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Kaersutite

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Formula:
NaCa2(Mg3Ti4+Al)(Si6Al2)O22O2
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Dark brown to black
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
5 - 6
Name:
For the locality at Qaersut (Kaersut), Uummannaq (Umanak) Firth, northern Greenland
The chemical formula of kaersutite has been changed in the 2012 amphibole nomenclature from {Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Ti}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)O to {Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2 thus adding WO > 1.0 apfu to the CTi > 0.5 apfu requirement to the definition of the mineral. The exact WO2-/(OH)- ratio is rarely analysed and the amphibole report "use Ti content as a proxy for the oxo component in pargasite, and define kaersutite as having CTi >0.50 apfu (≈O2- > 1.00 apfu). However, if the O2- content is known from chemical or crystal-chemical analysis, it takes precedence over use of the Ti content as a proxy.


Classification of Kaersutite

Approved
8/F.10-150
9.DE.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles
66.1.3a.18

66 : INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
1 : Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
16.14.4

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
14 : Aluminosilicates of Ti, Zr, Sn and Pb

Physical Properties of Kaersutite

Vitreous
Colour:
Dark brown to black
Streak:
Pale brownish-grey
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {110}

Optical Data of Kaersutite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.670 - 1.689 nβ = 1.690 - 1.741 nγ = 1.700 - 1.772
2V:
Measured: 66° to 82°, Calculated: 68° to 72°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.030 - 0.083
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v strong

Chemical Properties of Kaersutite

IMA Formula:
NaCa2(Mg3Ti4+Al)(Si6Al2)O22O2
Mindat.org Formula:
{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2

The Kaersutite group minerals are WO2- dominant amphiboles defined with :
A(Na+K+2Ca)> 0.5 apfu,
B: Ca dominant
CTi > 0.5 apfu and
WO > 1.0 apfu


Kaersutite is defined with
A position: Na dominant
C2+ position: Mg dominant
C3+ position: Al dominant
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mn,K,F,H2O

Crystallography of Kaersutite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.89 Å, b = 18.05 Å, c = 5.31 Å
β = 105.41°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.548 : 1 : 0.294
Unit Cell Volume:
V 913.83 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystallographic forms of Kaersutite

Crystal Atlas:
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Kaersutite - {010}, {110}, {011}, modified
Kaersutite - {011}, {010}, {110}, modified
Kaersutite - {110}, {010}, {011}, modified
Kaersutite - Contact twin on {100}
Kaersutite - {110}, {010}, {011}, modified
Kaersutite - Prismatic [001], with epitaxial augite
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Type Occurrence of Kaersutite

