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Andradite

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José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva
Formula:
Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Colour:
Yellow, greenish yellow to emerald-green, dark green; brown, brownish red, brownish yellow; grayish black, black; may be sectored
Lustre:
Adamantine, Resinous, Dull
Hardness:
6½ - 7
Specific Gravity:
3.8 - 3.9
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
Named in 1868 by James Dwight Dana in honor of José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva [June 13, 1763 Santos, Brazil - April 6, 1838 Niterói, Brazil], Brazilian mineralogist.
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Classification of AndraditeHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8/A.08-110
9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
51.4.3b.1

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
14.22.9

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca

Pronounciation of AndraditeHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of AndraditeHide

Adamantine, Resinous, Dull
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Yellow, greenish yellow to emerald-green, dark green; brown, brownish red, brownish yellow; grayish black, black; may be sectored
Streak:
White
Hardness:
6½ - 7 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.8 - 3.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.859 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AndraditeHide

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 1.887
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Typically weak

Chemical Properties of AndraditeHide

Formula:
Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Common Impurities:
Ti,Cr,Al,Mg

Crystallography of AndraditeHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Ia3d
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.056 Å
Unit Cell V:
1,752.31 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Commonly well-crystallized dodecahedra, trapezohedra, or combinations, to 5 cm. Also granular to massive.
Comment:
Al-Fe ordered variants may show space groups I-1 (subgroup of Ia3d) or Fddd (Kingma & Downs, 1989).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of AndraditeHide

Synonyms of AndraditeHide

Other Language Names for AndraditeHide

Varieties of AndraditeHide

BredbergiteA green magnesian variety of Andradite [Dana, 1868, 270 "Syst.Min., 5th Ed."]
ColophoniteA coarsely granular variety of brown, yellow-orange or reddish garnet, usually andradite. An early chemical analysis [Simon, 1807] of "colophonite" from "nordisches Gegenden" [Nordic regions], probably Arendal iron mines, Norway, was neither of type mate...
DemantoidGarnet group .
Hydroandradite
MelaniteA black Ti-bearing (up to 11.5 mass% TiO2, usually ~5 or less mass%) variety of Andradite garnet.
PolyadelphiteA red brown, golden brown, or yellow brown variety of manganoan andradite.
Stanniferous Andradite
TitanmelaniteA black Ti-bearing andradite (cf. also melanite).
Titanoan AndraditeA brown coloured Ti-bearing andradite, distinguished from the black Melanite high-titanoan (up to 11.5 mas.% TiO2) variety of Andradite garnet.
TopazoliteA variety of Andradite with the colour and transparency of topaz.
YttergranatY-rich andradite

Relationship of Andradite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
Berzeliite(NaCa2)Mg2(AsO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
Bitikleite Group
BlythiteMn2+3Mn3+2[SiO4]3
Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso.
GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
IrinarassiteCa3Sn2Al2SiO12 Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso.
KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
KhohariteMg3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso.
MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
Menzerite-(Y){(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe2+)}3{(Mg,Fe2+),(Fe3+,Al)}2[SiO4]3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
Palenzonaite(Ca,Na)3CaMn2+2(VO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3Iso.
SchäferiteCa2NaMg2(VO4)3Iso.
SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
SkiagiteFe2+3Fe3+2[SiO4]3
SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
UM1984-37-SiO:CrMnMn2+3(Cr3+,Mn3+)2Si3O12
UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
YafsoaniteCa3Zn3(TeO6)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3)
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

CalciteCaCO3
Chlorite GroupA group of mostly monoclinic (also triclinic or orthorhombic) micaceous phyllosilicate minerals with a structure ...
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
SpinelMgAl2O4
Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite192 photos of Andradite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Quartz190 photos of Andradite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Epidote175 photos of Andradite associated with Epidote on mindat.org.
Hausmannite154 photos of Andradite associated with Hausmannite on mindat.org.
Hematite142 photos of Andradite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Willemite124 photos of Andradite associated with Willemite on mindat.org.
Hedenbergite110 photos of Andradite associated with Hedenbergite on mindat.org.
Diopside76 photos of Andradite associated with Diopside on mindat.org.
Gaudefroyite75 photos of Andradite associated with Gaudefroyite on mindat.org.
Magnetite64 photos of Andradite associated with Magnetite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AD.05LarniteCa2SiO4Mon.
9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AD.20BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4Orth.
9.AD.25AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25HydroandraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4xIso.
9.AD.25KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
9.AD.25KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
9.AD.25PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3Iso.
9.AD.25SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3Iso.
9.AD.25SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe3+10Si4O32Cl6Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AD.30Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4xTet.
9.AD.30HafnonHfSiO4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.30ThoriteTh(SiO4)Tet.
9.AD.30ZirconZr(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.30Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
9.AD.35HuttoniteThSiO4Mon.
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)Y4(Si,H4)4O12-x(OH)4+2xMon.
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

