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About IndialiteHide

Flag of India
Colourless (thin section).
7 - 7½
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by A. Miyashiro and T. Iiyama in 1954 after the country of India, where the type locality is located.
Dimorph of:
The Mg analogue of ferroindialite.
The hexagonal high-temperature dimorph of cordierite (orthorhombic-pseudohexagonal).

Note: the formula has also been expressed as Al2SiMg2[Al2Si4]O18 (Pezzotta, 2005), and the mineral has been assigned to the beryl group.

Material at the type locality was anthropogenic since it was formed as the result of fusion and recrystallization of rocks above burning coal seams. It was subsequently found in nature in hornfels, and rapidly quenched volcanic rocks.

Classification of IndialiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
J : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings (sechser-Einfachringe), without insular complex anions

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
1 : Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
19 : Aluminosilicates of Fe and Mg

Physical Properties of IndialiteHide

Colourless (thin section).
7 - 7½ on Mohs scale
2.512 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.59 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Measured values on artificial material.

Optical Data of IndialiteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.539 nε = 1.534
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of IndialiteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of IndialiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.8 Å, c = 9.345 Å
a:c = 1 : 0.954
Unit Cell V:
777.25 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Small hexagonal grains and clusters of spiral-shaped grains, some exhibiting tentacles or multiple terminations.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
8.48 Å(100)
3.027 Å(85)
3.138 Å(65)
3.379 Å(55)
4.094 Å(50)
4.89 Å(30)
1.6882 Å(30)
Obtained on artificial material.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Polymetamorphosed pelitic rock (Japan); volcanic eruptive matter (Bellerberg volcano).

Type Occurrence of IndialiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Burning coal seam underlying sedimentary rocks
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for IndialiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Indialite associated with PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.CJ.Avdeevite(Na,Cs)(Be2Li)Al2(Si6O18)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
9.CJ.05BazziteBe3Sc2(Si6O18)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CJ.05BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CJ.05StoppaniiteBe3Fe3+2(Si6O18) · H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
9.CJ.10Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cccm
9.CJ.15aCombeiteNa4.5Ca3.5Si6O17.5(OH)0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
9.CJ.15cKoashviteNa6(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si6O18 · H2OOrth.
9.CJ.15aLovozeriteNa2Ca(Zr,Ti)(Si6O12)[(OH)4O2] · H2OMon.
9.CJ.15aTisinaliteNa3H3(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi6(O,OH)18 · 2H2OTrig.
9.CJ.15aLitvinskiteNa2(◻,Na,Mn)ZrSi6O12(OH,O)6Mon. m : Bm
9.CJ.15aKapustiniteNa5(Na,Mn2+)<1Zr(H2Si6O18)Mon. 2/m
9.CJ.25BaratoviteKCa7(Ti,Zr)2Li3Si12O36F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.CJ.25KatayamaliteKLi3Ca7Ti2(SiO3)12(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.CJ.25AleksandroviteKCa7Sn2Li3Si12O36F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.CJ.30DioptaseCuSiO3 · H2OTrig. 3 : R3
9.CJ.35KostyleviteK2Zr(Si3O9) · H2OMon.
9.CJ.40PetarasiteNa5Zr2(Si6O18)(Cl,OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.CJ.45Gerenite-(Y)(Ca,Na)2(Y,REE)3Si6O18 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.CJ.60PezzottaiteCs(Be2Li)Al2(Si6O18)Trig. 3 : R3

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.19.2Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cccm
16.19.5StauroliteFe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.19.6Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
16.19.7AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
16.19.9YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.19.11Ferrocarpholite(Fe2+,Mg)Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ccca
16.19.15Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
16.19.16Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
16.19.17ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.19.22VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
16.19.23Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:

References for IndialiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Venkatesh, V. (1952) Development and growth of cordierite in para-lavas. American Mineralogist: 37: 831-847.
Miyashiro, A. and Iiyama, T. (1954) A preliminary note on a new mineral, indialite, polymorphic with cordierite. Proceedings of the Japan Academy: 30: 746-751.
Fleischer, M. (1955) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 40: 787-788.
Miyashiro, A., Iiyama, T., Yamasaki, M., and Miyashiro, T. (1955) The polymorphism of cordierite and indialite. American Journal of Sciences: 253: 185-208.
Miyashiro, A. (1957) Cordierite-indialite relations. American Journal of Sciences: 255: 43-62.
Meagher, E.P. and Gibbs, G.V. (1977) The polymorphism of cordierite: II. The crystal structure of indialite. Canadian Mineralogist: 15: 43-49.
Kitamura, M. and Hiroi, Y. (1982) Indialite from Unazuki Pelitic Schist, Japan, and its transition texture to cordierite. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 80: 110-116.
Daniels, P. (1990) What is the true space group of high-cordierite? Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 190: 271-276.
Daniels, P. (1992) Structural effects of the incorporation of large radius alkalis in high cordierite. American Mineralogist: 77: 407.
Balassone, G., Franco, E., Mattia, C.A., and Puliti, R. (2004) Indialite in xenolithic rocks from Somma-Vesuvius volcano (Southern Italy): Crystal chemistry and petrogenetic features. American Mineralogist: 89: 1-6.
Pezzotta, F. (2005) Rivista Mineralogica Italiana: 2, 98.
Rakovan, J., Kitamura, M., Tamada, O. (2006) Sakura Ish: Mica pseudomorphs of complex cordierite-indialite intergrowths from Kameoka, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Rocks & Minerals, 81, 284-292.