Relationship of Kaersutite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Ferri-kaersutiteNaCa2(Mg3Fe3+Ti)(Al2Si6O22)O2
Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe32+AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.05Anthophyllite◻Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.05Cummingtonite◻Mg2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z32+Z23+}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2
9.DE.05Grunerite◻Fe22+Fe52+Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite◻Mn2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.05Manganogrunerite◻Mn2Fe52+Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.05Permanganogrunerite☐{Mn22+}{Mn52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite{Na}{Li2}{Fe2Al2Li}(Al2Si6O22)F2
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Fe23+Li)Si8O22F2
9.DE.10ActinoliteCa2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe2+0.5-2.5)Σ=5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferri-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Mg3Fe23+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-actinolite◻Ca2Mg2.5-0Fe2+2.5-5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-hornblendeCa2Fe42+Al(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe32+Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10JoesmithitePbCa2Mg3Fe23+(Si6Be2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblendeCa2(Mg4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Tremolite◻Ca2Mg5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.10Tschermakite◻Ca2(Mg3Al2)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.10CannilloiteCa(Ca2)(Mg4Al)(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-cannilloiteCaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si5Al3)O22F2
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite☐{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite◻Ca2Mg5Si8O22F2
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasiteKCa2(Mg4Al)Si6Al2O22F2
9.DE.15EdeniteNaCa2Mg5(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-edeniteNaCa2Fe52+(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe32+AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
9.DE.15Ferro-pargasiteNaCa2(Fe42+Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15HastingsiteNaCa2(Fe42+Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Magnesio-hastingsiteNaCa2(Mg4Fe3+)Si6Al2O22(OH)2
9.DE.15PargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15SadanagaiteNaCa2(Mg3Al2)(Si5Al3)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Fluoro-edeniteNaCa2Mg5(Si7Al)O22F2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-ferri-sadanagaiteKCa2(Fe32+Fe23+)(Si5Al3)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-sadanagaiteKCa2Mg3Al2(Si5Al3)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-pargasiteKCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-sadanagaiteKCa2(Fe32+Al2)(Si5Al3)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsiteNaCa2(Mg4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22F2
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsiteKCa2(Fe42+Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22F2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsiteKCa2[Fe42+Fe3+](Si6Al2)O22Cl2
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22F2
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-pargasiteKCa2(Mg4Al)(Si6Al2)O22Cl2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-chloro-edenite{K}{Ca2}{Fe52+}(AlSi7O22)(Cl,OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsiteKCa2(Mg4Fe3+)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasiteKCa2(Fe42+Al)Si6Al2O22(OH)2
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasiteNaCa2(Mg4Cr)(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(NaCa)Fe32+Al2(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Barroisite◻NaCa[Mg3Al2](Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Fe42+(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-barroisite☐(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe32+Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNa(NaCa)(Fe42+Fe3+)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite☐{CaNa}{Fe32+Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-richteriteNa2CaFe52+Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ☐{CaNa}{Fe42+Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferro-katophoriteNa2CaFe42+Al(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Mg3Fe23+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20Magnesiotaramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3AlFe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2
9.DE.20RichteriteNa2CaMg5Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20WinchiteNaCa(Mg4Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20TaramiteNa2CaMg3Al2(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-richteriteNa(NaCa)Mg5Si8O22F2
9.DE.20KatophoriteNaNaCa(Mg4Al)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Potassic-fluoro-richteriteK(NaCa)Mg5Si8O22F2
9.DE.20Potassic-richteriteK[CaNa][Mg5]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite◻(NaMn2+)(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite◻NaCa(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramiteNa(NaCa)(Mg3Al2)(Si6Al2)O22F2
9.DE.25ArfvedsoniteNaNa2(Fe42+Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-eckermanniteNaNa2(Fe42+Al)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-glaucophane◻Na2(Fe32+Al2)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Glaucophane◻Na2(Mg3Al2)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-mangani-leakeiteKNa2(Mg2Mn23+Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-ferri-eckermanniteNaNa2(Mn42+Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-leakeiteNa(NaLi)(Mg2Fe23+Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-riebeckite◻Na2(Mg3Fe23+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsoniteNaNa2(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Riebeckite◻Na2(Fe32+Fe23+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangano-mangani-ungarettiiteNaNa2(Mn22+Mn33+)Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2(Fe32+Fe23+)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻Li2(Fe32+Fe23+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferri-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Fe23+](AlSi7O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-leakeite[Na][Na2][Fe22+Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Fe22+Fe23+Li)Si8O22F2
9.DE.25Sodic-ferri-clinoferroholmquistiteNa0.5{Li2}{Fe32+Fe23+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsoniteNaNa2(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22F2
9.DE.25Ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Mg2Fe23+Li]Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeiteKNa2Mg2Fe23+LiSi8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(Si7Al)O22F2
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraiteNaNa2(MgMn23+LiTi4+)Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsoniteKNa2Fe42+Fe3+Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNaNa2(Mg3Mn3+Ti4+)Si8O22O2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-fluoro-arfvedsoniteKNa2(Mg4Fe3+)Si8O22F2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedriziteNaLi2(LiFe22+Fe23+)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsoniteKNa2Mg4Fe3+Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe22+Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)Si8O22F2
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe32+Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2
16.14.1ZoriteNa6Ti5Si12O34(O,OH)5 · 11H2O
16.14.2VinogradoviteNa4Ti4(Si2O6)2[(Si,Al)4O10]O4 · (H2O,Na,K)3
16.14.3RhöniteCa4(Mg8Fe23+Ti2)O4[Si6Al6O36]
16.14.5Ferro-kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Fe32+AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2
16.14.6JonesiteKBa2Ti2(Si5Al)O18 · nH2O
16.14.7Lourenswalsite(K,Ba)2Ti4(Si,Al)6O14(OH)12
16.14.8Labuntsovite-MnNa4K4Mn22+Ti8O4(Si4O12)4(OH)4 · 10-12H2O
16.14.9KimzeyiteCa3Zr2(Al2Si)O12
16.14.10EllenbergeriteMg6(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)2(Al,Mg)6Si8O28(OH)10
16.14.11Carlosturanite(Mg,Fe2+,Ti)21(Si,Al)12O28(OH)34 · H2O
16.14.12EakeriteCa2Sn4+Al2Si6O18(OH)2 · 2H2O
16.14.13PlumalsitePb4Al2(SiO3)7
16.14.14WickenburgitePb3CaAl2Si10O27 · 4H2O
16.14.15MaricopaiteCa2Pb7(Si36Al12)O99 · n(H2O,OH)
16.14.16HancockiteCaPbFe3+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
16.14.17BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6
16.14.18MathewrogersitePb7FeAl3GeSi12O36(OH,H2O)6