51.4.3b.2GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
51.4.3b.3UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
51.4.3b.4GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3Iso.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.22.1HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.22.2Pyroxferroite(Fe,Mn,Ca)SiO3Tric.
14.22.3 Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
14.22.4KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
14.22.5TungusiteCa4Fe2Si6O15(OH)6
14.22.6Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
14.22.7IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Andradite in petrologyHide

References for AndraditeHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
d’Andrada, J.B. (1800) Kurze Angabe der Eigenschaften und Kennzeichen einiger neuen Fossilien aus Schweden und Norwegen nebst einigen chemischen Bemerkungen über dieselben, vom Herrn d'Andrada. Allgemeines Journal der Chemie: 4: 28-39.
Dana, J.D., Brush, G.J. (1868) E. Lime-Irongarnet; Andradite. in: A System of Mineralogy, Fifth Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York: 268-270.
Manning, P.G. (1967) The optical absorption spectra of some andradites and the identification of 6A, → 4A, 4E(G) transition in octahedrally bonded Fe+3. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences: 4: 1039-1047.
Howie, R.A., Wooley, A.R., Scoon, J.H., Tyler, R.C., Walsh, J.N. (1968) The role of titanium and the effect of TiO2 on the cell size, refractive index, and specific gravity in the andradite-melanite-schorlomite series. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 775-790.
Isaacs, T. (1968) Titanium substitution in andradites. Chemical Geology: 3: 219-222.
Manning, P.G., Harris, D.C. (1970) Optical absorption and electron-microprobe studies of some high-Ti andradites. The Canadian Mineralogist: 10: 260-271.
Novak, G.A., Gibbs, G.V. (1971) The crystal chemistry of the silicate garnets. American Mineralogist: 56: 791-825.
Kingma, K.J., Downs, J.W. (1989) Crystal-structure analysis of a birefringent andradite. American Mineralogist: 74: 1307-1316.
Hofmeister, A.M., Chopelas, A. (1991) Vibrational spectroscopy of end-member silicate garnets. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 17: 503-526.
Madon, M., Ibarguchi, J.I.G., Via, J., Girardeau, J. (1991) Characterization and thermodynamic properties of andradite, Ca3Fe2Si3O12. American Mineralogist: 76: 1249-1260.
Armbruster, T., Geiger, C.A. (1993) Andradite crystal chemistry, dynamic X-site disorder and structural strain in silicate garnets. European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 59-71.
Pilati, T., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M. (1996) Atomic displacement parameters for garnets: A lattice-dynamical evaluation. Acta Crystallographica: B52: 239-250.
Armbruster, Th., Birrer, J., Libowitzky, E., Beran, A. (1998) Crystal chemistry of Ti-bearing andradites. European Journal of Mineralogy: 10: 907-921.
Teertstra, D.K. (2006) Index-of-refraction and unit-cell constraints on cation valence and pattern of order in garnet-group minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 341-346.
Badar, M. A., Akizuki, M., Hussain, S. (2010) Optical anomaly in iridescent andradite from the Sierra Madre Mountains, Sonora, Mexico. The Canadian Mineralogist: 48: 1195-1203.
Adamo, I., Gatta, G.D., Rotiroti, N., Diella, V., Pavese, A. (2011) Green andradite stones: gemmological and mineralogical characterisation. European Journal of Mineralogy: 23: 91-100.
Badar, M., Niaz, S., Hussain, S., Akizuki, M. (2013) Lamellar texture and optical anomaly in andradite from the Kamaishi mine, Japan. European Journal of Mineralogy: 25: 53-60.
Grew, E.S., Locock, A.J., Mills, S.J., Galuskina, I.O., Galuskin, E.V., Hålenius, U. (2013) Nomenclature of the garnet supergroup. American Mineralogist: 98: 785-811.
Nakamura, Y., Kuribayashi, T., Nagase, T., Imay, H. (2017) Cation ordering in iridescent garnet from Tenkawa village, Nara prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 112, #2, 97-101.

Internet Links for AndraditeHide

Localities for AndraditeHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow