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Iwakiite

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About IwakiiteHide

Formula:
Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Colour:
Greenish black
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
4.85
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Name:
Named by Satoshi Matsubara, Akira Kato, Kozo Nagashima in 1978 for Iwaki city which is located near the type locality.
Discredited in 2018 (Bosi et al.).
Dimorph of:
Compare hausmannite.

May be easily confused with its dimorph jacobsite (cubic).
See also α-vredenburgite.


Classification of IwakiiteHide

Discredited
4.BB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
B : With only medium-sized cations
7.2.6.2

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
7.9.14

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Physical Properties of IwakiiteHide

Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Greenish black
Streak:
black
Hardness:
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Density:
4.85 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.89 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of IwakiiteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Reflectivity:
20 20.0% 19.4%440 19.9% 19.3%460 20.3% 19.5%480 20.4% 19.6%500 20.8% 19.8%520 21.2% 20.1%540 21.4% 20.3%560 21.3% 20.4%580 21.2% 20.1%600 21.0% 20.0%620 20.9% 19.7%640 20.5% 19.6%660 20.4% 19.2%680 20.2% 19.1%nmR=20 20.0 19.4440 19.9 19.3460 20.3 19.5480 20.4 19.6500 20.8 19.8520 21.2 20.1540 21.4 20.3560 21.3 20.4580 21.2 20.1600 21.0 20.0620 20.9 19.7640 20.5 19.6660 20.4 19.2680 20.2 19.1%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 20 20.0 19.4440 19.9 19.3460 20.3 19.5480 20.4 19.6500 20.8 19.8520 21.2 20.1540 21.4 20.3560 21.3 20.4580 21.2 20.1600 21.0 20.0620 20.9 19.7640 20.5 19.6660 20.4 19.2680 20.2 19.1%.
Colour in reflected light:
olive-gray
Internal Reflections:
none observed
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of IwakiiteHide

Formula:
Mn2+Fe3+2O4

Crystallography of IwakiiteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/amd
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.02 Å, c = 8.54 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.419
Unit Cell V:
309.49 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Twinning:
{101}, similar to hausmannite

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.929 (30)
3.016 (40)
2.570 (100)
2.461 (6)
2.135 (16)
2.130 (16)
1.739 (15)
1.640 (30)
1.509 (35)
1.506 (40)
1.299 (10)
1.284 (8)
Comments:
Satoshi MATSUBARA, Akira KATO, Kozo NAGASHIMA (1978) Mineralogical Magazine, v9, pp.383-391.

First Recorded Occurrence of IwakiiteHide

Synonyms of IwakiiteHide

Other Language Names for IwakiiteHide

German:Iwakiit
Japanese:磐城鉱
Spanish:Iwakiita

Relationship of Iwakiite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Adelite1 photo of Iwakiite associated with Adelite on mindat.org.
Calcite1 photo of Iwakiite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Manganophyllite1 photo of Iwakiite associated with Manganophyllite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.BB.ChenmingiteFeCr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.BB.ThermaerogeniteCuAl2O4Iso.
4.BB.05ChromiteFe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Cochromite(Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4
4.BB.05CoulsoniteFe2+V3+2O4
4.BB.05CuprospinelCu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
4.BB.05Filipstadite(Sb0.5Fe0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
4.BB.05FrankliniteZn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05GahniteZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05HercyniteFe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4
4.BB.05MagnesiocoulsoniteMgV2O4Iso.
4.BB.05MagnesiochromiteMgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnesioferriteMgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Nichromite(Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
4.BB.05SpinelMgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05TrevoriteNi2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.BB.05VuorelaineniteMn2+V3+2O4
4.BB.05ZincochromiteZnCr2O4Iso.
4.BB.10HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HetaeroliteZnMn2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.10HydrohetaeroliteZnMn2O4 · H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
4.BB.15MaghemiteFe3+2O3Iso. 4 3 2 : P41 3 2
4.BB.15TitanomaghemiteFe3+(Fe3+,Ti4+,Fe2+,◻)2O4Iso. 4 3 2 : P43 3 2
4.BB.20Tegengrenite(Mg,Mn2+)2Sb5+0.5(Mn3+,Si,Ti)0.5O4Trig.
4.BB.25XieiteFe2+Cr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

