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Erling Kamphaug (1931-2000)
Ca2Y2(CO3)4(OH)2 · 3H2O
White to colorless
2 - 3
Named after the Norwegian Erling Kamphaug (1931-2000) a mineral collector who supplied the first specimens from Hørtekollen, Norway for study.

The mineral was first reported from the Verkhnee Espe Massif, Kazakhstan as "tengerite" by Stepanov (1961), later designated as "calciotengerite" by Mineev (1994). Similar Ca-Y-carbonat mineral with the same XRD pattern were also described from Transvaal, South Africa (Verwoerd 1963) and Evans-Lou pegmatite, Quebec, Canada (Hogarth, 1972). However, it was first the find of better crystallized materiale at Hørtekollen, Norway that made a description of it as a new mineral possible by Raade & Braastad (1993).
Related to tengerite-(Y) and similar minerals. A result of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration of yttrium-bearing minerals in granitic rocks, often found in cavities and cracks. At the TL kamphaugite-(Y) may have a coating of montmorillonite.

Classification of Kamphaugite-(Y)

Approval Year:
First Published:

D : Carbonates with additional anions, with H2O
C : With large cations

1 : AmBn(XO3)pZqxH2O & with (m+n):p = 1:1

Physical Properties of Kamphaugite-(Y)

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
White to colorless
Spherules may be pale yellow to brown
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 3
Hardness Data:
None Observed

Optical Data of Kamphaugite-(Y)

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.627 nβ = 1.663 nγ = 1.663 nε = 1.627
Measured: 15°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.036
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
not observed
The mineral from Hørtekollen is anomalously biaxial with 2V (-)approximately equal to 15.

Chemical Properties of Kamphaugite-(Y)

IMA Formula:
Ca2Y2(CO3)4(OH)2 · 3H2O
Elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Means of 5 sets of electron microprobe data
Y2O3 30.5
Nd2O3 1.4
Sm2O3 0.8
Gd2O3 1.6
Dy2O3 2.1
Er2O3 1.2
Yb2O3 1.1
CO2 29.6
H2O 12.1
Total 98.8 wt.%

Crystallography of Kamphaugite-(Y)

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4 2 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:
P41 21 2
Space Group Setting:
P41 21 2
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.434 Å, c = 21.793 Å
a:c = 1 : 2.932
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1205.2 ų
Forms observed: {001} and probably {100} and {110}
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:

Type Occurrence of Kamphaugite-(Y)

General Appearance of Type Material:
Platy crystals up to 1 mm across forming divergent or rose-like aggregates, sometimes small spherules.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
In the Mineralogical-Geological Museum, University of Oslo, catalogue no. 14769.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
In cavities of a magnetite-helvite skarn deposit.
Empirical Formula:

Relationship of Kamphaugite-(Y) to other Species

5.DC.05Ancylite-(Ce)CeSr(CO3)2(OH) · H2O
5.DC.05Calcioancylite-(Nd)Nd2.8Ca1.2(CO3)4(OH)3 · H2O
5.DC.05Gysinite-(Nd)PbNd(CO3)2(OH) · H2O
5.DC.05Ancylite-(La)LaSr(CO3)2(OH) · H2O
5.DC.15SheldrickiteNaCa3(CO3)2F3 · H2O
5.DC.20Thomasclarkite-(Y)NaY(HCO3)(OH)3 · 4H2O
5.DC.25PeterbaylissiteHg3CO3(OH) · 2H2O
5.DC.30ClearcreekiteHg31+(CO3)(OH) · 2H2O
5.DC.35NiveolaniteNaBeCO3(OH) · 2H2O

Other Names for Kamphaugite-(Y)

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:碳钇钙石
Traditional Chinese:碳釔鈣石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kamphaugite-(Y)

Reference List:
Stepanov, A. V. (1961): New and rare minerals in alkaligranites of Kazakhstan (in Russian). Trudy Kazakhskogo Nauchno-Issledovatelskogo Instituta Mineralnogo Syrya: 5: 147-161. [as tengerite]

Mineev, D. A. (1974): Lantanoidy v rudakh redkozemelnykh i kompleksnykh mestorozhdenii (Lanthanoids in rare earth ores and in complex places of origin). Nauka, Moscow, 240 pp. [as calciotengerite]

Hogarth, D. D. (1972): The Evans-Lou pegmatite, Quebec: A unique yttrium-niobium-bismuth-vanadium mineral assemblage. Mineralogical Record: 3: 69-77. [as UN-21]

Raade, G. & Brastad, K. (1993): Kamphaugite-(Y), a new hydrous Ca-(Y-REE)-carbonate mineral. European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 679-683

Rømming, C., Kocharian, A.K. & Raade, G. (1993): The crystal structure of kamphaugite-(Y). European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 685-690

Mandarino, J.A. (1997): New Minerals 1990-1994. The Mineralogical Record Inc, Tucson 1997

Mineralogical Magazine (2006): 70: 397-404.

