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German geologist, the late Dr. Egon Kirschstein (), who died in the events of the World War I in East Africa. Dr. Kirschstein was an early pioneer in the geological exploration of the Virunga volcanic field in North Kivu.
Olivine Group. Kirschsteinite-Monticellite Series.

Not to uncommon in Fe-rich slags.
Also a significant accessory mineral in the angrite group of achondrites (meteorites).

Classification of Kirschsteinite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
C : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in octahedral [6] coordination

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca

Physical Properties of Kirschsteinite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Hardness (Mohs):
3.434 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.596 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Kirschsteinite

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.674 - 1.693 nβ = 1.694 - 1.734 nγ = 1.706 - 1.735
Measured: 51° (1), Calculated: 16° to 74°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.032 - 0.042
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v or r < v

Chemical Properties of Kirschsteinite

Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of Kirschsteinite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.859 Å, b = 11.132 Å, c = 6.420 Å
a:b:c = 0.436 : 1 : 0.577
Unit Cell Volume:
V 347.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
2.949 (100)
2.680 (85)
2.604 (80)
3.658 (70)
1.830 (60)
2.414 (40)
5.569 (35)

Occurrences of Kirschsteinite

Type Occurrence of Kirschsteinite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium, RGM8037; Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
melilite-nephelinite lava

Relationship of Kirschsteinite to other Species

Forms a series with Monticellite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Roepperite (of Brush)(Fe22+,Mn,Zn)SiO4
9.AC.20ChesnokoviteNa2SiO2(OH)2 · 8H2O
14.22.3 Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Fe23+(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O

Other Names for Kirschsteinite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:钙铁橄榄石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Kirschsteinite in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Kirschsteinite

Reference List:
Sahama T G, Hytönen K (1957) Kirschsteinite, a natural analogue to synthetic iron monticellite, from the Belgian Congo, Mineralogical Magazine, 31, 698-699

Fleischer M (1958) New mineral names. American Mineralogist (1958): 43: 790.

Folco L, Mellini M (1997) Crystal chemistry of meteoritic kirschsteinite, European Journal of Mineralogy, 9, 969-973

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (1970): 190: 932-935.

