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Ixiolite

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Ixion
Formula:
(Ta,Mn,Nb)O2
System:
Orthorhombic
Colour:
Steel-grey, black
Lustre:
Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Name:
After Ixion in Greek mythology, a character related to Tantalus, in allusion to the tantalum content of the material.
Complex oxide with disordered cation distribution (only one cation site in the asymmetric unit) and a unit cell equivalent to a subcell of columbite.

Some "ixiolites" are Nb-dominant and probably a new species (see ixiolite varieties).
Orthorhombic, although some varieties seem to be monoclinic-pseudoorthorhombic (Wise et al., 1998).



Classification of Ixiolite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Approval Year:
1962
4.DB.25

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
8.1.10.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
1 : ABO4
18.1.41

18 : Niobates and Tantalates
1 : Niobates and tantalates containing neither rare earths nor U

Physical Properties of Ixiolite

Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Steel-grey, black
Hardness (Mohs):
6 - 6½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
7.03 - 7.23 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.39 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Chemical Properties of Ixiolite

IMA Formula:
(Ta,Mn,Nb)O2
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Ixiolite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.73 Å, b = 4.74 Å, c = 5.16 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.209 : 1 : 1.089
Unit Cell Volume:
V 140 ų
Morphology:
Single crystals are "columbite-like", also as spherical aggregates. Rectangular prisms with {100}, {001}, and {010}.
Twinning:
Twinned on {103} at times.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.65 (32)
2.98 (100)
2.87 (5)
2.57 (13)
2.51 (20)
2.37 (5)
2.265 (2)
2.213 (4)
2.104 (9)
2.017 (1)
1.915 (4)
1.826 (6)
1.772 (13)
1.746 (17)
1.722 (24)
1.554 (12)
1.521 (1)
1.490 (1)
1.459 (29)
1.380 (1)
Comments:
The unit-cell is a sub-cell of columbite, with similar parameters except for b, which is one-third of the columbite b parameter.

Occurrences of Ixiolite

Type Occurrence of Ixiolite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Granitic pegmatite
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Relationship of Ixiolite to other Species

