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About Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

Abenaki Couple
Pale brown
4 - 5
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named after the Abenaki, the indigenous people who inhabited the area around Mont Saint-Hilaire in southern Québec, prior to the arrival of European settlers.
Unique chemistry (the only Na-REE-Si-P-C mineral). Chemistry comparable to that of steenstrupine-(Ce).

Currently the only mineral with a supposed sulphur dioxide ligand.
Originally a single grain was found, making the mineral exceedingly rare.

Hexagonal net of the structure contains (1) chains of NaO7 polyhedra connected with phosphate groups, (2) six-membered ring of SiO4, NaO7 and NaO7-(REE)O8 polyhedra, forming columns, (3) carbonate and SO2 groups, and NaO6 octahedra, within the columns. In terms of the linkage of six-member silicate ring and NaO6 octahedron, abenakiite-(Ce) may be compared to kazakovite and steenstrupine-(Ce) (McDonald et al., 1994).

Infrared data for an S-deficient and H2O-bearing variety or a related species from the Sirenevaya pegmatite is given by Chukanov (2014). The mineral occurs as a yellow-grey grain in ussingite, and its empirical formula is reported as (Na5.55K0.17Ca0.04)(Ce3.34La1.71Nd1.20Pr0.46Th0.12)(Si5.97P6.86S0.17)Ox(CO3)y.nH2O. This formula doesn't seem to correspond to abenakiite-(Ce) and no XRD data is given to confirm its identity with abenakiite-(Ce). The main IR bands obtained for this material are [cm-1]: 3390, 1580sh, 1520, 1140sh, 1070s, 902, 860sh, 615, and 448.

Classification of Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

Approval Year:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
K : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 7th ed.:

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
4 : Six-Membered Rings with other anions

Physical Properties of Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

Pale brown
4 - 5 on Mohs scale
3.21 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.27 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.589(1) nε = 1.586(1)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.003
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide


Chemical AnalysisHide

Oxide wt%:
Na2O25.04 %25.33 %25.52 %25.37 %25.32 %
Ce2O315.50 %15.36 %15.24 %15.15 %15.31 %
La2O36.08 %5.86 %6.11 %5.69 %5.94 %
Nd2O38.04 %8.07 %7.59 %7.41 %7.78 %
Pr2O31.91 %2.43 %1.95 %1.77 %2.02 %
Sm2O30.88 %0.78 %0.59 %0.70 %0.74 %
ThO21.86 %1.27 %1.21 %1.32 %1.42 %
SrO0.12 %0.13 %0.09 %0.13 %0.12 %
SiO213.71 %13.35 %13.00 %13.14 %13.30 %
P2O514.60 %14.09 %13.70 %14.05 %14.11 %
SO22.34 %2.34 %2.18 %2.28 %2.28 %
CO29.10 %8.95 %8.76 %8.82 %8.91 %
Total:99.18 %97.96 %95.94 %95.83 %97.25 %
Empirical formulas:
Sample IDEmpirical Formula
5 Na24.23(Ce2.77Nd1.37La1.08Pr0.36Th0.16Sm0.13Sr0.03)Σ5.90Si6.56P5.90C6S1.06O63
Sample references:
1Type SpecimenPoudrette quarry, Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, CanadaMcDonald, A. M., Chao, G. Y., & Grice, J. D. (1994). Abenakiite-(Ce), a new silicophosphate carbonate mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec; description and structure determination. The Canadian Mineralogist, 32(4), 843-854.
2Type Specimen  "  "  "  "
3Type Specimen  "  "  "  "
4Type Specimen  "  "  "  "
5Average of analyses 1-4  "  "  "  "

Crystallography of Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.018(2) Å, c = 19.761(2) Å
a:c = 1 : 1.234
Unit Cell V:
4,390.93 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:

Type Occurrence of Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

General Appearance of Type Material:
A single grain, 2 x 1 mm in size.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa Ontario (#81501)
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In a xenolith of sodalite syenite. A late-stage phase, possibly arising from a metasomatic event associated with emplacement of the nepheline syenite.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
McDonald, A. M., Chao, G. Y., & Grice, J. D. (1994). Abenakiite-(Ce), a new silicophosphate carbonate mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec; description and structure determination. The Canadian Mineralogist, 32(4), 843-854.

Synonyms of Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

Other Language Names for Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.CK.Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.BosiiteNaFe3+3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Foitite(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05TsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Luinaite-(OH)Na(Fe2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Mon. m : Bm
9.CK.05Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-schorlNa(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-liddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-chromium-draviteNa(Cr)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-tsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Vanadio-oxy-chromium-draviteNa(V)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Uvite (OH-dominant end-member)Ca(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-uviteCaMg3(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Vanadio-oxy-draviteNaV3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m
9.CK.15ScawtiteCa7(Si3O9)2CO3 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
9.CK.20Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Mn2+2(Fe3+,Mn3+)2Ce6(Zr,Th)(Si6O18)2(PO4)6(HPO4)(OH)2 · 2H2OTrig.
9.CK.20Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O

Fluorescence of Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

Other InformationHide

a very weak effervescence in l:1 HCl
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
McDonald, A.M., Chao, G.Y., Grice, J.D. (1994): Abenakiite (Ce), a new silicophosphate carbonate mineral from Mont Saint Hilaire, Quebec: description and structure determination. The Canadian Mineralogist: 32: 843-854.
Chukanov, N.V. (2014): Infrared spectra of mineral species: Extended library. Springer (Springer Geochemistry/Mineralogy), vol. 1, Dordrecht, 1726 pp.

Internet Links for Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

Localities for Abenakiite-(Ce)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Canada (TL)
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
McDonald, A.M., Chao, G.Y. and Grice, J.D. (1994), Abenakiite-(Ce), a new silicophosphate carbonate mineral from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec: Description and structure determination. Canadian Mineralogist, 32, 843-854.
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Lovozersky District
      • Alluaiv Mt
        • Umbozero mine (Umbozerskii mine; Umba Mine)
Chukanov, N.V. (2014): Infrared spectra of mineral species: Extended library. Springer (Springer Geochemistry/Mineralogy), vol. 1, Dordrecht,1726 pp.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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