10H2O
4.FL.05FougèriteFe42+Fe23+(OH)12[CO3]·3H2O
4.FL.15KuzeliteCa4Al2(OH)12[SO4] · 6H2O
4.FL.20Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn34+O7 · 3H2O
4.FL.20Chalcophanite(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn3O7 · 3H2O
4.FL.20ErnienickeliteNiMn3O7 · 3H2O
4.FL.20Jianshuiite(Mg,Mn,Ca)Mn3O7 · 3H2O
4.FL.25WoodruffiteZn2+x/2(Mn4+1-xMnx3+)O2·yH2O
4.FL.30Asbolane(Ni,Co)2-xMn4+(O,OH)4 · nH2O
4.FL.35BuseriteNa4Mn14O27 · 21H2O
4.FL.40Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
4.FL.40Takanelite(Mn,Ca)Mn4O9 · H2O
4.FL.45Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
4.FL.55CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2O
4.FL.60JenseniteCu3[TeO6] · 2H2O
4.FL.65LeisingiteCuMg2Te6+O6 · 6H2O
4.FL.70Akdalaite5Al2O3 · H2O
4.FL.75CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2O
4.FL.80MouriteUMo5O12(OH)10
4.FL.85DeloryiteCu4(UO2)(MoO4)2(OH)6
7.4.1BromelliteBeO
7.4.2BehoiteBe(OH)2
7.4.3ClinobehoiteBe(OH)2
7.4.4ChrysoberylBeAl2O4
7.4.5Magnesiotaaffeite-2N’2SMg3Al8BeO16
7.4.6Magnesiotaaffeite-6N’3SMg2BeAl6O12
7.4.7PericlaseMgO
7.4.8BruciteMg(OH)2
7.4.9SpinelMgAl2O4
7.4.10MeixneriteMg6Al2(OH)16(OH)2 · 4H2O
7.4.11LimeCaO
7.4.12PortlanditeCa(OH)2
7.4.13ChlormayeniteCa12Al14O32[◻4Cl2]
7.4.15MarokiteCaMn23+O4
7.4.16Ranciéite(Ca,Mn2+)0.2(Mn4+,Mn3+)O2 · 0.6H2O
7.4.17HollanditeBa(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
7.4.18Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
7.4.19Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O

Other Names for Hydrocalumite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:水铝钙石
Traditional Chinese:水鋁鈣石

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:
Strongly pyroelectric.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Hydrocalumite

Reference List:
Tilley, C. E., Megaw, H. D. and Hey, M. H. (1934): Hydrocalumite (4CaO.Al2O3.12H2O), a new mineral from Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 607-615.

American Mineralogist (1935): 20: 316.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 667-668.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1988): 462-475.

Mills, S.J., Christy, A.G., Genin, J.-M.R., Kameda, T., Colombo, F. (2012): Nomenclature of the hydrotalcite supergroup: natural layered double hydroxides. Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 1289-1336.

T. Runčevski, R. E. Dinnebier, O. V. Magdysyuk and H. Pöllmann (2012): Crystal structures of calcium hemicarboaluminate and carbonated calcium hemicarboaluminate from synchrotron powder diffraction data. Acta Crystallogr. B68, 493-500.

Internet Links for Hydrocalumite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-1968.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Hydrocalumite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
Postl, W. & Bojar, H.-P. (2003)
Belgium
 
  • Liège Province
    • Verviers
      • Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district
        • Plombières (Blieberg; Bleiberg; Bleyberg)
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995b): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Clermont-Ferrand
        • Ceyrat
Grünhagen H and Mergoil J (1963) Découverte d'hydrocalumite et afwillite associées à l'ettringite dans les porcélanites de Boisséjour près Ceyrat (Puy de Dôme). Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie 86: 149-157.
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Maroldsweisach
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Lautenthal
No reference listed
    • Osnabrück
      • Georgsmarienhütte
Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Bender, D.; Krimmelbein, M. & W; Altena (1994): Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. in Mineralien-Welt, 4, p.10
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Daun
        • Hinterweiler
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
        • Üdersdorf
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
[Jasmund, K., Hentschel, G., Seltene Mineralparagenesen in den Kalksteineinschlüssen der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges bei Mayen (Eifel), Beitr. Minera. Petr. 10, 296-314, 1964] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
in the collection of Christof Schäfer
Galuskin, E.V., Krüger, B., Krüger, H., Blass, G., Widmer, R., Galuskina, I.O. (2016): Wernerkrauseite, CaFe3+2Mn4+O6 - the first non-stoichiometric post-spinel mineral, from Bellerberg volcano, Eifel, Germany. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 485-493
            • Southern lava flow
Hentschel, G. (1961): Seltene Mineralneubildungen in einem Kalksteineinschluß der Lava des Ettringer Bellerberges, Fortschritte Mineralogie, Vol. 39, 345
      • Mendig
        • Bell
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District slag localities
        • Sounion area
Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt 25 (2), 82-95 (in German).
Israel
 