Internet Links for Kirschsteinite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Kirschsteinite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Béchar Province
    • Béchar
Connolly Jr., H. C. et al. (2007) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 92, 2007 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 4 (9): 1647-1694. (Sept 2007); Kuehner, S. M. & Irving, A. J. (2007) Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #P41A-0219. (Dec 2007)
  • Buckley Island quadrangle
    • Lewis Cliff
Crozaz, G., Lundberg, L. L. & McKay, G. (1988) Rare Earth Elements (REE) in the Unique Achondrite LEW 86010. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XIX: p. 231. (March 1988)
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land)
      • Sør Rondane Mts
Yanai, K. (1994) Angrite Asuka-881371: Preliminary examination of a unique meteorite in the Japanese collection of Antarctic meteorites. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 7: 30-41 (March 1994) ; Mikouchi, T., Miyamoto, M. & McKay, G. A. (1996) Mineralogical study of Angrite Asuka-881371: Its possible relation to Angrite Lew87051. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 9:174-188. ; C. Floss, G. Crozaz, G. McKay, T. Mikouchi & M. Killgore (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
    • Transantarctic Mts
      • Buckley Island quadrangle
        • Lewis Cliff
McKay, G., Crozaz, G., Wagstaff, I., Yang, S. R. & Lundberg, L. (1990) A Petrographic, Electron Microprobe, Study of Mini-Angrite Lewis Cliff 87051: Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXI: p. 771. (Mar 1990) ; McKay, G., Le, L. & Wagstaff, J. (1991) Olivines in angrite LEW 87051: Phenos or xenos. In Lunar and Planetary Inst., Abstracts for the 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, p 151.
  • Buenos Aires
    • Coronel Suaréz
      • D'Orbigny; Keil, K. (2012) Angrites, a small but diverse suite of ancient, silica-undersaturated volcanic-plutonic mafic meteorites, and the history of their parent asteroid: Chemie der Erde, geochemistry 71:191-218.; Hwang, S. L., Shen, P., Chu, H. T., Yui, T. F., Varela, M. E., & Iizuka, Y. (2016, March). Tsangpoite: The Unknown Calcium Silico Phosphate Phase in the Angrite D'Orbigny. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 47, p. 1466).
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
  • Pernambuco
    • Fernando de Noronha archipelago
      • Fernando de Noronha island
Kogarko, L., Kurat, G., & Ntaflos, T. (2001). Carbonate metasomatism of the oceanic mantle beneath Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 140(5), 577-587.
  • Rio de Janeiro
    • Angra dos Reis
      • Ilha Grande
Prinz, M., Keil, K., Hlava, P. F., Berkely, J. L., Gomes, C. B. & Curvello, W. S. (1977) Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra DOS Reis achondrite: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 35 (2): 317-330. (June 1977) ; Fittipaldo, M. M., Jones, R. H. & Shearer, C. K. (2003) Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXIV: abstract no.1229. (March 2003)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
  • Kivu
    • Goma
Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.; Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Mineralogical Magazine (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
  • Centre-Val de Loire
    • Loir-et-Cher
Sara S. Russell, Richard C. Greenwood, A. J. Fahey, Gary R. Huss & Gerald J. Wasserburg (1994). An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. Meteoritics 29, #4, p. 525-526. (Jul 1994).
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Mahabubnagar district
Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 513-516
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Ferrara Province
      • Vigarano Mainarda
        • Vigarano Pieve
M. R. Lee, R. Hutchinson & A. L. Graham (1996). Aqueous alteration in the matrix of the Vigarano (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 31, #4, 477-483.
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
Melluso, L.; Conticelli, S.; de' Gennaro, R. (2010): Kirschsteinite in the Capo di Bove melilite leucitite lava. Mineralogical Magazine, 74, 887-902.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Manasse A., Mellini M. (2002): Chemical and textural characterisation of medieval slags from the Massa Marittima smelting sites (Tuscany, Italy). J. Cultural Heritage, 3, 187-198.
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
Andrea MANASSE, Marcello MELLINI and Cecilia VITI (2001): The copper slags of the Capattoli Valley, Campiglia Marittima, Italy. European Journal of Mineralogy 13, 949-960.
  • Umbria
    • Terni Province
      • San Venanzo
Sharygin probeb; Sharygin, V. V., Pekov, I. V., Zubkova, N. V., Khomyakov, A. P., Stoppa, F., & Pushcharovsky, D. Y. (2013). Umbrianite, K7Na2Ca2 [Al3Si10O29] F2Cl2, a new mineral species from melilitolite of the Pian di Celle volcano, Umbria, Italy. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(4), 655-669.
  • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
Krot, A. N., Brearley, A. J., Biryukov, V. V., Ulyanov, A. A., Keil, K., Swindle, T. D. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (1997). Dark inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka - Evidence for various degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII, pdf#1346, 769-770. (March 1997)
  • Chihuahua
    • Pueblito de Allende
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Aoult
    • Zagora Province
Connolly, Jr., H. C. et al., (2007) Meteoritical Bulletin, no. 92, 2007 September: MAPS 42 (9), 1647-1694. (Sept 2007)
  • Guelmim-Oued Noun Region
Agee, C. B., Miley, H. M., Ziegler, K. & Spilde, M. N. (2015) Northwest Africa 8535: Unique Dunitic Angrite. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XLVI, LPI Contribution No. 1832, pdf.2681. (Mar 2015).
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
      • Kombat
Sid Williams data
Northwest Africa
Russell, S. S. & 6 others (2003) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 87, 2003 July: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 38 (7, Suppl.): A189–A248. ; Jambon, A., Barrat, J. A., Boudouma, O., Fonteilles, M., Badia, D., Göpel, C. & Bohn, M. (2005) Mineralogy and petrology of the angrite Northwest Africa 1296. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40 (3) :361–375. (March 2005). -NWA1670@MetBullDatabase; Jambon A., Boudouma, O., Fonteilles, M., Le Guillou, C., Badia D. & Barrat, J. A. (2008) Petrology and mineralogy of the angrite Northwest Africa 1670. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 43:1783–1795. (Nov 2008).
  • Małopolskie
    • Olkusz District
Ref.: Kucha H., Jędrzejczyk B. 1995: Primary minerals of mining and metallurgical Zn-Pb dumps at Bukowno, Poland, and their stability during weathering. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 26, No 2, 75-99
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Katowice
      • Świętochłowice
Zainoun K., Puziewicz J. & Bril H. 2003: Primary Pb-Zn-bearing phases in pyrometallurgical slag from Świętochłowice (Upper Silesia, Poland). Mineralogiacal Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 33, 189-191
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
B Otter collection: Konev, A. A., Ushchapovskaya, Z.F. and Lebedeva V. S.(1970): First find of magnesian kirschsteinite in the USSR. Dokl. Acad. Sci.USSR, Earth Sci. Sect.,190, 136-138
Sahara Desert
Grossman, J. N. & Zipfel, J. (2000). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 84, 2000 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35(9,Supplement): A199-A225.; Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
South Africa
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
  • Murcia
    • Mazarrón
      • Pastrana
The Rruff kirschsteinite specimen is from a unknown locality in Mazarron, not from La Reconquistada claim. May be a slag locality in San Cristóbal hill.
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
M.E. Ciriotti (2005) Probed
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
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