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About HydrohetaeroliteHide

ZnMn2O4 · H2O
Dark brown to brownish black
5 - 6
Specific Gravity:
4.64 - 4.93
Crystal System:
Named in 1928 by Charles Palache allusion to the water content (HYDRO) and its relationship to hetaerolite. The material was originally described as hetaerolite by William E. Ford and W. M. Bradley in 1913.
Discredited in 2018 (Bosi et al.)
A variety of Hetaerolite

A (OH)-bearing hetaerolite. (Bosi et al. 2018)

Classification of HydrohetaeroliteHide


4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations

2 : AB2X4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
5 : Oxides of Zn, Cd and Hg

Physical Properties of HydrohetaeroliteHide

Usually duller than sub-metallic
Dark brown to brownish black
Dark brown
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
Cleavable parallel to the elongation of the fibers.
4.64 - 4.93 g/cm3 (Measured)    
May be porous

Optical Data of HydrohetaeroliteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.262 nε = 2.102
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.160
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Not Visible

Chemical Properties of HydrohetaeroliteHide

ZnMn2O4 · H2O
IMA Formula:

Crystallography of HydrohetaeroliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.735 Å, c = 9.005 Å
a:c = 1 : 1.57
Unit Cell V:
296.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Massive, in fibrous crusts with a botryoidal surface. Fibers elongated [011] ?

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
4.82 (6)
3.34 (6)
3.02 (70)
2.87 (40)
2.66 (80)
2.47 (100)
2.25 (10)
2.13 (10)
2.03 (20)
1.773 (10)
1.723 (20)
1.686 (20)
1.613 (10)
1.570 (50)
1.508 (70)
1.434 (40)
1.412 (4)
1.387 (1)
1.312 (4)
1.299 (1)
1.283 (1)
1.263 (30)
1.155 (6)
1.153 (6)
1.131 (1)
1.117 (6)
1.102 (10)
1.093 (6)
1.074 (30)
1.015 (30)
1.003 (10)
ICDD 9-459, indexed. Axial ratio of hetaerolite is greater than hydrohetaerolite [1.6161 vs. 1.5702]

First Recorded Occurrence of HydrohetaeroliteHide

General Appearance of First Recorded Material:
Fibers grouped in radiated masses with botryoidal serfaces, also in massive granular and bladed aggregates that may be encrusted with chalcophanite
Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Late stage mineralization of a marble-hosted zinc oxide and zinc silicate ore deposit. Thought to be the result of advanced alteration of franklinite.
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Synonyms of HydrohetaeroliteHide

Other Language Names for HydrohetaeroliteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Chalcoalumite3 photos of Hydrohetaerolite associated with Chalcoalumite on mindat.org.
Chalcophanite2 photos of Hydrohetaerolite associated with Chalcophanite on mindat.org.
Hemimorphite2 photos of Hydrohetaerolite associated with Hemimorphite on mindat.org.
Limonite2 photos of Hydrohetaerolite associated with Limonite on mindat.org.
Goethite1 photo of Hydrohetaerolite associated with Goethite on mindat.org.
Hydrozincite1 photo of Hydrohetaerolite associated with Hydrozincite on mindat.org.
Cuprian Adamite1 photo of Hydrohetaerolite associated with Cuprian Adamite on mindat.org.
Adamite1 photo of Hydrohetaerolite associated with Adamite on mindat.org.
Woodruffite1 photo of Hydrohetaerolite associated with Woodruffite on mindat.org.
Hetaerolite1 photo of Hydrohetaerolite associated with Hetaerolite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.BB.ChenmingiteFeCr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.BB.ThermaerogeniteCuAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05CoulsoniteFe2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05VuorelaineniteMn2+V3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.10HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10Jacobsite-QT(Mn2+)M(Fe3+2)O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.15Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
4.BB.15Titanomaghemite(Ti4+0.50.5)Fe2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P43 3 2
4.BB.25XieiteFe2+Cr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.5.1ZinciteZnOHex. 6mm : P63mc
7.5.4WülfingiteZn(OH)2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.5.5GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.5.6HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.5.8Chalcophanite(Zn,Fe,Mn)Mn3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.5.9WoodruffiteZn2+x/2(Mn4+1-xMn3+x)O2·yH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.5.10FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.5.11MonteponiteCdOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.5.12MontroyditeHgOOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn

Fluorescence of HydrohetaeroliteHide

Not fluorescent in ultraviolet

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HydrohetaeroliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Butler (1913), Economic Geology: 8: 8.
Ford and Bradley (1913), American Journal of Science: 35: 600 (as hetaerolite).
Palache, C. (1928), American Mineralogist: 13: 297.
Palache, C. (1935), The Minerals of Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey, USGS Professional Paper 180: 53.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 717-718.
American Mineralogist (1956): 41: 268.
Meisser, N., Perseil, E. A. (1993): Schweiz. Mineral. Petr. Mitt., 73, 11-19.
Bosi, F., Biagioni, C. & Pasero, M. (2019) Nomenclature and classification of the spinel supergroup. European Journal of Mineralogy, 31: 183-192

