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Kirschsteinite

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Formula:
CaFe2+SiO4
Colour:
greenish
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3.434
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Member of:
Name:
German geologist, the late Dr. Egon Kirschstein (), who died in the events of the World War I in East Africa. Dr. Kirschstein was an early pioneer in the geological exploration of the Virunga volcanic field in North Kivu.
Olivine Group. Kirschsteinite-Monticellite Series.

Not to uncommon in Fe-rich slags.
Also a significant accessory mineral in the angrite group of achondrites (meteorites).


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of KirschsteiniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.AC.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
C : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in octahedral [6] coordination
51.3.2.2

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
14.22.4

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca

Physical Properties of KirschsteiniteHide

Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
greenish
Hardness:
5½ on Mohs scale
Density:
3.434 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.596 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of KirschsteiniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.674 - 1.693 nβ = 1.694 - 1.734 nγ = 1.706 - 1.735
2V:
Measured: 51° (1), Calculated: 16° to 74°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.032 - 0.042
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v or r < v

Chemical Properties of KirschsteiniteHide

Formula:
CaFe2+SiO4
Common Impurities:
Ti,Al,Mn,Mg,Na,K,P,H2O

Crystallography of KirschsteiniteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnma
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.859 Å, b = 11.132 Å, c = 6.420 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.436 : 1 : 0.577
Unit Cell V:
347.26 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.949 (100)
2.680 (85)
2.604 (80)
3.658 (70)
1.830 (60)
2.414 (40)
5.569 (35)
(

Type Occurrence of KirschsteiniteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium, RGM8037; Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
melilite-nephelinite lava
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of KirschsteiniteHide

Other Language Names for KirschsteiniteHide

Simplified Chinese:钙铁橄榄石

Relationship of Kirschsteinite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
FayaliteFe2+2SiO4Orth.
ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4Orth.
LaihuniteFe2+Fe3+2(SiO4)2Mon.
Liebenbergite(Ni,Mg)2SiO4Orth.
MonticelliteCaMgSiO4Orth.
Olivine(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4Orth.
Roepperite (of Brush)(Fe2+2,Mn,Zn)SiO4
TephroiteMn2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

CalciteCaCO3
CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2
DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
GarnetX3Z2(SiO4)3
GraphiteC
Melilite GroupCa2M(XSiO7)
PerovskiteCaTiO3
Titanian Augite(Ca,Na)(Mg,Ti, Fe,Al,)(Si,Al)2O6
TroiliteFeS
WollastoniteCaSiO3
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Magnetite1 photo of Kirschsteinite associated with Magnetite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AC.AhrensiteFe2SiO4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
9.AC.05FayaliteFe2+2SiO4Orth.
9.AC.05ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4Orth.
9.AC.05LaihuniteFe2+Fe3+2(SiO4)2Mon.
9.AC.05Liebenbergite(Ni,Mg)2SiO4Orth.
9.AC.05TephroiteMn2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.10MonticelliteCaMgSiO4Orth.
9.AC.15BrunogeieriteFe2+2Ge4+O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
9.AC.15Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AC.20ChesnokoviteNa2[SiO2(OH)2] · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibca

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

51.3.2.1MonticelliteCaMgSiO4Orth.
51.3.2.3GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.22.1HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.22.2Pyroxferroite(Fe,Mn,Ca)SiO3Tric.
14.22.3 Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
14.22.5TungusiteCa4Fe2Si6O15(OH)6
14.22.6Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
14.22.7IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
14.22.9AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Kirschsteinite in petrologyHide

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)

References for KirschsteiniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Sahama T G, Hytönen K (1957) Kirschsteinite, a natural analogue to synthetic iron monticellite, from the Belgian Congo, Mineralogical Magazine, 31, 698-699
Fleischer M (1958) New mineral names. American Mineralogist (1958): 43: 790.
Folco L, Mellini M (1997) Crystal chemistry of meteoritic kirschsteinite, European Journal of Mineralogy, 9, 969-973
Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (1970): 190: 932-935.

