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Anatase

This page kindly sponsored by Robert Rothenberg
Formula:
TiO2
Colour:
Brown, pale yellow or reddish brown, indigo, black; pale green, pale lilac, grey, rarely nearly colourless; brown, yellow-brown, pale green, blue in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Adamantine, Metallic
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Specific Gravity:
3.79 - 3.97
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Name:
Named in 1801 by Rene Just Haüy from the Greek ανάτασις ("anatasis") for "extension," in allusion to the length of the pyramidal faces being longer in relation to their bases than in many tetragonal minerals.
Anatase is one of the five forms of titanium dioxide found in nature.

Compare anatase-columbite solid solution.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Anatase.


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Classification of AnataseHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DD.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
D : With medium-sized cations; frameworks of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th ed.:
4.4.4.1
4.4.4.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
7.9.3

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Physical Properties of AnataseHide

Adamantine, Metallic
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Brown, pale yellow or reddish brown, indigo, black; pale green, pale lilac, grey, rarely nearly colourless; brown, yellow-brown, pale green, blue in transmitted light.
Comment:
Transparent when light coloured, to nearly opaque when deeply colored. Pyramidal crystals may appear opaque because of total reflection.
Streak:
White to pale yellow
Hardness:
5½ - 6 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=616 - 698 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {001} and {011}
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.79 - 3.97 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.89 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AnataseHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.561 nε = 2.488
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.073
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Reflectivity:
400 nmR1=23.7%R2= 23.8%
420 nmR1=22.4%R2= 22.5%
440 nmR1=21.7%R2= 21.6%
460 nmR1=21.1%R2= 21.0%
480 nmR1=20.7%R2= 20.4%
500 nmR1=20.2%R2= 20.0%
520 nmR1=19.9%R2= 19.6%
540 nmR1=19.6%R2= 19.3%
560 nmR1=19.4%R2= 19.0%
580 nmR1=19.2%R2= 18.8%
600 nmR1=19.0%R2= 18.5%
620 nmR1=18.8%R2= 18.4%
640 nmR1=18.7%R2= 18.2%
660 nmR1=18.6%R2= 18.1%
680 nmR1=18.5%R2= 18.0%
700 nmR1=18.4%R2= 17.8%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 23.8%.
R1 shown in black, R2 shown in red
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
stronger in deeply coloured crystals
Comments:
Deeply coloured crystals may be anomalously biaxial

Chemical Properties of AnataseHide

Formula:
TiO2
Common Impurities:
Fe,Sn,V,Nb

Crystallography of AnataseHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/amd
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.7845 Å, c = 9.5143 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.514
Unit Cell V:
136.27 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals typically acute dipyramidal {011}, often highly modified; obtuse pyramidal or tabular on {001}; less commonly prismatic on [001], with {110}, {010}

Twinning:
Rare, on {112}

Crystallographic forms of AnataseHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Anatase no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.33 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.50 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.51 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.53 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.63 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anatase no.127 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.52 (100)
1.892 (35)
2.378 (20)
1.6999 (20)
1.6665 (20)
1.4808 (14)
2.431 (10)
Comments:
Recorded on synthetic material

Type Occurrence of AnataseHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
National History Museum, Paris, France
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Alpine veins, derived from the enclosing gneisses or schists by hydrothermal solutions.

Synonyms of AnataseHide

Other Language Names for AnataseHide

Bosnian (Latin Script):Anatas
Czech:Anatas
Dutch:Anataas
Hungarian:Anatáz
Italian:Anatasio
Japanese:鋭錐石
Lithuanian:Anatazas
Polish:Anataz
Russian:Анатаз
Simplified Chinese:锐铁矿
Swedish:Anatas
Ukrainian:Анатаз

Varieties of AnataseHide

Gel-AnataseFinely divided anatase as a component of leucoxene pseudomorphs after Ilmenite.

Originally reported from Lovozero Massif, Kola Peninsula, Murmanskaja Oblast', Northern Region, Russia.
Niobian Anatase
XanthitaneSoft, friable, yellow earthy material as alteration pseudomorphs after titanite (Green River, Henderson Co., NC, USA). Identical with anatase.

