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Andradite

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José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva
Formula:
Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Colour:
Yellow, greenish yellow to emerald-green, dark green; brown, brownish red, brownish yellow; grayish black, black; may be sectored
Lustre:
Adamantine, Resinous, Dull
Hardness:
6½ - 7
Specific Gravity:
3.8 - 3.9
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
Named in 1868 by James Dwight Dana in honor of José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva [June 13, 1763 Santos, Brazil - April 6, 1838 Niterói, Brazil], Brazilian mineralogist.

Classification of Andradite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8/A.08-110
9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
51.4.3b.1

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
14.22.9

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
22 : Silicates of Fe and Ca

Physical Properties of Andradite

Adamantine, Resinous, Dull
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Yellow, greenish yellow to emerald-green, dark green; brown, brownish red, brownish yellow; grayish black, black; may be sectored
Streak:
White
Hardness:
6½ - 7 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.8 - 3.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.859 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Andradite

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 1.887
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Very High
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Typically weak

Chemical Properties of Andradite

Formula:
Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Common Impurities:
Ti,Cr,Al,Mg

Crystallography of Andradite

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Ia3d
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.056 Å
Unit Cell V:
1,752.31 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Commonly well-crystallized dodecahedra, trapezohedra, or combinations, to 5 cm. Also granular to massive.
Comment:
Al-Fe ordered variants may show space groups I-1 (subgroup of Ia3d) or Fddd (Kingma & Downs, 1989).

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of Andradite

Synonyms of Andradite

Other Language Names for Andradite

Varieties of Andradite

Bredbergite

A green magnesian variety of Andradite [Dana, 1868, 270 "Syst.Min., 5th Ed."]

Originally described from Sala Silver Mine, Sala, Västmanland, Sweden.

Colophonite

A coarsely granular variety of brown, yellow-orange or reddish garnet, usually andradite. An early chemical analysis [Simon, 1807] of "colophonite" from "nordisches Gegenden" [Nordic regions], probably Arendal iron mines, Norway, was neither of type mate...

DemantoidGarnet group

.

A green variety of Andradite.
Originally described from Telyanskai River, Kemennya Teliyana, Nizhne-Tagil'skoye (Mednorudyanskoye) Cu Deposit, Nizhnii Tagil, Sverdlovskaya Oblast', Urals Region, Russia.

Hydroandradite
Melanite

A black Ti-bearing (up to 11.5 mass% TiO2, usually ~5 or less mass%) variety of Andradite garnet.

Polyadelphite

A red brown, golden brown, or yellow brown variety of manganoan andradite.

Stanniferous Andradite
Titanmelanite

A black Ti-bearing andradite (cf. also melanite).

Titanoan Andradite

A brown coloured Ti-bearing andradite, distinguished from the black Melanite high-titanoan (up to 11.5 mas.% TiO2) variety of Andradite garnet.

Topazolite

A variety of Andradite with the colour and transparency of topaz.

Yttergranat

Y-rich andradite

Relationship of Andradite to other Species

Other Members of this group:
AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Berzeliite(NaCa2)Mg2(AsO4)3
Bitikleite Group
BlythiteMn2+3Mn3+2[SiO4]3
Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3
GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
IrinarassiteCa3Sn2Al2SiO12
KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
KhohariteMg3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
Menzerite-(Y){(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe2+)}3{(Mg,Fe2+),(Fe3+,Al)}2[SiO4]3
Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3
MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Palenzonaite(Ca,Na)3CaMn2+2(VO4)3
PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
SchäferiteCa2NaMg2(VO4)3
SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
SkiagiteFe2+3Fe3+2[SiO4]3
SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
UM1984-37-SiO:CrMnMn2+3(Cr3+,Mn3+)2Si3O12
UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
YafsoaniteCa3Zn3(TeO6)2
Forms a series with:

Common Associates

CalciteCaCO3
Chlorite GroupA group of mostly monoclinic (also triclinic or orthorhombic) micaceous phyllosilicate minerals with a structure ...
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
MagnetiteFe2+Fe3+2O4
SpinelMgAl2O4
Vesuvianite(Ca,Na,☐)19(Al,Mg,Fe3+)13(☐,B,Al,Fe3+)5(Si2O7)4(SiO4)10(OH,F,O)10
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite192 photos of Andradite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Quartz190 photos of Andradite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Epidote175 photos of Andradite associated with Epidote on mindat.org.
Hausmannite154 photos of Andradite associated with Hausmannite on mindat.org.
Hematite142 photos of Andradite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Willemite124 photos of Andradite associated with Willemite on mindat.org.
Hedenbergite110 photos of Andradite associated with Hedenbergite on mindat.org.
Diopside76 photos of Andradite associated with Diopside on mindat.org.
Gaudefroyite75 photos of Andradite associated with Gaudefroyite on mindat.org.
Magnetite64 photos of Andradite associated with Magnetite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

