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Kanemite

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About KanemiteHide

Formula:
HNaSi2O5 · 3H2O
Colour:
Colorless to cloudy white; light tan possibly due to inclusions
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Hardness:
4
Specific Gravity:
1.93
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1972 by Gilbert Maglione and Z. Johan after the type locality at Andajia, Kanem (Khanem) Region, Lake Chad, Chad.
Cleaved aggregates may appear similar to gypsum.

May dehydrate to Unnamed (Kanemite-related mineral).


Classification of KanemiteHide

Approved
9.EF.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
F : Single nets with 6-membered rings, connected by M[4], M[8], etc.
73.1.5.1

73 : PHYLLOSILICATES Condensed Tetrahedral Sheets
1 : Condensed Tetrahedral Sheets with double layers

Physical Properties of KanemiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colorless to cloudy white; light tan possibly due to inclusions
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
{010} perfect; {100} good
Density:
1.93 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.933 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of KanemiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.451 nβ = 1.470 nγ = 1.478
2V:
Measured: 46° , Calculated: 64°
Birefringence:
0.027
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.027
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v distinct
Optical Extinction:
parallel, XYZ = bac
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of KanemiteHide

Formula:
HNaSi2O5 · 3H2O
Common Impurities:
Al,Ca,K

Crystallography of KanemiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.282 Å, b = 20.507 Å, c = 4.956 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.355 : 1 : 0.242
Unit Cell V:
740.09 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Comment:
Pnmb

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
10.3 (100)
4.01 (100)
3.44 (90)
3.16 (70)
3.09 (70)
2.48 (80)
2.39 (60)
2.00 (50)
Comments:
Originally described as monoclinic.

Type Occurrence of KanemiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Spherical aggregates, generally < 0.3 mm. The surface of the aggregates may show etched to incised surface markings.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of KanemiteHide

Other Language Names for KanemiteHide

German:Kanemit
Spanish:Kanemita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Natrolite3 photos of Kanemite associated with Natrolite on mindat.org.
Tuperssuatsiaite3 photos of Kanemite associated with Tuperssuatsiaite on mindat.org.
Villiaumite1 photo of Kanemite associated with Villiaumite on mindat.org.
Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Zakharovite)1 photo of Kanemite associated with Unnamed (Fe-analogue of Zakharovite) on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EF.05PetaliteLiAl(Si4O10)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
9.EF.10SanborniteBa2(Si4O10)Orth.
9.EF.15SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
9.EF.20SilinaiteNaLiSi2O5 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
9.EF.30Yakovenchukite-(Y)K3NaCaY2[Si12O30] · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pcca

Fluorescence of KanemiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KanemiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Johan, Z., Maglione, G. F. (1972): La kanemite, nouveau silicate de sodium hydraté de néoformation. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 95, 371-382.
American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 210.
Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie (1982): 105: 633.
Vortmann, S., Rius, J., Marler, B., Gies, H. (1999): Structure solution from powder data of the hydrous layer silicate kanemite, a precursor of the industrial ion exchanger SKS-6. European Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 125-134.
Corredor, J.I., Cota, A., Pavón, E., Alba, M.D. (2013): Synthesis and characterization of kanemite from fluoride-containing media: Influence of the alkali cation. American Mineralogist, 98, 1000-1007.
Zubkova, N. V., Pekov, I. V., Pushcharovsky, D. Y. (2014): A review of crystal chemistry of natural silicates of alkaline elements in the light of new structural data. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 253-265.
Schmidmair, D., Kahlenberg, V., Többens, D. M., Schottenberger, H., de Wit, J., Griesser, U. J. (2015): Temperature- and moisture-dependent powder X-ray diffraction studies of kanemite (NaSi2O4(OH)·3H2O). Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 103-120.

Internet Links for KanemiteHide

Localities for KanemiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Chad (TL)
 
  • Kanem Region (Khanem)
Bull.Soc.fr.Min.Crist.(1972) 95, 372-382
Kenya
 
  • Baringo County
G. Périnet, J.J. Tiercelin, C.E. Barton : "Présence de kanémite dans les sédiments récents du lac Bogoria, Rift Gregory, Kenya", Bull. Minéral., 1982, 105, 633-639.
Namibia
 
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek District
      • Aris
Garvie, L. A. J., Devouard, B., Groy, T. L., Cámara, F. and Buseck, P. R. (1999): Crystal structure of kanemite, NaHSi2O5•3H2O, from the Aris phonolite, Namibia. Am. Mineral., 84, 1170-1175.; [http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/aris.htm]; Blaß, G., Kolitsch, U., Tremmel, G., Esche, J. (2016): Neue Mineralienfunde aus den Phonolithbrüchen von Aris in Namibia. Mineralien-Welt 27 (4), 48-60 (in German); Kolitsch, U., Blaß, G., Jahn, S., Cámara, F., von Bezing, L., Wartha, R. R., Tremmel, G., Sturla, M., Cerea, P., Skebo, M. and Ciriotti, M. E. (2016): Aris - mineralogy of the famous alkaline phonolite. AMI - Associazione Micromineralogica Italiana, Cremona, Italy, 95 pp.
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Lovozero Massif
Pekov, I.V. (2000): Lovozero Massif. Moscow, Ocean Pictures Ltd, 480 pp.
          • Umbozero mine (Umbozerskii mine; Umba Mine)
Igor Pekov analysis
Mineral and/or Locality  
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