7.2.6.1KusachiiteCuBi2O4Tet.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.2RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.9.3AnataseTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2Orth.
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6Mon.
7.9.11Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19Hex.
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6Amor.
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.17UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9Hex.
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16Mon.
7.9.20KennedyiteFe2TiO5
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10Hex.
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38Trig.
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16Tet.
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13Mon.
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3

Other InformationHide

Magnetism:
Ferrimagnetic
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for IwakiiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Matsubara, S., Kato, A., Nagashima, K. (1979): Iwakiite, Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn3+)2O4, a new tetragonal spinelloid mineral from the Gozaisho mine, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Journal 9, 383-391. [Abs. in American Mineralogist 65 (1980) 406].
Jarosch, D. (1988): Crystal structure of iwakiite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 185, 605-605.
Bosi, F., Biagioni, C. & Pasero, M.: Nomenclature and classification of the spinel supergroup. Eur. J. Mineral. fast track.

Internet Links for IwakiiteHide

Localities for IwakiiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • East Tyrol
      • Virgen valley
        • Prägraten
          • Timmelbach valley
Kolitsch, U., Schachinger, T., Auer, C. (2017): 2026) Albit, Amphibol, Bementit(?), Braunit, ein Mn-Chlorit, As-haltiger Fluorapatit, Galaxit, Hämatit, Hübnerit, Iwakiit(?), Jakobsit, Kalifeldspat, Kutnahorit, Långbanit, Manganoxide, Nickelskutterudit, Pyrophanit, Quarz, Rhodochrosit, Rhodonit, Safflorit, Sarkinit, Sonolith, Spessartin, Tephroit, Uraninit und Zirkon aus Manganvererzungen von der Wunwand (Wunspitze) bei Prägraten, Osttirol. Pp. 241-246 in Walter, F. et al. (2017): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVI. Carinthia II, 207./127., 217-284.
Japan (FRL)
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Fukushima Prefecture
        • Iwaki City
S. Matsubara, A. Kato, K. Nagashima: Japan. Mineral. J. 9:383-391 (1979); Amer. Mineral. 65:406 (1980); Matsubara, S., Miyawaki, R., Kato, A., Matsuyama, F., Mouri, T. and Suzuki, Y. (2001): Arseniopleite from the Gozaisho mine, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Bull. Natn. Sci. Mus., Tokyo, Ser. C, 27, 51-62; Matsubara, S., Kato, A., Shimizu, M., Sekiuchi, K., and Suzuki, M. (1996) Romeite from the Gozaisho mine, Iwaki, Japan. Mineralogical Journal 18, 155-160.
Romania
 
  • Maramureș Co.
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu; Udubasa, G., Hartopanu, P., Ilinca, G. (1996). The Regionally metamorphosed Fe-Mn Ore Deposit at Razoare, Preluca Mts., Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineralogy, 77, 3-20.
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna
    • Hedemora
      • Garpenberg
(Kjell Gatedal); Grensman, F., Kalinowski, M.P. and Sandström, F. (2001): Garpenberg Norra. Litofilen. 18 (2), 26-46.
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
K.Gatedal
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
Gatedal, K. (1994): Iwakiit från Jakobsberg och Harstigen. Långbansnytt. vol 10 [reprinted in: Långbansnytt. De första 20 åren 1983-2003. Långbansällskapet - Skrifter och rapporter. 2, 82]
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Gatedal, K. (1991): Jakobsit, barysilit och Mn-vesuvian från Harstigen. Långbansnytt. vol 7 [reprinted in: Långbansnytt. De första 20 åren 1983-2003. Långbansällskapet - Skrifter och rapporter. 2, 82-83]; Gatedal, K. (1994): Iwakiit från Jakobsberg och Harstigen. Långbansnytt. vol 10 [reprinted in: Långbansnytt. De första 20 åren 1983-2003. Långbansällskapet - Skrifter och rapporter. 2, 82]
UK
 
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanfaelrhys
          • Rhiw
UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48
Mineral and/or Locality  
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