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Hydromagnesite

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Formula:
Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless to white; ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Silky, Pearly, Earthy
Hardness:
Name:
Named in 1827 by Hans Gabriel Trolle-Wachmeister in allusion to the composition, being a HYDRated MAGNESium carbonate.
A low-temperature hydrothermal mineral occurring in veinlets in serpentine and altered magnesium-rich igneous rocks; also as an alteration product of brucite in periclase marbles.

Lowest hydrate in a group of similar species comprising also dypingite, giorgiosite, and 'UM1973-06-CO:MgH'.


Classification of Hydromagnesite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.DA.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
D : Carbonates with additional anions, with H2O
A : With medium-sized cations
16b.7.1.1

16b : HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
7 : Miscellaneous
11.3.7

11 : Carbonates
3 : Carbonates of Mg

Physical Properties of Hydromagnesite

Vitreous, Silky, Pearly, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless to white; colourless in transmitted light
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010}.
Parting:
Possible parting on {100}.
Density:
2.236 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of Hydromagnesite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.523 nβ = 1.527 nγ = 1.545
2V:
Measured: 30° to 90°, Calculated: 52°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of Hydromagnesite

Formula:
Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Hydromagnesite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.11 Å, b = 8.94 Å, c = 8.38 Å
β = 114.58°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.131 : 1 : 0.937
Unit Cell Volume:
V 688.78 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals small, occurring as tufts, rosettes, or crusts of acicular or bladed crysta;s elongated [001] and flattened {100}. Massive, chalky.
Twinning:
Twin plane {100} and composition face {100}. Twinning very common, polysynthetic.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
9.20 (39)
6.40 (38)
5.79 (100)
4.186 (31)
3.317 (28)
2.899 (82)
2.298 (33)

Occurrences of Hydromagnesite

Type Occurrence of Hydromagnesite

Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Relationship of Hydromagnesite to other Species

5.DA.AlexkhomyakoviteK6(Ca2Na)(CO3)5Cl·6H2O
5.DA.05DypingiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2O
5.DA.05GiorgiositeMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5-6H2O
5.DA.05WidgiemoolthaliteNi5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2O
5.DA.05UM1986-10-CO:ClHMgMnZnMg5(Zn,Mn)3(CO3)2(OH,Cl)12 · H2O
5.DA.05UM1987-01-CO:HMgSMg4(CO3)2(OH)4 · 6H2O ?
5.DA.10ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2O
5.DA.10IndigiriteMg2Al2(CO3)4(OH)2 · 15H2O
5.DA.10ChlorartiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)Cl · 2H2O
5.DA.15OtwayiteNi2(CO3)(OH)2 · H2O
5.DA.15ZaratiteNi3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O ?
5.DA.20KambaldaiteNaNi4(CO3)3(OH)3 · 3H2O
5.DA.25CallaghaniteCu2Mg2(CO3)(OH)6 · 2H2O
5.DA.30Claraite(Cu,Zn)15(CO3)4(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)14·7H2O
5.DA.35HydroscarbroiteAl14(CO3)3(OH)36 · nH2O
5.DA.35ScarbroiteAl5(CO3)(OH)13 · 5H2O
5.DA.40CaresiteFe42+Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2O
5.DA.40QuintiniteMg4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2O
5.DA.40CharmariteMn42+Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2O
5.DA.45Stichtite-2HMg6(Cr,Al)2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
5.DA.45BrugnatelliteMg6Fe3+(CO3)(OH)13 · 4H2O
5.DA.45ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2O
5.DA.45Hydrotalcite-2HMg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O
5.DA.45Pyroaurite-2HMg6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
5.DA.45ZaccagnaiteZn4Al2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2O
5.DA.50ComblainiteNi4Co2(OH)12[CO3] · 3H2O
5.DA.50DesautelsiteMg6Mn23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
5.DA.50HydrotalciteMg6Al2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
5.DA.50PyroauriteMg6Fe23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
5.DA.50ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
5.DA.50StichtiteMg6Cr23+(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
5.DA.50TakoviteNi6Al2(OH)16[CO3] · 4H2O
5.DA.50UM1998-10-CO:CoHNiCo6Fe2(CO3)(OH)16 · 4H2O ?
5.DA.55CoalingiteMg10Fe23+(OH)24[CO3] · 2H2O
11.3.1MagnesiteMgCO3
11.3.2BarringtoniteMgCO3 · 2H2O
11.3.3NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2O
11.3.4LansforditeMgCO3 · 5H2O
11.3.5PokrovskiteMg2(CO3)(OH)2
11.3.6ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2O
11.3.8GiorgiositeMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5-6H2O
11.3.9DypingiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2O
11.3.10EiteliteNa2Mg(CO3)2
11.3.11Mcguinnessite(Mg,Cu)2(CO3)(OH)2

Other Names for Hydromagnesite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
None.

References for Hydromagnesite

Reference List:
Trolle-Wachmeister, Hans Gabriel (1827) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar: 18.

von Kobell, Wolfgang Xavier Franz (1835) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 4: 80.

Silliman Jr., Benjamin (1850) [Lancasterite], American Journal of Science: 9: 216 (as Lancasterite).

Weinschenk (1897) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 27: 570.

Brugnatelli, Luigi V. (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 31: 54.

Kramm (1910) Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 49: 344.

Wells, H. (1910) American Journal of Science: 30: 189.

Zambonini, Ferruccio (1910) Mineralogia Vesuviana. 368 pp., Naples: 95.

Larsen, Esper S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 89.

Rogers (1923) American Journal of Science: 6: 37.

Hintze, Carl (1926) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 3522.

Fenoglio, M. (1927) Boll. Soc. geol. Ital.: 46: 13.

Levi and Ghiron (1932) Gazzetta chimica italiana, Rome: 62: 218.

Callaghan (1933) University of Nevada Bull. 27: 7.

Fenoglio M. (1936) Ricerche sull'idromagnesite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma 257-284.

Meixner (1937) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 363.

Kisselev (1938) Ann. Inst. Mines Leningrad: 11: 59 [Min. Abs. (1946): 9: 267].

Meixner (1938) Zentralblatt Mineralien: 8.

Cummings (1940) Bulletin of the British Columbia Department of Mines, No. 4.

Caillère (1943) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 66: 55.

Murdoch, Joseph (1951), Unit cell of hydromagnesite: (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin: 62: 1465.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 271-274.

Murdoch, Joseph (1954), The unit cell of hydromagnesite: (abstract): American Mineralogist: 37: 296-297;

American Mineralogist: 39: 24-29 (1954).

Mineralogical Record (1973): 4: 18-20.

Acta Crystallographica: B33: 1273-1275.

Internet Links for Hydromagnesite

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https://www.mindat.org/min-1979.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Hydromagnesite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Hydromagnesite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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