Internet Links for KirschsteiniteHide

Localities for KirschsteiniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Algeria
 
  • Béchar Province
    • Béchar
Connolly Jr., H. C. et al. (2007) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 92, 2007 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 4 (9): 1647-1694. (Sept 2007); Kuehner, S. M. & Irving, A. J. (2007) Primary Ferric Iron-Bearing Rhönite in Plutonic Igneous Angrite NWA 4590: Implications for Redox Conditions on the Angrite Parent Body. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2007, abstract #P41A-0219. (Dec 2007)
Antarctica
 
  • Buckley Island quadrangle
    • Lewis Cliff
Crozaz, G., Lundberg, L. L. & McKay, G. (1988) Rare Earth Elements (REE) in the Unique Achondrite LEW 86010. Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XIX: p. 231. (March 1988)
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land)
      • Sør Rondane Mts
Yanai, K. (1994) Angrite Asuka-881371: Preliminary examination of a unique meteorite in the Japanese collection of Antarctic meteorites. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 7: 30-41 (March 1994) ; Mikouchi, T., Miyamoto, M. & McKay, G. A. (1996) Mineralogical study of Angrite Asuka-881371: Its possible relation to Angrite Lew87051. Proc. NIPR Symp. Antarct. Meteorites 9:174-188. ; C. Floss, G. Crozaz, G. McKay, T. Mikouchi & M. Killgore (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
    • Transantarctic Mts
      • Buckley Island quadrangle
        • Lewis Cliff
McKay, G., Crozaz, G., Wagstaff, I., Yang, S. R. & Lundberg, L. (1990) A Petrographic, Electron Microprobe, Study of Mini-Angrite Lewis Cliff 87051: Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXI: p. 771. (Mar 1990) ; McKay, G., Le, L. & Wagstaff, J. (1991) Olivines in angrite LEW 87051: Phenos or xenos. In Lunar and Planetary Inst., Abstracts for the 54th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, p 151.
Argentina
 
  • Buenos Aires
    • Coronel Suaréz
      • D'Orbigny
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=7714; Keil, K. (2012) Angrites, a small but diverse suite of ancient, silica-undersaturated volcanic-plutonic mafic meteorites, and the history of their parent asteroid: Chemie der Erde, geochemistry 71:191-218.; Hwang, S. L., Shen, P., Chu, H. T., Yui, T. F., Varela, M. E., & Iizuka, Y. (2016, March). Tsangpoite: The Unknown Calcium Silico Phosphate Phase in the Angrite D'Orbigny. In Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Vol. 47, p. 1466).
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
Brazil
 
  • Pernambuco
    • Fernando de Noronha archipelago
      • Fernando de Noronha island
Kogarko, L., Kurat, G., & Ntaflos, T. (2001). Carbonate metasomatism of the oceanic mantle beneath Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 140(5), 577-587.
  • Rio de Janeiro
    • Angra dos Reis
      • Ilha Grande
Prinz, M., Keil, K., Hlava, P. F., Berkely, J. L., Gomes, C. B. & Curvello, W. S. (1977) Studies of Brazilian meteorites. III - Origin and history of the Angra DOS Reis achondrite: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 35 (2): 317-330. (June 1977) ; Fittipaldo, M. M., Jones, R. H. & Shearer, C. K. (2003) Trace Element Distribution Between Olivine and Kirschsteinite in Angra Dos Reis: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXIV: abstract no.1229. (March 2003)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Kivu
    • Goma
Haapala, I. L. M. A. R. I. (2011). Th. G. Sahama’s (1910–1983) volcanological and mineralogical studies in Africa: Part I. Expeditions to the Virunga Volcanic Field and petrological-mineralogical studies on the Nyiragongo volcano. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 83, 41-55.; Andersen, T., Elburg, M. A., & Erambert, M. (2014). Extreme peralkalinity in delhayelite-and andremeyerite-bearing nephelinite from Nyiragongo volcano, East African Rift. Lithos, 206, 164-178.
Mineralogical Magazine (1958) 31 (2), 698-699.; Mineralogical Magazine 1957 31 : 698-699.
France
 
  • Centre-Val de Loire
    • Loir-et-Cher
Sara S. Russell, Richard C. Greenwood, A. J. Fahey, Gary R. Huss & Gerald J. Wasserburg (1994). An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. Meteoritics 29, #4, p. 525-526. (Jul 1994).
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Mahabubnagar district
Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 513-516
Italy
 