Other Names for Kaersutite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Kaersutit
Simplified Chinese:钛闪石
钛角闪石
Spanish:Kaersutita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Kaersutite in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Kaersutite

Reference List:
Kitamura, M., Tokonami, M. (1971) The crystal structure of kaersutite. Sci. Rep Tohoku Univ., ser. 3: 11: 125-141.

Hawthorne, F.C., Grundy, H.D. (1973) The crystal chemistry of the amphiboles. II. Refinement of the crystal structure of oxykaersutite. Mineralogical Magazine: 39: 390-400.

Kitamura, M., Tokonami, M., Koto, K., Horiuchi, H., Morimoto, N. (1973) Cation ordering in kaersutite by neutron diffraction. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Japan: 11: 49.

Kitamura, M., Tokonami, M., Morimoto, N. (1975) Distribution of titanium atoms in oxy-kaersutite. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 51: 167-172.

Garcia, M. (1980) Volatiles in Ti-rich amphibole megacrysts, southwest USA. American Mineralogist: 65: 306-312.

Jirak, Z., Pechar, F., Vratislav S. (1986) Distribution of cations and the proton location in kaersutite. Cryst. Res. Technol.: 21: 1517-1519.

Pechar, F., Fuess, H., Joswig, W. (1989) Refinement of the crystal structure of kaersutite (Vlčí Hora, Bohemia) from neutron diffraction. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 137-143.

Dyar, M.D., Mackwell, S.J., McGuire, A.V., Cross, L.R., Robertson, J.D. (1993) Crystal chemistry of Fe 3+ and H+ in mantle kaersutite: implications for mantle metasomatism. American Mineralogist: 78: 968-979.

Popp, R.K., Virgo, D., Phillips, M. (1995) H deficiency in kaersutitic amphiboles: experimental verification. American Mineralogist: 80: 1347-1350.

Mandarino, J.A. (1998) The Second List of Additions and Corrections to the Glossary of Mineral Species (1995). The Amphibole Group. Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.

Tiepolo, M., Zanetti, A., Oberti, R. (1999) Detection, crystal-chemical mechanisms and petrological implications of [6]Ti 4+ partitioning in pargasite and kaersutite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 345-354.

Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R. (2006) On the classification of amphiboles. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44(1): 1-21.

Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Harlow, G.E., Maresch, W.V., Martin, R.F., Schumacher, J.C., Welch, M.D. (2012) Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup. American Mineralogist: 97: 2031–2048.

Internet Links for Kaersutite

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Specimens:
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Localities for Kaersutite

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