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Ikaite

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Formula:
CaCO3 · 6H2O
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
For the type locality Ikka Fjord, Greenland (formerly spelled Ika)
Readily dehydrates to calcite above 8°C.
The resulting pseudomorph of calcite after ikaite is also called "glendonite."

Compare Unnamed (Amorphous Calcium Carbonate).


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of IkaiteHide

Approved
5.CB.25

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
B : With large cations (alkali and alkali-earth carbonates)
15.1.4.1

15 : HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
1 : A(XO3)·xH2O
11.4.5

11 : Carbonates
4 : Carbonates of Ca

Optical Data of IkaiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.455 nβ = 1.538 nγ = 1.545
2V:
Measured: 45° , Calculated: 30°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.090
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
distinct

Chemical Properties of IkaiteHide

Formula:
CaCO3 · 6H2O

Crystallography of IkaiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.87 Å, b = 8.23 Å, c = 11.02 Å
β = 110.2°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.078 : 1 : 1.339
Unit Cell V:
754.98 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of IkaiteHide

Synonyms of IkaiteHide

Other Language Names for IkaiteHide

German:Ikait
Russian:Икаит
Spanish:Ikaita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Opal10 photos of Ikaite associated with Opal on mindat.org.
Calcite8 photos of Ikaite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Glendonite4 photos of Ikaite associated with Glendonite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.CB.05ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
5.CB.10NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
5.CB.15TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
5.CB.20MonohydrocalciteCaCO3 · H2OTrig. 3 : P31
5.CB.30PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
5.CB.35GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
5.CB.40ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
5.CB.45BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2OMon.
5.CB.50TuliokiteNa6BaTh(CO3)6 · 6H2OTrig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.4.1CalciteCaCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
11.4.2AragoniteCaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.4.3VateriteCaCO3Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
11.4.4MonohydrocalciteCaCO3 · H2OTrig. 3 : P31
11.4.6DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
11.4.7HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
11.4.8SergeeviteCa2Mg11(CO3)9(HCO3)4(OH)4•6H2O

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for IkaiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Pauly, H. (1963) “Ikaite”, a new mineral from Greenland. Arctic, 16, 263–264.
American Mineralogist (1964): 49: 439.
Dickens, B. and Brown, W.E. (1970): The crystal structure of calcium carbonate hexahydrate at ~120°C. Inorganic Chemistry, 9, 480–486.
Suess, E., Balzer, W., Hesse, K.-F., Muller, P.J., Ungerer, C.A., and Wefer, G. (1982): Calcium carbonate hexahydrate from organic rich sediments of the Antarctic shelf: precursors of glendonites. Science, 216, 1128–1131.
Hesse, K. -F., Kuppers, H., Suess, E. (1983): Refinement of the structure of Ikaite, CaCO3.6H2O. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 163, 227-231.
Bischoff, J.L, Fitzpatrick, J.A., and Rosenbauer, R.J. (1992): The solubility and stabilization of ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) from 0° to 25°C: Environmental and paleoclimatic implications for thinolite tufa. Journal of Geology, 101, 21–33.
Bischoff, J. L., Stine, S., Rosenbauer, R. J., Fitzpatrick, J. A., Stafford Jr, T. W. (1993): Ikaite precipitation by mixing of shoreline springs and lake water, Mono Lake, California, USA. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 57, 3855-3856.
Buchardt, B., Seaman, P., Stockmann, G., Wilken, M.V.U., Duwel, L., Kristiansen, A., Jenner, C., Whiticar, M. J., Kristensen R.M., Petersen, G.H., and Thorbjorn, L. (1997): Submarine columns of ikaite tufa. Nature, 390, 129–130.
Dieckmann, G. S., Nehrke, G., Papadimitriou, S., Göttlicher, J., Steininger, R., Kennedy, H., Wolf-Gladrow, D., and Thomas, D. N. (2008): Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in Antarctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08501.
M. B. Oehlerich, N. Sánchez-Pastor, C. Mayr, B. Kremer, E. Griesshaber, W. W. Schmahl, A. Lücke, C. Ohlendorf and B. Zolitschka (2009): On the Study of Natural and Synthetic Ikaite Crystals. Macla 11, 135-136. [http://www.ehu.es/sem/macla_pdf/macla11/Macla11_135.pdf]
Dieckmann, GS; Nehrke, G; Uhlig, C; Gottlicher, J; Gerland, S; Granskog, MA; Thomas, DN. (2010): Brief Communication: Ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) discovered in Arctic sea ice. CRYOSPHERE 4 (2), 227-230.
Žák K., Skála R., Filippi M., Plášil J. (2010): Ikait - málo známý minerál zaledněných jeskyní: výskyt v občasném sezónním zalednění jeskyně Koda (Český kras). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze 18 (1), 109-115. [Ikaite on surface of seasonal cave ice formations]
Boch, R. et al. (2015): Ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) in a man-made river bed: concrete leaching and hydrochemical alteration. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 161, 24 (abs.).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikaite [many further references]

Internet Links for IkaiteHide

Localities for IkaiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
Dieckmann, G. S., Nehrke, G., Papadimitriou, S., Göttlicher, J., Steininger, R., Kennedy, H., Wolf-Gladrow, D., and Thomas, D. N. (2008): Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in Antarctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08501.
  • Western Antarctica
    • Antarctic Peninsula
AmMin 86:1530-1533 (2001)
Dieckmann, G. S., Nehrke, G., Papadimitriou, S., Göttlicher, J., Steininger, R., Kennedy, H., Wolf-Gladrow, D., and Thomas, D. N. (2008): Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in Antarctic sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08501.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
Keith F Compton collection
Canada
 
  • Saskatchewan
Last, F. M., Last, W. M., Fayek, M., & Halden, N. M. (2013). Occurrence and significance of a cold-water carbonate pseudomorph in microbialites from a saline lake. Journal of paleolimnology, 50(4), 505-517.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Beroun (Beraun)
Žák K., Skála R., Filippi M., Plášil J. (2010): Ikait - málo známý minerál zaledněných jeskyní: výskyt v občasném sezónním zalednění jeskyně Koda (Český kras). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze 18 (1), 109-115.
Greenland (TL)
 
  • Sermersooq
    • Ikka Fjord (Ìka)
Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Mineral species first described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist, Special publication no. 8.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Tokachi Province
      • Ashoro-cho (Asyoro-tyo)
Genko. 91(6). 209-219
Romania
 
  • Buzău Co.
Slavoaca, R., Slavoaca, D.C., 2000. Water chemistry and hydrochemical processes assessment in zones with Land slip in Buzău and Vrancea, SE Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 79, Suppl. I, 2000, p.99-101
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • White Sea Coast
Actually 'glendonite'
UK
 
  • England
    • Derbyshire
      • Peak Forest
Field, L.P., Milodowski, A.E., Shaw, R.P., Stevens, L.P., Hall, M.R., Kilpatrick, A., Gunn, J., Kemp, S.J., Ellis, M.A. (2016): Unusual morphologies and the occurrence of pseudomorphs after ikaite (CaCO3•6H2O) in fast growing, hyperalkaline speleothem. Mineralogical Magazine: 80 (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12720 (2016)
USA
 
  • California
    • Mono Co.
Geology 21:971-974.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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