4.DB.05ArgutiteGeO2
4.DB.05CassiteriteSnO2
4.DB.05PlattneritePbO2
4.DB.05PyrolusiteMnO2
4.DB.05RutileTiO2
4.DB.05TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4
4.DB.05TugarinoviteMoO2
4.DB.05Varlamoffite(Sn,Fe)(O,OH)2
4.DB.10ByströmiteMgSb25+O6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
4.DB.10OrdoñeziteZnSb25+O6
4.DB.15bAkhtenskiteMnO2
4.DB.15cNsutiteMnx2+Mn4+1-xO2-2x(OH)2x
4.DB.15aParamontroseiteVO2
4.DB.15aRamsdelliteMn4+O2
4.DB.20ScrutinyitePbO2
4.DB.25Ishikawaite(U,Fe,Y)NbO4
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Ce,U,Fe,Nb)(Nb,Ta,Ti)O4
4.DB.25SrilankiteTi2ZrO6
4.DB.25Yttrocolumbite-(Y)(Y,U,Fe2+)(Nb,Ta)O4
4.DB.25Calciosamarskite(Ca,Fe,Y)(Nb,Ta,Ti)O4
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)YbNbO4
4.DB.30FerberiteFe2+WO4
4.DB.30HübneriteMn2+WO4
4.DB.30SanmartiniteZnWO4
4.DB.30KrasnoselskiteCoWO4
4.DB.30HeftetjerniteScTaO4
4.DB.30HuanzalaiteMgWO4
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mg)MgNb2O6
4.DB.35QitianlingiteFe22+Nb2W6+O10
4.DB.35Magnocolumbite(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)MgTa2O6
4.DB.40FerrowodginiteFe2+Sn4+Ta2O8
4.DB.40LithiotantiteLiTa3O8
4.DB.40LithiowodginiteLiTa3O8
4.DB.40TitanowodginiteMn2+TiTa2O8
4.DB.40WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
4.DB.40FerrotitanowodginiteFe2+TiTa2O8
4.DB.40WolframowodginiteMn(Mn,Sn,Fe,Ta)(W,Ta,Nb)2O8
4.DB.45TivaniteTiV3+O3(OH)
4.DB.50Carmichaelite(Ti,Cr,Fe)(O,OH)2
4.DB.55AlumotantiteAlTaO4
4.DB.60BiehliteSb23+MoO6
18.1.1LithiotantiteLiTa3O8
18.1.2LueshiteNaNbO3
18.1.3NatroniobiteNaNbO3
18.1.4FranconiteNaNb2O5(OH) · 3H2O
18.1.5NatrotantiteNa2Ta4O11
18.1.6IrtyshiteNa2Ta4O11
18.1.7Rankamaite(Na,K,Pb)(Ta,Nb,Al)4(O,OH)10
18.1.8Hydropyrochlore(H2O,◻)2Nb2(O,OH)6(H2O)
18.1.9CalciotantiteCaTa4O11
18.1.10RynersoniteCaTa2O6
18.1.11Microlite Group(Ca,Na)2Ta2(O,OH,F)7
18.1.12BelyankiniteCa1-2(Ti,Zr,Nb)5O12 · 9H2O
18.1.13LatrappiteCa2NbFe3+O6
18.1.14HochelagaiteCaNb4O11 · 8H2O
18.1.15Bariomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.16ParabariomicroliteBaTa4O10(OH)2 · 2H2O
18.1.17Bariopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
18.1.18AlumotantiteAlTaO4
18.1.19SimpsoniteAl4Ta3O13(OH)
18.1.20SosedkoiteK5Al2Ta22O60
18.1.21ThoreauliteSn2+Ta2O6
18.1.22Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.23FoorditeSn2+Nb2O6
18.1.24ChangbaiitePbNb2O6
18.1.25Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
18.1.26Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.27StibiocolumbiteSbNbO4
18.1.28StibiotantaliteSb3+TaO4
18.1.29Natrobistantite
18.1.30CesplumtantiteCs2Pb3Ta8O24
18.1.31Stibiomicrolite (of Groat et al.)
18.1.32Cesstibtantite
18.1.34BismutotantaliteBiTaO4
18.1.35Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.36Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
18.1.37GerasimovskiteMn2+(Ti,Nb)5O12 · 9H2O
18.1.38Tapiolite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6
18.1.39Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6
18.1.40WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8
18.1.42Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
18.1.43Tantalite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6
18.1.44Columbite
18.1.45Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
18.1.46Tapiolite(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
18.1.47Tapiolite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6
18.1.48Columbite-(Mg)MgNb2O6
18.1.50Strüverite(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
18.1.51 Staringite(Fe,Mn)x(Ta,Nb)2xSn6-3xO12

Other Names for Ixiolite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:锡铁钽矿
Traditional Chinese:錫鐵鉭礦

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:
Heating above 700 °C induces order; either to wodginite structure or to columbite structure depending on chemistry.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Ta-ore

References for Ixiolite

Reference List:
Nordenskiöld (1857), Ann. Phys.: 101: 632.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 778.

Khvostova, V. A.; Maksimova, N. V. (1963): New discovery of ixiolite. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 148, 424-426 (in Russian).

Nickel, E. H.; Rowland, J. F.; McAdam, R. C. (1963): Ixiolite-a columbite substructure. American Mineralogist, 48, 961-979.

Grice, J. D., Ferguson, R. B., Hawthorne, F. C. (1976): The crystal structures of tantalite, ixiolite and wodginite from Bernic lake, Manitoba. I. Tantalite and ixiolite. Canadian Mineralogist 14, 540-549.

Polyakov, V. O.; Cherepivskaya, G. E. (1981): Ixiolite of the Ilmen Mountains. Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal 3, 67-75 (in Russian).

Wise, M.A., Černý, P., Falster, A.U. (1998): Scandium substitution in columbite-group minerals and ixiolite. Canadian Mineralogist 36, 673-680.

Internet Links for Ixiolite

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https://www.mindat.org/min-2059.html
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Specimens:
The following Ixiolite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Ixiolite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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