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Ferrara Province
      • Vigarano Mainarda
        • Vigarano Pieve
M. R. Lee, R. Hutchinson & A. L. Graham (1996). Aqueous alteration in the matrix of the Vigarano (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 31, #4, 477-483.
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
Melluso, L.; Conticelli, S.; de' Gennaro, R. (2010): Kirschsteinite in the Capo di Bove melilite leucitite lava. Mineralogical Magazine, 74, 887-902.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Manasse A., Mellini M. (2002): Chemical and textural characterisation of medieval slags from the Massa Marittima smelting sites (Tuscany, Italy). J. Cultural Heritage, 3, 187-198.
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
Andrea MANASSE, Marcello MELLINI and Cecilia VITI (2001): The copper slags of the Capattoli Valley, Campiglia Marittima, Italy. European Journal of Mineralogy 13, 949-960.
  • Umbria
    • Terni Province
      • San Venanzo
Sharygin probeb; Sharygin, V. V., Pekov, I. V., Zubkova, N. V., Khomyakov, A. P., Stoppa, F., & Pushcharovsky, D. Y. (2013). Umbrianite, K7Na2Ca2 [Al3Si10O29] F2Cl2, a new mineral species from melilitolite of the Pian di Celle volcano, Umbria, Italy. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(4), 655-669.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
Krot, A. N., Brearley, A. J., Biryukov, V. V., Ulyanov, A. A., Keil, K., Swindle, T. D. & Mittlefehldt, D. W. (1997). Dark inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka - Evidence for various degrees of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII, pdf#1346, 769-770. (March 1997)
Mauritania
 
http:www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=57258
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Pueblito de Allende
www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2002/pdf/5053.pdf.
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Aoult
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=44983
    • Zagora Province
Connolly, Jr., H. C. et al., (2007) Meteoritical Bulletin, no. 92, 2007 September: MAPS 42 (9), 1647-1694. (Sept 2007)
  • Guelmim-Oued Noun Region
Agee, C. B., Miley, H. M., Ziegler, K. & Spilde, M. N. (2015) Northwest Africa 8535: Unique Dunitic Angrite. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XLVI, LPI Contribution No. 1832, pdf.2681. (Mar 2015).
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Ettler, V., Johan, Z., Kříbek, B., Šebek, O. & Mihaljevič, M. (2009): Mineralogy and environmental stability of slags from the Tsumeb smelter, Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 24, 1-15.
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
      • Kombat
Sid Williams data
Northwest Africa
 
Russell, S. S. & 6 others (2003) The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 87, 2003 July: Meteoritics & Planetary Science 38 (7, Suppl.): A189–A248. ; Jambon, A., Barrat, J. A., Boudouma, O., Fonteilles, M., Badia, D., Göpel, C. & Bohn, M. (2005) Mineralogy and petrology of the angrite Northwest Africa 1296. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 40 (3) :361–375. (March 2005).
http:www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=17405 -NWA1670@MetBullDatabase; Jambon A., Boudouma, O., Fonteilles, M., Le Guillou, C., Badia D. & Barrat, J. A. (2008) Petrology and mineralogy of the angrite Northwest Africa 1670. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 43:1783–1795. (Nov 2008).
Poland
 
  • Małopolskie
    • Olkusz District
Ref.: Kucha H., Jędrzejczyk B. 1995: Primary minerals of mining and metallurgical Zn-Pb dumps at Bukowno, Poland, and their stability during weathering. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 26, No 2, 75-99
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Katowice
      • Świętochłowice
Zainoun K., Puziewicz J. & Bril H. 2003: Primary Pb-Zn-bearing phases in pyrometallurgical slag from Świętochłowice (Upper Silesia, Poland). Mineralogiacal Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 33, 189-191
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
B Otter collection: Konev, A. A., Ushchapovskaya, Z.F. and Lebedeva V. S.(1970): First find of magnesian kirschsteinite in the USSR. Dokl. Acad. Sci.USSR, Earth Sci. Sect.,190, 136-138
Sahara Desert
 
Grossman, J. N. & Zipfel, J. (2000). The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 84, 2000 September. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35(9,Supplement): A199-A225.; Floss, C., Crozaz, G., McKay, G., Mikouchi, T. & Killgore, M. (2003) Petrogenesis of angrites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 67(24): 4775-4789. (Dec 2003)
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
Spain
 
  • Murcia
    • Mazarrón
      • Pastrana
The Rruff kirschsteinite specimen is from a unknown locality in Mazarron, not from La Reconquistada claim. May be a slag locality in San Cristóbal hill.
Sweden
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
M.E. Ciriotti (2005) Probed
USA
 
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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