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Ikunolite

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Formula:
Bi4(S,Se)3
Hardness:
2
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named in 1986 by Akira Kato for the type locality, the Ikuno Mine, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan.
Isostructural with:
See also "joséite".

Exhibits variable S:Se ratios and may also contain some Pb (Parafiniuk et al., 2008). A continuous solid-solution series with laitakarite, Bi4(Se,S)3, may exist.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of IkunoliteHide

Approved
2.DC.05

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
D : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 3 :4 and 2:3
C : Variable M:S
2.6.2.3

2 : SULFIDES
6 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 4:3
3.7.21

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi

Physical Properties of IkunoliteHide

Hardness:

Chemical Properties of IkunoliteHide

Formula:
Bi4(S,Se)3
IMA Formula:
Bi4S3

Crystallography of IkunoliteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.15 Å, c = 39.19 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 9.443
Unit Cell V:
584.52 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of IkunoliteHide

Other Language Names for IkunoliteHide

German:Ikunolith
Japanese:生野鉱
Simplified Chinese:脆硫铋矿
Spanish:Ikunolita

Varieties of IkunoliteHide

Relationship of Ikunolite to other SpeciesHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Wittite4 photos of Ikunolite associated with Wittite on mindat.org.
Jonassonite1 photo of Ikunolite associated with Jonassonite on mindat.org.
Bismuth1 photo of Ikunolite associated with Bismuth on mindat.org.
Marcasite1 photo of Ikunolite associated with Marcasite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.DC.05HedleyiteBi7Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05IngoditeBi2TeSTrig.
2.DC.05Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig.
2.DC.05KawazuliteBi2Te2SeTrig.
2.DC.05LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
2.DC.05NevskiteBi(Se,S)Trig.
2.DC.05ParaguanajuatiteBi2Se3Trig.
2.DC.05PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05SkippeniteBi2TeSe2Trig.
2.DC.05SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2STrig.
2.DC.05TellurantimonySb2Te3Trig.
2.DC.05TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3Trig.
2.DC.05TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.DC.05TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
2.DC.05BaksaniteBi6Te2S3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.DC.05Joséite-CBi16Te3S9
2.DC.05ProtojoséiteBi3(Te,S)2Trig.
2.DC.05SztrókayiteBi3TeS2
2.DC.05VihorlatiteBi24Se17Te4Trig.
2.DC.05TelluronevskiteBi3TeSe2Trig.
2.DC.05UM1983-09-S:BiPbTePbBi3S2Te