Common AssociatesHide

BrookiteTiO2
HematiteFe2O3
IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
QuartzSiO2
RutileTiO2
Titaniferous MagnetiteFe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz612 photos of Anatase associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Rutile336 photos of Anatase associated with Rutile on mindat.org.
Brookite183 photos of Anatase associated with Brookite on mindat.org.
Albite170 photos of Anatase associated with Albite on mindat.org.
Chlorite Group104 photos of Anatase associated with Chlorite Group on mindat.org.
Adularia85 photos of Anatase associated with Adularia on mindat.org.
Pyrite37 photos of Anatase associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Smoky Quartz32 photos of Anatase associated with Smoky Quartz on mindat.org.
Titanite29 photos of Anatase associated with Titanite on mindat.org.
Calcite27 photos of Anatase associated with Calcite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DD.10BrookiteTiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.2RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2Orth.
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6Mon.
7.9.11Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19Hex.
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6Amor.
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.14IwakiiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.17UlvöspinelFe2TiO4Iso.
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9Hex.
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16Mon.
7.9.20KennedyiteFe2TiO5
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10Hex.
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38Trig.
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16Tet.
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13Mon.
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Anatase in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for AnataseHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Haüy, R.J. (1801) Anatase. Traité de Minéralogie: 3: 129-136.
Brooke and Miller (1852) 229.
Brezina (1872) Min. Mitt.: 2: 7.
Palache, C. (1906) Rosenbusch Festschr.: 311.
Palache, C. (1911) American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Proceedings: 47: 125.
Vegard (1916) Phil. Mag.: 32: 65.
Parker, R.L. (1923) Zur Kristallographie von Anatas und Rutil. (I. Teil. Morphologie des Anatas). Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 58: 522-582.
Parker, R.L. (1923) Zur Kristallographie von Anatas und Rutil. (II. Teil. Die Anatasstruktur). Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 59: 1-54.
Vegard (1926) Phil. Mag.: 1: 1151.
Schröder, A. (1928) Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Feinbaues des Brookits und des physikalischen Verhaltens sowie der Zustandsänderungen der drei natürlichen Titandioxyde. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 67: 485-542.
Bader (1934) Schweiz. min. Mitt.: 14: 336.
Schoßberger, F. (1942) Über die Umwandlungen des Titandioxyds. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 104: 358-374.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 583-588.
Cromer, D.T., Herrington, K. (1955) The structures of anatase and rutile. Journal of the American Chemical Society: 77: 4708-4709.
Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J. (1962) Rock-forming minerals, Vol. 5, Non-Silicates: 40-43.
Horn, M., Schwerdtfeger, C.F., Meagher, E.P. (1972) Refinement of the structure of anatase at several temperatures. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 136: 273-281.
Ohsaka, T., Izumi, F., Fujiki, Y. (1978) Raman spectrum of anatase, TiO2. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 7: 321-324.
Gou, B., Liu, Z., Cui, Q., Yang, H., Zhao Y., Zou, G. (1989) Raman study of anatase (TiO2) at high pressure. High Pressure Research: 1: 185-191.
Vance, E.R., Doern, D.C. (1989) The properties of anatase pseudomorphs after titanite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 27: 495-498.
Howard, C.J., Sabine, T.M., Dickson, F. (1992) Structural and thermal parameters for rutile and anatase. Acta Crystallographica: 47: 462-468.
Anthony, J.W., et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 14.
Zhang, W.F., He, Y.L., Zhang, M.S., Yin, Z., Chen, Q. (2000) Raman scattering study on anatase TiO2 nanocrystals. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics: 33: 912-916.
Hearne, G.R., Zhao, J., Dawe, A.M., Pischedda, V., Maaza, M., Nieuwoudt, M.K., Kibasomba, P., Nemraoui, O., Comins, J.D. (2004) Effect of grain size on structural transitions in anatase TiO2: A Raman spectroscopy study at high pressure. Physical Reviews B: 70: 134102.
Sekiya, T., Yagisawa, T., Kamiya, N., Mulmi, D.D., Kurita, S., Murakami, Y., Kodaira, T. (2004) Defects in Anatase TiO2 Single Crystal Controlled by Heat Treatments. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan: 73, 703-710.

Internet Links for AnataseHide

Localities for AnataseHide

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Locality ListShow