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Ammoniojarosite

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About AmmoniojarositeHide

Formula:
(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Colour:
Light yellow; light yellow to nearly colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Waxy, Dull, Earthy
Hardness:
3½ - 4½
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
In allusion to its composition containing dominant AMMONIum, and its relationship to JAROSITE.
Maybe confused with hydroniumjarosite.


Classification of AmmoniojarositeHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.BC.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
30.2.5.4

30 : ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
2 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq
25.11.14

25 : Sulphates
11 : Sulphates of Fe and other metals

Physical Properties of AmmoniojarositeHide

Waxy, Dull, Earthy
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Light yellow; light yellow to nearly colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness:
3½ - 4½ on Mohs scale

Optical Data of AmmoniojarositeHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.800 nε = 1.750
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of AmmoniojarositeHide

Formula:
(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6

Crystallography of AmmoniojarositeHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.32 Å, c = 17.5 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.391
Unit Cell V:
812.07 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Small lumps and irregular flattened nodules comprised of microscopic tabulr grains with hexagonal outlines at times.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0014580AmmoniojarositeBasciano L C, Peterson R C (2007) The crystal structure of ammoniojarosite, (NH4)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6 and the crystal chemistry of the ammoniojarosite-hydronium jarosite solid-solution series Mineralogical Magazine 71 427-4412007Synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of AmmoniojarositeHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA, 95654.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Formed in black lignitic shales containing pyrite
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of AmmoniojarositeHide

Other Language Names for AmmoniojarositeHide

Relationship of Ammoniojarosite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe3+2Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
DorallchariteTlFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
JarositeKFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
OsarizawaitePb(Al2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Schlossmacherite(H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
WalthieriteBa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.

Common AssociatesHide

AluminiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 7H2O
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Ammoniojarosite associated with Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
1 photo of Ammoniojarosite associated with GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.BC.Adranosite-(Fe)(NH4)4NaFe3+2(SO4)4Cl(OH)2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.BC.Adranosite(NH4)4NaAl2(SO4)4Cl(OH)2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.BC.AgaitePb3CuTeO5(OH)2(CO3) Orth. mm2 : Pca21
7.BC.05D'AnsiteNa21Mg(SO4)10Cl3Iso.
7.BC.10AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
7.BC.10ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10DorallchariteTlFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10HuangiteCa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10JarositeKFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10OsarizawaitePb(Al2Cu2+)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10Schlossmacherite(H3O)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
7.BC.10WalthieriteBa0.5Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe3+2Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.15Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12Iso.
7.BC.20AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3ClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
7.BC.20NabokoiteKCu7(SO4)5(Te4+O3)OClTet.
7.BC.25ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BC.30EuchlorineKNaCu3(SO4)3OMon.
7.BC.30FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.BC.35KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BC.40PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)ClTet.
7.BC.45KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Fe3+,Al)(SO4)4O2Mon.
7.BC.45AlumoklyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)4O2Tric. 1 : P1
7.BC.50CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
7.BC.55WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
7.BC.60MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2Mon. 2 : B2
7.BC.65LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
7.BC.65SchmiederitePb2Cu2(Se6+O4)(Se4+O3)(OH)4Mon.
7.BC.65MunakataitePb2Cu2(Se4+O3)(SO4)(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
7.BC.70ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
7.BC.75KrivovichevitePb3Al(OH)6(SO4)(OH)Trig. 3m : R3c
7.BC.80AnhydrokainiteKMg(SO4)Cl

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

30.2.5.1JarositeKFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
30.2.5.5ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
30.2.5.6PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
30.2.5.7Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
30.2.5.8DorallchariteTlFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
30.2.5.9Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe3+2Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.11.1NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
25.11.2SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.11.3MetasideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.11.4FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
25.11.5AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.11.6YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
25.11.7KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.11.8GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.11.9JarositeKFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.11.10VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
25.11.11UngemachiteK3Na8Fe(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.11.12MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2OTrig.
25.11.13Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
25.11.15Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2OTric.
25.11.16Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.11.17Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso.
25.11.18Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
25.11.19BotryogenMgFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 7H2OMon. 2/m
25.11.21Slavíkite(H3O+)3Mg6Fe15(SO4)21(OH)18 · 98H2OTrig. 3 : R3
25.11.23SturmaniteCa6(Fe3+,Al,Mn3+)2(SO4)2[B(OH)4](OH)12 · 25H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
25.11.24Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3Trig. 3 : R3
25.11.25AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.11.26HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
25.11.27Idrizite(Mg,Fe)(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3(OH)2 · 15H2O or near
25.11.28LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.11.29ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AmmoniojarositeHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Shannon, E.V. (1927) Ammoniojarosite, a new mineral of the jarosite group of Utah. American Mineralogist: 12: 424-426.
Shannon, E.V. (1929) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 74[13].
Hendricks, S.B. (1937) The crystal structure of alunite and the jarosites. American Mineralogist: 22: 773-784.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 562.
Odum, J.K., Hauff, P.L., Farrow, R.A. (1982) A new occurrence of ammoniojarosite in Buffalo, Wyoming. The Canadian Mineralogist: 20: 91-95.
Jambor, J.L. (1999) Nomenclature of the alunite supergroup. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1323-1341.
Basciano, L.C., Peterson, R.C. (2007) The crystal structure of ammoniojarosite, (NH4)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6 and the crystal chemistry of the ammoniojarosite–hydronium jarosite solid-solution series. Mineralogical Magazine: 71: 427-441.
Parafiniuk, J., Kruszewski, Ł. (2010) Minerals of the ammonioalunite–ammoniojarosite series formed on a burning coal dump at Czerwionka, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Mineralogical Magazine: 74: 731-745.