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.6.2.1JoséiteBi4TeS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.6.2.2Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig.
2.6.2.4LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
2.6.2.5PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
2.6.2.6PoubaitePbBi2(Se,Te,S)4Trig.
2.6.2.7RucklidgeitePbBi2Te4Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.7.1PatróniteVS4Mon.
3.7.2DuranusiteAs4SOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m
3.7.5PararealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.6AlacrániteAs8S9Mon. 2/m : P2/b
3.7.7UzoniteAs4S5Mon.
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3Mon. 2/m
3.7.9JeromiteAmor.
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2(Se,S)3Mon. 2/m
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]Orth. mm2 : Pna21
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.7.14StibniteSb2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.15MetastibniteSb2S3Amor.
3.7.16TellurantimonySb2Te3Trig.
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.18NevskiteBi(Se,S)Trig.
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.22LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
3.7.23PoubaitePbBi2(Se,Te,S)4Trig.
3.7.24TellurobismuthiteBi2Te3Trig.
3.7.25SoučekitePbCuBi(S,Se)3Orth.
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.28HedleyiteBi7Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.31Joséite-BBi4Te2STrig.
3.7.32IngoditeBi2TeSTrig.
3.7.33SulphotsumoiteBi3Te2STrig.
3.7.34KawazuliteBi2Te2SeTrig.
3.7.36SkippeniteBi2TeSe2Trig.
3.7.37KochkaritePbBi4Te7Trig.
3.7.38RucklidgeitePbBi2Te4Trig.
3.7.39AleksitePbBi2Te2S2Trig.
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for IkunoliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Kato, A. (1959) Ikunolite, a new bismuth mineral from the Ikuno mine, Japan. Mineralogical Journal: 2: 397-407.
Fleischer, M. (1960) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 45: 476-480.
Markham, N.L. (1962) Plumbian ikunolite from Kingsgate, New South Wales. American Mineralogist: 47: 1431-1434.
International Mineralogical Association (1962) International Mineralogical Association: Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 33: 260-263.
Nechelyustov, G.N., Stepanov, V.I. Shumkova, N.G., Khalezova, Y.B. (1978) Ikunolite, Bi4Se3, from the Kara-Obo tungsten deposit, central Kazakhstan; the first discovery in the USSR. Novye Dannye o Mineralah SSSR: 26: 105-111.
Finashin, V.K., Litavrina, R.F., Romanenko, I.M., Chubarov, V.M. (1979) Ikunolite from hte Vysokogorskoe deposit, Primorye. Zap. Vses. Mineral. Obshchest.: 108: 337-339.
Imai, N., Chung, J.I. (1986) The first Korean occurrence of ikunolite. Mineralogical Journal: 13: 65-74.
Foit, B., Škoda, R. (2005) Bi4Se3 and ikunolite-laitakarite from the uranium deposit Zálesí near Javornik, Rychebske Hory Mts. Acta Mus. Moraviae, Sci. Geol.: 90: 99-107.
Cook, N.J., Ciobanu, C.L., Wagner, T., Stanley, C.J. (2007) Minerals of the system Bi-Te-Se-S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. Canadian Mineralogist: 45: 665-708.
Parafiniuk, J., Pieczka, A., Gołębiowska, B. (2008) Compositional data for ikunolite from Rędziny, Rudawy Janowickie, Lower Silesia, Poland. The Canadian Mineralogist: 46: 1305-1315.
Szakáll, S., Zajzon, N., Kristály, F. (2012) Unusual ikunolite from Nagybörzsöny ore deposit, Börzsöny, Mts., Hungary. [http://www.mineral.hermuz.hu/acta_07/pdf/134-Szakall.pdf]

Internet Links for IkunoliteHide

Localities for IkunoliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Clive Co.
      • Bolivia
Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-10, SH/56-11), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    • Gough Co.
      • Elsmore
Rankin, J., Lawrence, L. J., Sharpe, J. L. and Williams, P. A. (2002): Rare secondary bismuth, tungsten and molybdenum minerals from Elsmore, New England district of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 8, 55-60.
Lawrence, L.J. & Markham, N.L. (1962) - A contribution to the study of the molybdenite pipes of Kingsgate, NSW, with special reference to ore mineralogy. - Proceedings of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 203, 67-94.
Clissold, M. E., Leverett, P., Sharpe, J. L. & Williams, P. A. (2008): Primary bismuth minerals from the Wolfram pipe, Kingsgate, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 14, 19-25. ; Clissold, M. E. (2007) Aspects of the Supergene Geochemistry of Copper, Nickel and Bismuth. PhD Thesis University of Sydney, Australia 162pp.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Felben valley
        • Scheelite deposit
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
Bolivia
 
  • La Paz Department
    • Los Andes Province
(unpublished analysis of inclusion in native bismuth)
Bulgaria
 
  • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
    • Ivaylovgrad Obshtina
      • Ivaylovgrad
T. Kerestedjian (1997) Argentonentlandite (Fe, Ni)8+хАg1-xS8 from Kamilski dol – a new mineral species for Bulgaria. Review of the Bulgarian Geological Society 58:15-18
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Nelson Mining Division
William (Bill) R. Howard (2007) Structural setting and geochemical correlations in bismuth (sulfo) telluride-native gold–bearing veins, CLY Group, British Columbia, Canada: A reduced intrusion-related gold system. Geologian tutkimuskeskus, Opas 53 – Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53, pp 45-50; http://aris.empr.gov.bc.ca/ArisReports/29864.PDF
China
 
