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Kainite

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About KainiteHide

Formula:
KMg(SO4)Cl · 3H2O
Colour:
Colourless; yellow, brownish, greyish-green, red, violet, blue; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.15
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
From Greek καιυος = "recent," in allusion to its recent formation as a secondary mineral.
This page provides mineralogical data about Kainite.


Classification of KainiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.DF.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
F : With large and medium-sized cations
31.7.1.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
7 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
26.14

26 : Sulphates with Halide

Physical Properties of KainiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless; yellow, brownish, greyish-green, red, violet, blue; colourless in transmitted light.
Comment:
Tints due to included matter. Violet-coloured material is decolourized at 150°C. H2S identified in blue material (Leonhardt and Kühn).
Streak:
white
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{001}, perfect.
Fracture:
Splintery
Density:
2.15 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.24 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of KainiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.494 nβ = 1.505 nγ = 1.516
2V:
Measured: 90° , Calculated: 88°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
weak
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Violet
Y = Blue
Z = Yellowish

Observed on blue or violet material only.

Chemical Properties of KainiteHide

Formula:
KMg(SO4)Cl · 3H2O

Crystallography of KainiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 19.72 Å, b = 16.23 Å, c = 9.53 Å
β = 94.92°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.215 : 1 : 0.587
Unit Cell V:
3,038.89 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals thick tabular {100} to equidimensional; often exhibiting numerous forms. Occurs as crystalline coatings and clusters in cavities or fissures in which single crystals may reach several centimeters; granular massive.

Crystallographic forms of KainiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
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Kainite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Kainite no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Transparency
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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Type Occurrence of KainiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Potash deposit of oceanic origin.

Synonyms of KainiteHide

Other Language Names for KainiteHide

Catalan:Cainita
Dutch:Kaïniet
Italian:Kainite
Polish:Kainit
Portuguese:Cainite
Russian:Каинит
Simplified Chinese:钾盐镁矾
Traditional Chinese:鉀鹽鎂礬
Ukrainian:Каїніт

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DF.Aldridgeite(Cd,Ca)(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O Mon. 2/m : B2/b
7.DF.AlcaparrosaiteK3Ti4+Fe3+(SO4)4O(H2O)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
7.DF.05UklonskoviteNaMg(SO4)F · 2H2OMon.
7.DF.15NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.DF.20MetasideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.DF.20SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.DF.25DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
7.DF.25FleischeritePb3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.DF.25SchaurteiteCa3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.DF.25MallestigitePb3Sb5+(SO4)(AsO4)(OH)6 · 3H2OHex. 6 : P63
7.DF.30Slavíkite(H3O+)3Mg6Fe15(SO4)21(OH)18 · 98H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.DF.35MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2OTrig.
7.DF.40LannoniteMg2Ca4Al4(SO4)8F8 · 24H2O Tet. 4/m : I4/m
7.DF.40VlodavetsiteAlCa2(SO4)2F2Cl · 4H2OTet. 4/m : I4/m
7.DF.45PeretaiteCa(SbO)4(SO4)2(OH)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.DF.50GordaiteNaZn4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.DF.55Clairite(NH4)2Fe3(SO4)4(OH)3 · 3H2OTric.
7.DF.60ArzruniteCu4Pb2(SO4)(OH)4Cl6 · 2H2O (?)Orth.
7.DF.65ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2OMon. 2/m
7.DF.70YecoraiteFe3+3Bi5(Te6+O4)2(Te4+O3)O9 · 9H2O
7.DF.75RiomarinaiteBi(SO4)(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m
7.DF.80DukeiteBi3+24Cr6+8O57(OH)6 · 3H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DF.85XocolatliteCa2Mn4+2(Te6+O6)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

26.1KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)FMon.
26.2SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FClIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
26.3SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
26.4GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4ClTrig.
26.5ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
26.6ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
26.7KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
26.8SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
26.9AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2OTric. 1
26.10Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
26.11Svyazhinite(Mg,Mn2+,Ca)(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)2F · 14H2OTric.
26.12D'AnsiteNa21Mg(SO4)10Cl3Iso.
26.13AnhydrokainiteKMg(SO4)Cl
26.15Mosesite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4,MoO4) · H2OIso.
26.16Kleinite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4) · nH2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
26.17WilcoxiteMgAl(SO4)2F · 17H2OTric. 1 : P1
26.18CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
26.19LannoniteMg2Ca4Al4(SO4)8F8 · 24H2O Tet. 4/m : I4/m
26.20Chukhrovite-(Y)Ca3(Y,Ce)[F|SO4|(AlF6)2] · 10H2OIso.
26.21Chukhrovite-(Ce)Ca3(Ce,Y)[F|SO4|(AlF6)2] · 10H2OIso.
26.22GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2Mon. 2/m
26.23PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10Orth. 2 2 2 : F2 2 2
26.24SundiusitePb10(SO4)O8Cl2Mon.
26.25CaracoliteNa3Pb2(SO4)3ClMon.
26.26MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2Mon. 2 : B2
26.27AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3ClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
26.28XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2OMon.
26.29NabokoiteKCu7(SO4)5(Te4+O3)OClTet.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Decomposed by water into Epsomite and Sylvite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Kainite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for KainiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Zincken, C. (1865): Mittheilung an Prof. H.B. Geinitz vom 18.März 1865 [Über ein neues Mineral, Kainit].- Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 310.
Zincken, C. (1865): Ueber die Zusammensetzung des Kainits von Leopoldshall bei Stassfurth.- Berg- und hüttenmännische Zeitung 24, 288.
Groth (1869) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 137: 442.
Bücking (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 569.
Meyerhoffer (1903) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 34: 145.
Baumgärtel (1905) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 449.
Boeke (1908) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 45: 388.
Rózsa (1916) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 505.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 1.
Hintze, Carl (1930) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4551.
Schaller and Henderson (1932) USGS Bull. 833: 38.
Leonhardt and Kühn (1935) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 193.
Schlesinger, Zorkin and Petuchova (1940) Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Leningrad, C.r.: 27: 466.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 594-596.
American Mineralogist (1972): 57: 1325-1332.