  • Negev
Galuskin, E.V., Gfeller, F., Armbruster, T., Sharygin, V.V., Galuskina, I.O., Krivovichev, S.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M., Dzierżanowski, P., Wirth, R. (2015): Mayenite supergroup, part III: Fluormayenite, Ca12Al14O32[□4F2], and fluorkyuygenite, Ca12Al14O32[(H2O)4F2], two new minerals from pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, South Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 123-136
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
Italy
 
  • Latium
    • Viterbo Province
      • Montalto di Castro
        • Pietra Massa Locality
Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Genova
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 22 (3), 39-41.
Japan
 
  • Kyushu Region
    • Oita prefecture
      • Saiki City
Alfredo Petrov specimen
Jordan
 
  • Amman
Pitty, A. F., & Alexander, W. R. (2010). A natural analogue study of cement buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a repository host rock IV: an examination of the Khushaym Matruk (central Jordan) and Maqarin (northern Jordan) sites. NDA-RWMD Technical Report, NDA, Moors Row, UK.
Palestine
 
  • West Bank
    • Hatrurim Formation
Galuskin, E.V., Gfeller, F., Armbruster, T., Sharygin, V.V., Galuskina, I.O., Krivovichev, S.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M., Dzierżanowski, P., Wirth, R. (2015): Mayenite supergroup, part III: Fluormayenite, Ca12Al14O32[□4F2], and fluorkyuygenite, Ca12Al14O32[(H2O)4F2], two new minerals from pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, South Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 123-136.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Kłodzko District
      • Nowa Ruda (Neurode)
        • Przygórze
Kruszewski, Ł., Ciesielczuk, J., Misz-Kennan, M., 2014: Mineralogy of some metacarbonate rocks from burned coal-mining dump in Przygórze (Lower Silesian Coal Basin) and its analogy to "olive" rocks from the Hatrurim Formation. Proceedings of the International Symposium CEMC 2014, Skalský Dvůr, April 23-26th, 26-27
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
      • Rybnik Coal Area
        • Radlin
Łukasz Kruszewski (2012) Unique chloride assemblage of exhalative origin from burning coal-mining dump in Radlin (Rybnik Coal Area, S Poland). Mineralogical Society of Poland Special Papers 40
Romania
 
  • Brașov Co.
    • Racoş Commune
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Harghita Co.
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
Russia
 
  • Northern Caucasus Region
    • Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
      • Baksan Valley
Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Kusz, J., Gfeller, F., Armbruster, T., Bailau, R., Dulski, M., Gazeev, V.M., Pertsev, N.N., Zadov, A.E., Dzieržanowski, P. (2015): Mayenite supergroup, part II: Chlorkyuygenite from Upper Chegem, northern Caucasus Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia, a new microporous mayenite supergroup mineral with “zeolitic” H2O. European Journal of Mineralogy. 27, 113-122
          • Lakargi Mt.
Galuskina, I. O., Galuskin, E. V., Kusz, J., Dzierżanowski, P., Prusik, K., Gazeev, V. M., ... & Dubrovinsky, L. (2013). Dzhuluite, Ca3SbSnFe3+ 3O12, a new bitikleite-group garnet from the Upper Chegem Caldera, Northern Caucasus, Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(2), 231-239
Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Gazeev, V.M., Dzierżanowski, P., Prusik, K., Pertsev, N.N., Zadov, A.E., Bailau, R., Gurbanov, A.G. (2011): Megawite, CaSnO3: a new perovskite-group mineral from skarns of the Upper Chegem caldera, Kabardino-Balkaria, Northern Caucasus, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 2563-2572.
UK (TL)
 
  • Northern Ireland
    • Co. Antrim
      • Larne
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 590.
USA
 
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
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