Internet Links for IndialiteHide

Localities for IndialiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Burgenland
    • Oberpullendorf District
      • Kobersdorf
        • Pauliberg
U. Kolitsch, W. Postl, H.-P. Bojar and W. Trattner (2009): Die Mineralvorkommen im Basalt des Pauliberges. In: Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 83-99.
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
      • Libušin
V. Zacek, A. Petrov, and E. Lackner collections.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Cologne
      • Aachen
        • Alsdorf
T. Witzke, F. de Wit, U. Kolitsch and G. Blaß (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, 203-240; in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Mayen-Koblenz
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
      • Nickenich
Igor Pekov; Künzel, H. E., Blaß, G. and Schüller, W. (2011): Mineralien - Bomben - Grottensteine: Der Nickenicher Weinberg. Lapis, 36 (7-8), 55-66; 86.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Oelsnitz/Erzgeb.
T. Witzke (1996): Die Minerale der brennenden Halde der Steinkohlengrube "Deutschland-schacht" in Oelsnitz bei Zwickau.- Aufschluss 47, 41-48
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Vizianagaram District
Kumar, P. V. Ramesh ; Raju, K. K. V. S. (1997) Indialite for cordierite gneisses of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt, India. Current Science 73:382-385
  • Jharkhand
    • Dhanbad District
      • Jharia Coalfield
Current Science (1954) p411
    • Ramgarh District
Miyashiro, A. and T. Iiyama (1954) A preliminary note on a new mineral, indialite, polymorphic with cordierite. Proceedings of the Japan Academy: 30: 746-751.
  • West Bengal
    • Paschim Bardhaman District
      • Raniganj Coalfield
        • Victoria West Colliery
Subramaniam, A. P. (1955) Metastable Forms of Cordierite from Fused Rocks in Indian Coalfields. 24:91
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Mt Vesuvius
Balassone G, Franco E, Mattia CA, Puliti R (2004) Indialite in xenolithic rocks from Somma-Vesuvius volcano (Southern Italy): crystal chemistry and petrogenetic features. American Mineralogist 89: 1-6
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Spoleto
Stoppa, F., & Schiazza, M. (2014). Extreme chemical conditions of crystallisation of Umbrian Melilitolites and wealth of rare, late stage/hydrothermal minerals. Central European Journal of Geosciences, 6(4), 549-564.
  • Kyoto Prefecture
Rakovan, J., Kitamura, M., Tamada, O. (2006) Sakura Ish: Mica pseudomorphs of complex cordierite-indialite intergrowths from Kameoka, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Rocks & Minerals, 81, 284-292.
    • Kyoto City
      • Sakyou-ku
Rocks & Minerals 81:284-292; Forrest Cureton specimens
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Toyama Prefecture
    • Kurobe City
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 80: 110-116 (1982)
  • Töv Province
    • Choir-Nyalga basin
Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khromova, E. A., Karmanov, N. S., & Ivanov, A. V. (2018) Unique Clinkers and Paralavas from a New Nyalga Combustion Metamorphic Complex in Central Mongolia: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Genesis. Petrology, 26(2), 181-211.
Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khromova, E. A., Karmanov, N. S., & Ivanov, A. V. (2018) Unique Clinkers and Paralavas from a New Nyalga Combustion Metamorphic Complex in Central Mongolia: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Genesis. Petrology, 26(2), 181-211.
Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khromova, E. A., Karmanov, N. S., & Ivanov, A. V. (2018) Unique Clinkers and Paralavas from a New Nyalga Combustion Metamorphic Complex in Central Mongolia: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Genesis. Petrology, 26(2), 181-211.
Peretyazhko, I. S., Savina, E. A., Khrоmova, E. A., & Mills, S. (2017) Minerals of the rhönite-kuratite series in paralavas from a new combustion metamorphic complex in the Choir–Nyalga basin (Central Mongolia): composition, mineral assemblages and formation conditions. Mineralogical Magazine, 81(4), 949-974.
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kłodzko County
      • Gmina Nowa Ruda
        • Przygórze
          • Bolesław Mine
Łukasz Kruszewski PXRD data
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Bytom City County
Kruszewski, Ł. (2018)(?): Geochemical Behavior of Trace Elements in Upper and Lower Silesian Basin Coal-Fire Gob Piles, Poland. Coal and Peat Fires, vol. 5, xx-xx (in review/correction); Ł. Kruszewski EPMA/PXRD data
    • Rybnik City Co.
Ciesielczuk, J., Misz-Kennan, M., Hower, J. C., & Fabiańska, M. J. (2014). Mineralogy and geochemistry of coal wastes from the Starzykowiec coal-waste dump (Upper Silesia, Poland). International Journal of Coal Geology, 127, 42-55.
    • Wodzisław Co.
      • Radlin
Ł. Kruszewski PXRD data (W. Sierny specimen)
      • Rydułtowy
        • ROW Ruch Rydułtowy Mine
Ł. Kruszewski PXRD and EPMA data
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
  • Kamchatka Krai
    • Tolbachik volcano
      • Mountain 1004
Pekov, I.V., Sandalov, F.D., Koshlyakova, N.N., Vigasina, M.F., Polekhovsky, Y.S., Britvin, S.N., Sidorov, E.G., Turchkova, A.G. (2018): Copper in Natural Oxide Spinels: The New Mineral Thermaerogenite CuAl2O4, Cuprospinel and Cu-Enriched Varieties of Other Spinel-Group Members from Fumaroles of the Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Minerals, 8: 498.
  • Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • South Dakota
    • Oglala Lakota Co.
R. Stach and J. Harkensen (1974) Fused Sediments near Pine Ridge, South Dakota. South Dakota Geological Survey. Reprint No. 14
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
      • Reno Junction
Gunnar Färber - Mineralienliste 3-2017.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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