Internet Links for KainiteHide

Localities for KainiteHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Bad Ischl
        • Perneck
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Canada
 
  • Saskatchewan
Shang, Y. (2000). Mineralogy, lithostratigraphy and geochemistry of North Ingebright Lake, Saskatchewan, Canada. PhD thesis University of Manitoba.
China
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Mangnai Co. (Mangya Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
        • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Czech Republic
 
  • Ústí Region
    • Děčín (Tetschen)
Varilová, Z., Prikryl, R., & Cílek, V. (2011). Erratum to: Pravcice Rock Arch (Bohemian Switzerland National Park, Czech Republic) deterioration due to natural and anthropogenic weathering. Environmental Earth Sciences, 64(4), 1191.
Ethiopia
 
  • Afar Region
Holwerda, J. G., & Hutchinson, R. W. (1968). Potash-bearing evaporites in the Danakil area, Ethiopia. Economic Geology, 63(2), 124-150.
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Fulda
      • Neuhof
Krah, O., (1988): Beobachtungen beim Durchbruch eines Basaltganges durch das Kalilager vom Werk Neuhof-Ellers, Der Aufschluss Vol. 39 (2), 103-113
    • Werra valley
      • Heringen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Phillippsthal
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Celle
      • Hänigsen
Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
      • Wathlingen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Hanover
      • Lehrte
Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Hildesheim
      • Giesen
Aufschluss 1987(4), 114
    • Vienenburg
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Halberstadt
Jeff Weissman collection
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Aschersleben
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 376.
      • Egeln
        • Tarthun
No reference listed
Naumann, Zirkel: "Elemente der Mineralogie", 13th Ed., 1896
      • Stassfurt
C. Zinken (1865) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 310; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 380.
  • Thuringia
    • Thuringian Forest
      • Merkers-Kieselbach
W.I. Borrisenkow (1968) Zeitschr. für angewandte Geologie 14, 7-10
Iceland
 
  • Southern Region
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Surtsey Island
Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
Iran
 
  • Zanjan Province
    • Dandy to Mahneshan road
Talbot, C., farhadi, R., and Aftabi, P. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 352-366.
Italy
 