Internet Links for AmmoniojarositeHide

Localities for AmmoniojarositeHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Leoben District
      • Leoben
Chris Auer; Meixner, H. (1954): Neue Mineralfunde in den österreichischen Ostalpen XIII.- Carinthia II, 144./64., 18-29; Meixner, H. (1972): Über Jarosit-Minerale (alte und neue Vorkommen aus Österreich sowie Natrojarosit-xx von Sounion, Griechenland). Der Karinthin 66, 291-297.
    • Voitsberg District
      • Köflach
        • Köflach - Voitsberg lignite deposit
          • Zangtal
Postl, W. (1982) Mineralogische Notizen aus der Steiermark. Die Eisenblüte, Jg. 3, N. F., 5, 7—9.; Walter, F. and Postl, W. (1983) Ammoniojarosit und Voltait vom Muttlkogel, Zangtaler Kohlenrevier bei Voitsberg, Steiermark. Mitteilungen der Abteilung für Mineralogie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, 51, 29-32.
Bolivia
 
  • Oruro
    • Avaroa Province
      • Challapata
        • Cebadillas-Pequereque
Handbook of Mineralogy
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Rakovník District
      • Skřivaň
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 563.
  • South Moravian Region
    • Brno-Country District
      • Oslavany
Hršelová, P., Cempírek, J., Houzar, S., Sejkora, J. (2013): S,F,Cl-rich mineral assemblages from burned spoil heaps in the Rosice-Oslavany coalfield, Czech Republic. Can. Mineral.: 51(1): 171-188
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Lunel
Handbook of Mineralogy
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Lower Saxony
    • Osnabrück District
      • Georgsmarienhütte
Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Uentrop
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Cologne
      • Aachen
        • Alsdorf
Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German); Collection Elmar Lackner; Witzke, T., de Wit, F., Kolitsch, U. and Blaß, G. (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, pp. 203-240, in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier, 786 pp.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion Mining District
          • Km 3
            • Kaminiza mines
Rieck, B., Kolitsch, U., Voudouris, P., Giester, G. and Tzeferis, P. (2018): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion, Griechenland. Mineralien-Welt 29 (5), 32-77 (in German).
Hungary
 
  • Baranya County
    • Pécs District
Szakáll S.-HOM Collection,Miskolc
New Zealand
 
  • Manawatu-Whanganui Region
    • Ruapehu District
      • Tongariro National Park
Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Peru
 
  • Arequipa
    • Caylloma Province
      • Chivay District
Ciesielczuk, J., Żaba, J., Bzowska, G., Gaidzik, K., & Głogowska, M. (2013). Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 42, 186-193.
Poland
 
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Rybnik County
      • Gmina Czerwionka-Leszczyny
Parafiniuk, J. and Kruszewski, Ł. (2009): Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). Geol. Quart., 53, 341-356. http://www.pgi.gov.pl/images/stories/G_Q/53_3/parafiniuk.pdf]
    • Wodzisław County
      • Radlin
Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Segit, T., Kusy, D., Motyliński, R., Ciesielczuk, J., Deput, E., (2019): Carbon-nitrogen compounds, alcohols, mercaptans, monoterpenes, acetates, aldehydes, ketones, SF6, PH3, and other fire gases in coal-mining waste heaps of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) – a re-investigation by means of in situ FTIR external database approach. Science of The Total Environment (in press)
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Slovakia
 
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov District
      • Zlatá Baňa
Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
Ďuďa R., Baláž B. (2001): Minerály na ložiskách zlatobanského stratovulkánu. Minerál, 9, 4, 248-269 (in Slovak).
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Níjar
        • Rodalquilar
Rui Nunes collection
  • Extremadura
    • Cáceres
      • Tajo-Salor
        • Aliseda
Crespo, Á., Pimentel, C., Pedraz, P., & Pina, C. M. (2017). First occurrence of the rare mineral slavikite in Spain. Journal of Iberian Geology, 43(3), 487-495.
UK
 
  • England
    • East Sussex
      • Lewes
        • Newhaven
Inglethorpe, S., & Morgan, D. (1993). Detection of ammonium in geological materials by evolved gas analysis. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 40(1), 29-40.
USA
 
  • California
    • Lake Co.
      • Sulphur Creek Mining District (Sulfur Creek Mining District; Wilbur Springs Mining District)
        • Clear Lake Oaks
Erd, R.C., D.E. White, J.J. Fahey & D.E. Lee (1964), Buddingtonite, an ammonium feldspar with zeolitic water: American Mineralogist: 49: 833; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 279.
    • San Mateo Co.
      • Menlo Park
        • Sharon Heights
Pampeyan, E.H. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1053
    • Sonoma Co.
      • West Mayacmas Mining District
American Mineralogist (1988): 73: 145-152; Dunning, G. S. & Cooper, J. F. (1993): History and minerals of The Geysers Sonoma County, California. Mineralogical Record 24 (5): 339-352
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 279.
  • Oklahoma
    • Okmulgee Co.
Rocks & Minerals: 72(4): 252-264.
  • Tennessee
    • Sevier Co.
Coskren, T. D. & Lauf, R. J. (2000): The Minerals of Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. Mineralogical Record, 31, 163-175.
  • Utah
    • Kane Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 563; American Mineralogist (1927): 12: 424-426.
  • Washington
    • Pierce Co.
Rye, R. O., Breit, G. N., & Zimbelman, D. R. (2003). Preliminary mineralogic and stable isotope studies of altered summit and flank rocks and Osceola Mudflow deposits on Mount Rainier, Washington. US Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey.
  • Wyoming
    • Johnson Co.
      • Buffalo
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 20, pp.91-95 (1982)
    • Sweetwater Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 476.
Venezuela
 
  • Miranda
Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
 
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