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Ganzhou Prefecture
      • Anyuan Co.
Yingchen Ren (1986): Geochemistry 5(3), 277-279; Bayliss, P. (1991): American Mineralogist 76, 257-265
  • Yunnan Province
    • Honghe Autonomous Prefecture
      • Lüchun Co. (Lvchun Co.)
Lei Zhang, Hanjie Wen, Chaojian Qin, Shengjiang Du, Chuanwei Zhu, Haifeng Fan, Jinrang Zhang (2015): The geological significance of Pb–Bi- and Pb–Sb-sulphosalts in the Damajianshan tungsten polymetallic deposit, Yunnan Province, China. Ore Geology Reviews 71, 203-214.
Czech Republic
 
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Olomouc Region
      • Javorník (Jauernig)
Sejkora J., Škoda R., Pauliš P. 2006: Selenium mineralization of the uranium deposit Zálesí, Rychlebské Hory Mts., Czech Republic. Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, vol. 28, 196-198
Finland
 
  • Eastern Finland Region
    • Rantasalmi
Kojonen,Kari 2008. Au-Ag tellurides-selenides in Finland. International Geological Congress, Oslo August 6-14th. Abstract
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Baden-Baden
No reference listed
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Harzgerode mining district
        • Siptenfelde
Gröbner, J., W. Hajek, R. Junker & J. Nikoleizig (2011). Neue Mineralienschätze des Harzes. S.69. Papierflieger-Verlag, Clausthal-Zellerfeld.
        • Straßberg
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Saxony
    • Oberlausitz
      • Görlitz
        • Königshain
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2007): Wismut-Mineralien aus dem Königshainer Granit, Lausitz.- Mineralien-Welt 18(4), 14-19
Greece
 
  • Macedonia Department
    • Chalkidiki Prefecture
Voudouris, P. C., Spry, P. G., Mavrogonatos, C., Sakellaris, G. A., Bristol, S. K., Melfos, V., & Fornadel, A. P. (2013). Bismuthinite derivatives, lillianite homologues, and bismuth sulfotellurides as indicators of gold mineralization in the Stanos shear-zone related deposit, Chalkidiki, Northern Greece. The Canadian Mineralogist, 51(1), 119-142.
Hungary
 
  • Pest Co.
    • Börzsöny Mts
      • Nagybörzsöny (Deutsch Pilsen; Deutschpilsen)
Szakáll, S., Fehér, B., Kristály, F. and Zajzon, N. (2012): Minerals of the Rózsa Hill ore mineralizations, Nagybörzsöny. Geoda, 22/3, 16-47 (in Hungarian).
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Niigata Prefecture
        • Uetsu
Izumino, Y., & Nakashima, K. (2015). Bismuth minerals from the W–Mo–Sn deposits hosted in the Iwafune granitoids, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 110(6), 300-312.
Izumino, Y., & Nakashima, K. (2015). Bismuth minerals from the W–Mo–Sn deposits hosted in the Iwafune granitoids, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 110(6), 300-312.
    • Kanto region
      • Tochigi Prefecture
        • Nikko City
          • Ashio-machi
Knut Eldjarn collection, 5mm xl.
    • Kinki Region
      • Hyogo Prefecture
        • Asago City
          • Ikuno-cho-ono
Kato, A. et al (1959) Mineralogical Journal, 2, 397-407.
Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
        • Yabu City
          • Oya-cho
Masutomi Museum specimens (Kyoto)
    • Tohoku Region
      • Iwate Prefecture
        • Ohshuu City
          • Esashi ward
            • Akagane mine
Harada, S., Suzuki, Y., Miyawaki, R., Momma, K., Shigeoka, M., Matsubara, S. (2017) Bi-bearing minerals at the Jishakuyama ore deposit of the Akagane mine, Iwate Prefecture, Japan.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Rudawy Janowickie Mts
      • Czarnów
        • Rędziny
Gołębiowska B., Pieczka A., Parafiniuk J. 2006: Cu(Ag)-Pb-Bi(Sb) sulphosalts from Rędziny (Western Sudetes, Poland). Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, vol. 28, 78-80; Parafiniuk, J. et al. (2008): Can. Mineral. 46, 1305-1315.
Romania
 