  • Sicily
    • Agrigento Province (Girgenti Province)
      • Racalmuto
        • Racalmuto saliferous deposit
Kuehn R. (1972): Zur Kenntnis der Rubidiumgehalte von Kalisalzen ozeanischer Salzlagerstätten nebst einigen lagerstättenkundlichen Ausdeutungen. Geol. Jahrb., 90, 127-220; Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170.
Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170; Censi P. (1987): Frazionamento isotopico dell'idrogeno dell'acqua di cristallizzazione della kainite e studio del deposito di Racalmuto, Serie gessoso-solfifera, Sicilia. Rend. Soc. Ital. Mineral. Petr., 42, 257-261; Prud'homme M., Krukowski S.T. (2006): Potash. In: Kogel J.E., Trivedi N.C., Barker J.M., Krukowski S.T. (eds.), Industrial minerals & rocks. Commodities, markets, and uses. 7th Edition. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc., Littleton, Colorado, USA, pages 723-741.
          • Racalmuto salt mines
Lugli S., Di Stefano A., Gulfi V., Corallo G., Amenta G., Menegon S., Manzi V. (2006): Halite facies in the Racalmuto mine (Agrigento): further evidence of an exposure surface in the Messinian salt of Sicily. R.C.M.N.S. Interim Colloquium "The Messinian salinity crisis revisited-II", Parma 7th-9th September 2006. Acta Naturalia de "L'Ateneo Parmense", 42, 2, Abstract book, A.30SS2.
      • Realmonte
        • Contrada Scavuzzo
Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170; Roveri M., Lugli S., Manzi V., Schreiber B.C., Caruso A., Rouchy J.M., Iaccarino S.M., Gennari R., Vitale F.P. (2006): Clastic vs. primary precipitated evaporites in the Messinian Sicilian basins. R.C.M.N.S. Interim Colloquium "The Messinian salinity crisis revisited-II", Parma 7th-9th September 2006. Post-congress field-trip guidebook. Acta Naturalia de "L'Ateneo Parmense", 42, 3, 1-66.
    • Caltanissetta Province
Barbieri, M., Penta, A. (1968) Osservazioni geochimiche sulla serie evaporitica miocenica di San Cataldo (Caltanissetta). Periodico di Mineralogia, 37, 777-807; Roda, C. (1970) Salgemma, sali potassici e zolfo in Italia. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania, 10, 5, 364-378; Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., Boscardin, M. (1973) Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.; Adamo, S., Ramberti, L. (1979) L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170.
Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170; AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    • Enna Province
      • Enna (Castrogiovanni)
Roda, C. (1970) Salgemma, sali potassici e zolfo in Italia. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania, 10, 5, 364-378; Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., Boscardin, M. (1973) Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pp.; Adamo, S., Ramberti, L. (1979) L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170; Mezzadri, P. (1988) Catalogo e descrizione sintetica dei giacimenti salini in Italia. In: La serie gessoso solfifera della Sicilia e altre memorie geo-minerarie. Roberto De Nicola Editore, Roma, 259-412.
      • Villarosa
Adamo S., Ramberti L. (1979): L'industria estrattiva del potassio in Italia. L'Industria Mineraria, 30, maggio-giugno 1979, 161-170.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Aktobe
ERCOSPAN (2011) Independent Geological Report on the Zhilianskoe and Chelkar Potash Deposits in Kazakhstan EGB 11-012
  • Atyrau
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
Pakistan
 
  • Punjab
    • Salt Range
      • Khewra
Asrar Ullah (1963) Rock Salt Resourdes of Pakistan. Pakistan Geographical Review, 18/1: 19-32
Poland
 
  • Wielkopolskie
Jirásek, J.: Solný důl Kłodawa (Polsko). Minerál, 2004, roč. 12, č. 2, s. 98-102. ISSN 1213-0710 (excerpted from unpublished thesis Hanczke, T.: Mineralogia i petrografia soli czechstyńskich kopalni "Kłodawa". Doktroská práce, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut nauk geologicznych, 1967.); Wachowiak, J., Pieczka, A. (2016): Motukoreaite from the Kłodawa Salt Dome, Central Poland. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 277-289
Russia
 
  • Kamchatka Oblast'
    • Tolbachik volcano
      • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
        • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
          • Second scoria cone
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Lykova, I.S., Belakovskiy, D.I., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G., Britvin, S.N., Pushscharovsky, D.Yu. (2015): New zinc and potassium chlorides from fumaroles of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia: mineral data and crystal chemistry. I. Mellizinkalite, K3Zn2Cl7. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 247-253.
  • Povolzhsky Region
    • Samaraskaya Oblast' (Samara Oblast')
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 595.
    • Saratov Oblast'
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 94.
Tunisia
 
  • Tataouine Governorate
Smykatz-Kloss, W., & Roy, P. D. (2010). Mineralogía de evaporitas y geoquímica de elementos mayores como herramientas para la investigación paleoclimática en regiones áridas: una síntesis. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana, 62(3), 379-390.
UK
 
  • England
    • North Yorkshire
      • Scarborough
        • Whitby
Smith, F.W., Dearlove, J.P.L., Kemp, S.J., Bell, C.P., Milne, C.J. and Pottas, T.L. (2014) Potash – Recent exploration developments in North Yorkshire. Pp. 45-50 in Hunger, E., Brown, T. J. and Lucas, G. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 17th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG Conferences Ltd. 202pp
Smith, F.W., Dearlove, J.P.L., Kemp, S.J., Bell, C.P., Milne, C.J. and Pottas, T.L. (2014) Potash – Recent exploration developments in North Yorkshire. Pp. 45-50 in Hunger, E., Brown, T. J. and Lucas, G. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 17th Extractive Industry Geology Conference, EIG Conferences Ltd. 202pp
Ukraine
 
  • Ivano-Frankivs'k Oblast' (Ivanovo-Frankovsk Oblast')
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 595.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 595.
USA
 
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
Buck, B. J., Wolff, K., Merkler, D. J., & McMillan, N. J. (2006). Salt Mineralogy of Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70(5), 1639-1651.
  • New Mexico
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 595; Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
    • Eddy Co.
      • Carlsbad Potash District
SIMMONS, P.S. (2013)The Carlsbad Potash Basin, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Mineralogical Record, 44 (1), 13-49.
  • Utah
    • Tooele Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Mars
 
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gusev Crater
SILICA-RICH DEPOSITS AND HYDRATED MINERALS AT GUSEV CRATER, MARS. M. S. Rice1, J. F.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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