Internet Links for HydrohetaeroliteHide

Localities for HydrohetaeroliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Leigh Creek
          • Puttapa
Elliott, P. (1991): Minerals from the Beltana mine, Puttapa, South Australia. Mineralogical Record 22, 449-456.
  • Wallonia
    • Liège
      • Verviers
        • Plombières-Vieille Montagne-Moresnet (Plombières-Altenberg-Moresnet) mining district
          • Lontzen
Michel BLONDIEAU, Stéphane PUCCIO, Frédéric HATERT (2018) Minéralogie du puits de recherche plomb-zinc situé près de la ferme Erlenbach à Lontzen (Lontzen, Province de Liège)
  • Smolyan Province
    • Madan ore field
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Annual Report No. 13, 43-45.
  • Hubei
    • Huangshi
      • Yangxin Co.
Junping Dong (1992): Geology and Prospecting 28(7), 21-24, 44
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Meschede
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
SCHNORRER, G. (1995): Mineralogische Neuheiten von bekannten deutschen Fundorten. Lapis 20 (12), 43-48; 62.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Rhein-Lahn-Kreis
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Frücht
Der Aufschluss Vol.55, March/April 2004
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
LAPIS 24 (7/8) 1999; Wendel, W. and Markl, G. (1999) Lavrion: Mineralogische Klassiker und Raritäten für Sammler. LAPIS 24 (7/8):34-52
No reference listed
Möckel, S. (2001): Wallkilldellit und weitere acht Neubestimmungen aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Lapis 26 (11), 43.; Fritz Schreiber Collection; Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
  • Co. Tipperary
    • Silvermines District
No reference listed
Moreton, S. (1999) Mineralogical Record, 30, 99-106.
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Torrebelvicino
        • Monte Naro
          • Monte Naro - Mercanti Valley side
Boscardin M., Daleffe A., Rocchetti I., Zordan A. "I minerali nel Vicentino", Museo "G. Zannato", Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza) 2011
  • Hokkaidō
Dr. Matsuo Nambu collection (curated by the Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Shizuoka
    • Shimoda City
      • Rendaiji
(unpublished species lists maintained by local collectors; needs confirmation)
  • Durango
    • Mapimí Municipality
      • Mapimí
Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
Rocks & Min.: 56:247.
Moore, T.P. and Megaw, P.K.M. (2003): Famous mineral localities: The Ojuela mine, Mapimi, Durango, Mexico. The Mineralogical Record, 34(5), 1-91
Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
Panczner (1987): 235.
  • ǁKaras Region
    • Oranjemund
      • Rosh Pinah
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 396 pp. (in English)
  • Oppland
    • Lunner
      • Grua
        • Grua mining district
Folvik, H. O. (2008): Nytt om mineraler. Tre nye mineraler fra Skjerpemyr, Grua. STEIN 35 (1): 16
  • Lesser Poland Voivodeship
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Bytom City Co.
Kulig M. 1972: Hydrohetaerolite from the Orzeł Biały mine (Upper Silesia) and the problem of zincdibraunite. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 3, 55-66
  • Aveiro
    • Albergaria-a-Velha
      • Branca
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Banat Mts
      • Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District
  • Bashkortostan
    • Uchalinsky District
      • Il'insky ore field
Belogub, E.V., Novoselov, K.A., Kotlyarov, V.A., Fadina, I.B. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 583-589.
Saudi Arabia
  • Mintaqah ar Riyad
Testard, J., Tegyey, M., Picot, P., Maury, M., & Kosakevitch, M. (1979, June). Khnaiguiyah: Mineralization in an Acid Volcanosedimentary Environment. In Evolution and Mineralization of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Proceedings of a Symposium Convened (Vol. 3, p. 80). Pergamon Press.
  • Murcia
    • Cartagena
      • Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión
        • El Estrecho de San Ginés
          • Cabezo de San Ginés
Calvo, M. (1996). Mineralogía. La Unión. Bocamina, 2, 14-35; - Calvo, M. (2009): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp
  • Valais
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
Meisser, N. & Perseil, E. A. (1993): Occurrence of woodruffite, (Zn,Mn+2)Mn3+4O7.1-2H2O, hetaerolite, ZnMn2O4, and hydrohetaerolite, HZnMn2-xO4, of supergene origin in a skarn of Mount Chemin (Valais, Switzerland). Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 73, 11-19. ; Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 213.
  • Siliana
    • Siliana
      • Djebel Sekarna
Dill, Weiss, Botz, Dohrmann, Paleontological, mineralogical and chemical studies of syngenetic and epigenetic Pb–Zn–Ba–P mineralizations at the stratotype of the K/P boundary, International Journal of Earth Sciences, Feb 2010.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
[MinRec 24:421]
[Mineralogical Record Vol 12 No.5 pp307]
      • Tombstone Hills
        • Tombstone District
          • Silver Plume Mine (Emerald & Silver Plume Mine group)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 254.
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
        • Clark Mountain District (Clark District)
          • Mohawk Hill
[Mineralien Welt 1/93:44]
  • Colorado
    • Lake Co.
      • Leadville District
        • Leadville
          • Carbonate Hill
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 272, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Rocks & Minerals 81:5 402-409
          • Iron Hill
The Oxidized Zinc Ores of Leadville Colorado, G. F. Loughlin, 1918
  • Michigan
    • Iron Co.
Shawn Carlson (2010) Mineral News, 26, #11, 1-2 & 9-10.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Palache(1935):53; Baum, J.L.: The Sterling Hill mud zone: The Picking Table:3(2):8-10; Dunn(1995):Pt4:599.
  • Utah
    • Tooele Co.
      • Gold Hill District (Clifton District)
        • Gold Hill
Kokinos, M. and Wise, W.S. (1993), Famous Mineral Localities: the Gold Hill mine, Tooele County, Utah. Mineralogical Record: 24(1): 11-22.
Patrick Haynes. Some ID'd by Tony Kampf
Kokinos, M. and Wise, W.S. (1993), Famous Mineral Localities: the Gold Hill mine, Tooele County, Utah. Mineralogical Record: 24(1): 11-22.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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