  • Vâlcea Co.
Udubaşa S.S. (2004) Parageneses and geochemistry of gold from Valea lui Stan and Costeşti ores (South Carpathians, Romania). Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits 81:195-199
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Magadanskaya Oblast'
Goryachev, N. A., Gamyanin, G. N., Prokof’ev, V. Y., Savva, N. E., Velivetskaya, T. A., & Ignat’ev, A. V. (2014). Silver-cobalt mineralization in the Upper Seymchan ore cluster, Northeastern Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 56(5), 322-345.
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
        • Karadubsky ore field
http://www.fegi.ru/FEGI/museum/polisk_e.htm
Gvozdev, V.I., Dobroshevsky, K.N., Vakh, A.S. et al. (2016): Malinovka deposit—A new type of gold mineralization in Primorye, Russia: Geology, mineralogy, and genesis. Russ. J. of Pac. Geol. 10, 34-49.
      • Malinovsky cluster
Gvozdev, V. I. (2009). Bismuth mineralization in ores of the Skrytoe scheelite deposit (Primorye) and problems of its genesis. Russian Journal of Pacific Geology, 3(1), 69-79.
      • Vostok
Gvozdev, V. I., & Tsepin, A. I. (2005). Bismuth Mineralization in the Ores of the Vostok-2 Deposit (Primor'e Region, Russia). Geology of Ore Deposits, 47(2), 132-145.
    • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
      • Kuril Islands (Kurile Islands)
        • Iturup Island
http://maurice.strahlen.org/kurilles/kurilles.htm
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica Co.
Pršek, J., & Peterec, D. (2008). Bi-Se-Te mineralization from Úhorná (Spišsko Gemerské Rudohorie Mts., Słovakia): A preliminary report. Mineralogia, 39(3), 87-103.
    • Rožňava Co.
      • Rochovce (Rachensdorf)
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
South Korea
 
  • Gangwon-do (Kangwon-do; Gang'weondo)
    • Yeonwha
Mineralogical Journal Vol. 13 (1986) , No. 2 pp 65-74
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna
    • Falun
No reference listed
UK
 
  • England
    • Devon
      • Tavistock District
        • Peter Tavy
          • Devon United Mines
UKJMM Vol.25 p.19; UKJMM Vol.29 p.49-52
Ukraine
 
  • Dnipropetrovs'k Oblast' (Dnepropetrovsk Oblast')
    • Ukrainian Shield
      • Sura greenstone belt
        • Solonivske ore field
Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Wagner, T., & Stanley, C. J. (2007). Minerals of the system Bi–Te–Se–S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(4), 665-708.
  • Odessa Oblast'
    • Dnister-Bug domain
      • Savran-Sinistovska ore zone
Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Wagner, T., & Stanley, C. J. (2007). Minerals of the system Bi–Te–Se–S related to the tetradymite archetype: review of classification and compositional variation. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(4), 665-708.
Uzbekistan
 
  • Navoiy Viloyati (Navoi)
    • Central Kyzylkum Region
      • Zarafshan
        • Muruntau ore field
Koneev, R.I., Turesebekov, A.H., Ignatikov, E.N., Vasilevsky, B.B., and Rakhimov, R.R. (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (Eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Vol. 1, 1403-1406
Vietnam
 
  • Kon Tum Province
    • Đắk Tô ore cluster
Vasiliev V.I., Borisenko A.S., Mortsev N.K., Khoa C.C., Fyong N.T. (2011) Jonassonite (AuBi5S4) from the Dakripen gold deposit in Vietnam // Geology of Ore Deposits, 2011.- 53.- 7.- 614-619.- ISSN 1075-7015.
Zimbabwe
 
  • Harare
Oberthür, T. and Weiser, T. W. (2008): Gold-bismuth-telluride-sulphide assemblages at the Viceroy Mine, Harare-Bindura-Shamva greenstone belt, Zimbabwe. Mineralogical Magazine 72, 953-970.
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