Internet Links for Kamphaugite-(Y) URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Kamphaugite-(Y)

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • South Australia
    • Olary Province
      • Yunta
[C. Kovac, pers com]
  • Québec
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Val-des-Monts
          • Lac Saint-Pierre (Wakefield Lake)
Hogarth, D.D. (1972): The Evans-Lou pegmatite, Québec: a unique yttrium-niobium-bismuth-vanadium mineral assemblage. Mineralogical Record, 3, 69-77.
  • Heves Co.
    • Bükk Mts
      • Szarvaskő
GEODA, "New minerals in Hungary" 1999; Fehér, B., Szakáll, S. & Nagy, G. (2003): Kamphaugite-(Y), a rare hydrous Ca-Y-carbonate mineral from Szarvaskő, Bükk Mountains, Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract Series, 1, p. 30.
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Baveno
        • Feriolo
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.
        • Oltrefiume
          • Mount Camoscio
Grill, E. (1935): I minerali del granito di Baveno, la fayalite. Periodico di Mineralogia, 129-133. - Gallitelli, P. (1936): Le miche del granito di Baveno. . Periodico di Mineralogia, 61-76 - Pagliani, G. (1948): Le Zeoliti del granito di Baveno. Periodico di Mineralogia, 175-188. - Ravagnani, D. (1974): I giacimenti uraniferi italiani - Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Ed., Milano, 188 pp. - min. Rec. 14 (3), 157-168 - Am. Min. 83, 1330-1334 (1998) - Am. Min. 84, 782-789 (1999). - Guastoni, A. & Pezzotta, F. (2004): Kristiansenite a Baveno, second ritrovamento Mondiale della specie. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2004, 247-251. - Guastoni, A., Demartin, F., Pezzotta, F. (2004): Sekaninaite delle pegmatiti granitiche di Feriolo e Baveno (VB). Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 145, 59-68. - Mineralogist americano (2005) 90, 1442-1452.
Sergio Varvello
  • Sardinia
    • Olbia-Tempio Pausania Province
Orlandi, P. (2011): Zibaldone di mineralogia italiana 2010: parte seconda. Micro, 3/2011, 98-100.
      • La Maddalena
        • La Maddalena Island
Gamboni, A. (2003): Cala Francese - La Maddalena (SS). Micro (località), 2003, 11-20
  • Honshu Island
    • Kinki Region
      • Kyoto Prefecture
        • Kameoka City
Tsuruta et al. (2005) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 146.
  • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    • Tarbagatai Range
      • Akzhaylyautas Mts (Akzhailyautas Mts; Akjaylautas Mts; Akzhalautas Mts)
Stepanov, A.V. (1961): New and rare minerals in alkali granites of Kazakhstan. Trudy Kazakhskogo Nauchno-Isledovatelskogo Insituta Mineralnogo Syrya, 5, 147-161.
  • Erongo Region
    • Swakopmund District
      • Arandis
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 343 pp. (in English)
  • Khomas Region
    • Gamsberg Area
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2008): Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern: 619 (in English)
  • Aust-Agder
    • Iveland
      • Frikstad
K. Eldjarn, pers. com. to P. Andresen, 2004./ Revheim, O. (2006): Slobrekka, Iveland, Del 1. STEIN 33 (4), 53-55
      • Ljosland
        • Knipan (Knipane)
Breivik, H., Myre, K. & Gunnufsen, K. (2010): Gammelt og nytt, stort og smått fra Storsynken, Knipane, Iveland. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 43: 88-93
  • Buskerud
    • Lier
      • Sylling
Raade, G. & Brastad, K.(1993): Kamphaugite-(Y), a new hydrous Ca-(Y-REE)-carbonate mineral. European Journal of Mineralogy. 5, 679-683
  • Nordland
    • Tysfjord
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
  • Telemark
    • Drangedal
      • Tørdal
Thomas Witzke collection
Raade, Sæbø, Austrheim & Kristiansen (1993): Kuliokite-(Y) and its alteration products kainosite-(Y) and kamphaugite-(Y) from granite pegmatite in Tørdal, Norway, European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 691-698.
Knut Edvard Larsen collection
    • Kragerø
Raade, G. & Brastad, K.(1993): Kamphaugite-(Y), a new hydrous Ca-(Y-REE)-carbonate mineral. European Journal of Mineralogy. 5, 679-683 + Ljøstad, O.T. (1994): Kamphaugitt-(Y)- det nyest beskrevne mineralet fra Norge. STEIN 21 (2), 143-144
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Tvedalen
        • Tuften (Tuften 1 Quarry; Tuften 2 Quarry)
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Polar Yakutia
        • Cherskii range system
          • Selennyakh range
            • Tommot river
no reference
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Keivy Mountains
          • Western Keivy Massif
Natural History Museum Vienna collection; Voloshin A.V., Pakhomovskii Ya.A., Yakovenchuk V.N., Men'shikov Yu.P., Sokolova E.V., Egorov-Tismenko Yu.K. [Волошин А. В., Пахомовский Я. А., Яковенчук В. Н., Меньшиков Ю. П., Соколова Е. В., Егоров-Тисменко Ю. К.] (1996): Kamphaugite-(Y) and tengerite-(Y) from amazonite randpegmatites of the Kola Peninsula [Камфагит-(Y) и тенгерит-(Y) из амазонитовых рандпегматитов Кольского полуострова]. Zap. VMO [Зап. ВМО], 125, 1, 109-119 (in Russian).
South Africa
  • North West Province
    • Ngaka Modiri Molema District
VERWOERD, W.J. (2008) Kamphaugite-(Y) from the Goudini carbonatite, South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist, 46, 1007-1022.
  • Madrid
    • Cadalso de los Vidrios
Menor, C (2007). Kamphaugite-(Y) in Cadalso de los Vidrios (Madrid). Mineral Up, 2007-2, 48-49.
Mineralogical Magazine 70(4),397-404(2006)
Tanago, J. G., Lozano, P. L., Larios, A. , La Iglesia, A. (2012) Stokesite crystals from La Cabrera, Madrid, Spain. Mineralogical Record 43:499-508
  • Maine
    • Hancock Co.
      • Mount Desert
King, V. and Foord, E., 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, volume 2, Addenda.
  • Massachusetts
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Ashland
Médard E, Cristofono P, Henderson W A (2007) Kamphaugite-(Y) from Ashland, MA (MMNE Newsletter 284:2-5)
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