9.AD.05LarniteCa2SiO4
9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2
9.AD.20BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4
9.AD.25AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25HydroandraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25PyropeMg3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe3+10Si4O32Cl6
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
9.AD.30Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
9.AD.30HafnonHfSiO4
9.AD.30ThoriteTh(SiO4)
9.AD.30ZirconZr(SiO4)
9.AD.30Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)
9.AD.35HuttoniteThSiO4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)Y4(Si,H4)4O12-x(OH)4+2x
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

14.22.1HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
14.22.2Pyroxferroite(Fe,Mn,Ca)SiO3
14.22.3 Ferro-akermaniteCa2FeSi2O7
14.22.4KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4
14.22.5TungusiteCa4Fe2Si6O15(OH)6
14.22.6Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
14.22.7IlvaiteCaFe3+Fe2+2(Si2O7)O(OH)
14.22.8Julgoldite-(Fe2+)Ca2Fe2+Fe3+2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2O

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)

51.4.3b.2GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
51.4.3b.3UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
51.4.3b.4GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Andradite in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Andradite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
d’Andrada, J.B. (1800) Kurze Angabe der Eigenschaften und Kennzeichen einiger neuen Fossilien aus Schweden und Norwegen nebst einigen chemischen Bemerkungen über dieselben, vom Herrn d'Andrada. Allgemeines Journal der Chemie: 4: 28-39.
Dana, J.D., Brush, G.J. (1868) E. Lime-Irongarnet; Andradite. in: A System of Mineralogy, Fifth Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York: 268-270.
Manning, P.G. (1967) The optical absorption spectra of some andradites and the identification of 6A, → 4A, 4E(G) transition in octahedrally bonded Fe+3. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences: 4: 1039-1047.
Howie, R.A., Wooley, A.R., Scoon, J.H., Tyler, R.C., Walsh, J.N. (1968) The role of titanium and the effect of TiO2 on the cell size, refractive index, and specific gravity in the andradite-melanite-schorlomite series. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 775-790.
Isaacs, T. (1968) Titanium substitution in andradites. Chemical Geology: 3: 219-222.
Manning, P.G., Harris, D.C. (1970) Optical absorption and electron-microprobe studies of some high-Ti andradites. The Canadian Mineralogist: 10: 260-271.
Novak, G.A., Gibbs, G.V. (1971) The crystal chemistry of the silicate garnets. American Mineralogist: 56: 791-825.
Kingma, K.J., Downs, J.W. (1989) Crystal-structure analysis of a birefringent andradite. American Mineralogist: 74: 1307-1316.
Hofmeister, A.M., Chopelas, A. (1991) Vibrational spectroscopy of end-member silicate garnets. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 17: 503-526.
Madon, M., Ibarguchi, J.I.G., Via, J., Girardeau, J. (1991) Characterization and thermodynamic properties of andradite, Ca3Fe2Si3O12. American Mineralogist: 76: 1249-1260.
Armbruster, T., Geiger, C.A. (1993) Andradite crystal chemistry, dynamic X-site disorder and structural strain in silicate garnets. European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 59-71.
Pilati, T., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M. (1996) Atomic displacement parameters for garnets: A lattice-dynamical evaluation. Acta Crystallographica: B52: 239-250.
Armbruster, Th., Birrer, J., Libowitzky, E., Beran, A. (1998) Crystal chemistry of Ti-bearing andradites. European Journal of Mineralogy: 10: 907-921.
Teertstra, D.K. (2006) Index-of-refraction and unit-cell constraints on cation valence and pattern of order in garnet-group minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 341-346.
Badar, M. A., Akizuki, M., Hussain, S. (2010) Optical anomaly in iridescent andradite from the Sierra Madre Mountains, Sonora, Mexico. The Canadian Mineralogist: 48: 1195-1203.
Adamo, I., Gatta, G.D., Rotiroti, N., Diella, V., Pavese, A. (2011) Green andradite stones: gemmological and mineralogical characterisation. European Journal of Mineralogy: 23: 91-100.
Badar, M., Niaz, S., Hussain, S., Akizuki, M. (2013) Lamellar texture and optical anomaly in andradite from the Kamaishi mine, Japan. European Journal of Mineralogy: 25: 53-60.
Grew, E.S., Locock, A.J., Mills, S.J., Galuskina, I.O., Galuskin, E.V., Hålenius, U. (2013) Nomenclature of the garnet supergroup. American Mineralogist: 98: 785-811.
Yurie NAKAMURA, Takahiro KURIBAYASHI, Toshiro NAGASE, Hiroyuki IMAI (2017) Cation ordering in iridescent garnet from Tenkawa village, Nara prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 112, #2, 97-101.

Internet Links for Andradite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-223.html
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Specimens:
The following Andradite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Andradite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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